Abstract

This study demonstrates the flexible white LED structure with high lumen efficiency and uniform optical performance for neutral white and warm white CCT. Flip-chip LEDs were attached on a polyimide substrate with copper strips as electrical and thermal conduction paths. Yellow phosphors are mixed with polydimenthysiloxane (PDMS) to provide mechanical support and flexibility. The light efficiency of this device can reach 120 lm/W and 85% of light output uniformity of the emission area can be achieved. Moreover, the optical simulation is employed to evaluate various designs of this flexible film in order to obtain uniform output. Both the pitch between the individual devices and the thickness of the phosphor film are calculated for optimization purpose. This flexible white LED with high lumen efficiency and good reliability is suitable for the large area fixture in the general lighting applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. R. H. Horng, H. L. Hu, R. C. Lin, L. S. Tang, C. P. Hsu, and S. L. Ou, “Cup-shaped copper heat spreader in multi-chip high-power LEDs application,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A597–A605 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Y. Wen, H. L. Hu, Y. J. Tsai, C. P. Hsu, R. C. Lin, and R. H. Horng, “A novel integrated structure of thin film GaN LED with ultra-low thermal resistance,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A601–A606 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

R. H. Horng, H. L. Hu, R. C. Lin, L. S. Tang, C. P. Hsu, and S. L. Ou, “Cup-shaped copper heat spreader in multi-chip high-power LEDs application,” Opt. Express 20(S5Suppl 5), A597–A605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. H. Huang, T. C. Huang, Y. T. Sun, and S. Y. Yang, “Large-area and thin light guide plates fabricated using UV-based imprinting,” Opt. Express 16(19), 15033–15038 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

C.-L. Lin and Y.-C. Chen, “A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit Compensating for TFT Threshold-Voltage Shift and OLED Degradation for AMOLED,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(2), 129–131 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(1), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness ingan/algan double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ah, C. S.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ai, L.

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagkar, N. C.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brueckner, E.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. J.

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-C.

C.-L. Lin and Y.-C. Chen, “A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit Compensating for TFT Threshold-Voltage Shift and OLED Degradation for AMOLED,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(2), 129–131 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B. S.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chien, S. H.

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiu, S. H.

Choong, V. E.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choquette, K.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chun, I. S.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. J.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Duan, Y.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaffari, R.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, G.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

Horng, R. H.

Horng, R.-H.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Hsu, C. P.

Hsu, Y. J.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, H. L.

Hu, S. F.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, P. H.

Huang, S.-Y.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Huang, T. C.

Huang, Y.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. Y.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huh, C.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S.

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jin, G.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jo, S.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. J.

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Z.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaplan, D. L.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ke, W. C.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. H.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. G.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, R. H.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, M.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. T.

Le, A. P.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. J.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, S. Y.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. L.

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-L. Lin and Y.-C. Chen, “A Novel LTPS-TFT Pixel Circuit Compensating for TFT Threshold-Voltage Shift and OLED Degradation for AMOLED,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 28(2), 129–131 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. C.

Lin, W.-Y.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Ling, Z.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

Liu, R. S.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mach, R. M.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

Malyarchuk, V.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meitl, M.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meitl, M. A.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Menard, E.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mi, D.

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(1), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness ingan/algan double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(1), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness ingan/algan double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nuzzo, R. G.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, S. L.

Ouyang, X.

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pai, S.-F.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Paik, U.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, C. J.

Panilaitis, B.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, K. I.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, S. I.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-State Light Sources Getting Smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, and M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness ingan/algan double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[Crossref]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. M. Mach, G. O. Mueller, Z. Ling, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and Future of High-Power Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting,” Display Technology, Journalism 3(2), 160–175 (2007).

Shen, K.-C.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Shih, H. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shih, M. H.

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

So, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Su, S.-J.

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sulkin, J.

H. S. Kim, E. Brueckner, J. Song, Y. Li, S. Kim, C. Lu, J. Sulkin, K. Choquette, Y. Huang, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Unusual strategies for using indium gallium nitride grown on silicon (111) for solid-state lighting,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(25), 10072–10077 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

J. H. Ahn, H. S. Kim, K. J. Lee, S. Jeon, S. J. Kang, Y. Sun, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Heterogeneous Three-Dimensional Electronics by Use of Printed Semiconductor Nanomaterials,” Science 314(5806), 1754–1757 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. T.

Sung, G. Y.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, L. S.

Tang, Y. S.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, and R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr3(Al2O5)Cl2:Eu2+ phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, K. A.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y. J.

Wang, C. H.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. J. Chen, H. T. Kuo, H. C. Chen, M. H. Shih, C. H. Wang, S. H. Chien, S. H. Chiu, C. C. Lin, C. J. Pan, and H. C. Kuo, “High thermal stability of correlated color temperature using current compensation in hybrid warm white high-voltage LEDs,” Opt. Express 21(S2Suppl 2), A201–A207 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, K.-S.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Wen, S. Y.

Wu, L.-W.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Wuu, D.-S.

K.-C. Shen, W.-Y. Lin, D.-S. Wuu, S.-Y. Huang, K.-S. Wen, S.-F. Pai, L.-W. Wu, and R.-H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).

Xiao, J.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, K.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “Characteristics of InGaN-based UV/blue/green/amber/red light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(1), 3976–3981 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

Yang, X.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(3), 111–117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

R. H. Kim, D. H. Kim, J. Xiao, B. H. Kim, S. I. Park, B. Panilaitis, R. Ghaffari, J. Yao, M. Li, Z. Liu, V. Malyarchuk, D. G. Kim, A. P. Le, R. G. Nuzzo, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, Y. Huang, Z. Kang, and J. A. Rogers, “Waterproof AlInGaP optoelectronics on stretchable substrates with applications in biomedicine and robotics,” Nat. Mater. 9(11), 929–937 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, C. C.

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, C. C. Lin, C. H. Wang, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “An Investigation of the Optical Analysis in WhiteLight-Emitting Diodes With Conformal and Remote Phosphor Structure,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, X.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoo, H. G.

S. Y. Lee, K. I. Park, C. Huh, M. Koo, H. G. Yoo, S. Kim, C. S. Ah, G. Y. Sung, and K. J. Lee, “Water-resistant flexible GaN LED on a liquid crystal polymer substrate for implantable biomedical applications,” Nano Energy 1(1), 145–151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

J. Yoon, S. Jo, I. S. Chun, I. Jung, H. S. Kim, M. Meitl, E. Menard, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, U. Paik, and J. A. Rogers, “GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies,” Nature 465(7296), 329–333 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

K. Xue, G. Han, Y. Duan, P. Chen, Y. Yang, D. Yang, Y. Duan, X. Wang, and Y. Zhao, “Doping-free orange and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with ultra-simply structure and excellent color stability,” Org. Electron. 18(0), 84–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, H.

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. T.

M. A. Meitl, Z. T. Zhu, V. Kumar, K. J. Lee, X. Feng, Y. Y. Huang, I. Adesida, R. G. Nuzzo, and J. A. Rogers, “Transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp,” Nat. Mater. 5(1), 33–38 (2006).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

X. Ouyang, X. L. Li, L. Ai, D. Mi, Z. Ge, and S.-J. Su, “Novel “Hot Exciton” Blue Fluorophores for High Performance Fluorescent/Phosphorescent Hybrid White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Superhigh Phosphorescent Dopant Concentration and Improved Efficiency Roll-Off,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(15), 7869–7877 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

L. Wang, J. Ma, Z. Liu, X. Yi, H. Zhu, and G. Wang, “In Situ Fabrication of Bendable Microscale Hexagonal Pyramids Array Vertical Light Emitting Diodes with Graphene as Stretchable Electrical Interconnects,” ACS Photonics 1(5), 421–429 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. J. Chen, H. C. Chen, K. A. Tsai, C. C. Lin, H. H. Tsai, S. H. Chien, B. S. Cheng, Y. J. Hsu, M. H. Shih, C. H. Tsai, H. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Light-emitting devices: resonant-enhanced full-color emission of quantum-dot-based display technology using a pulsed spray method,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(24), 5138–5143 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of process flow of flexible white LED structure
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) LED array under optical microscope; (b) SEM of the flexible white LED; (d) Cross section between LED and PI substrate; (e) the metal particle in silicone-based anisotropic conductive adhesive bonding material (c)(f) The energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) of silicone-based anisotropic conductive adhesive showing the different compositions in the substance.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)(d) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the cross section of the phosphor film structure at 5000 K and 3000 K. (b)(e) The EDS spectra for phosphor layers of 5000 K and 3000 K samples, respectively. (c)(f) The pictures of the phosphor film for neutral and warm white at 5000 K and 3000 K color temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)(b) the pictures of flexible blue LED substrate (c) the EL spectra from 0.09A to 0.54A of injection currents (d) the forward voltage and luminous flux vs. injection currents (from 0.1 to 0.55 A).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) the flexible white LED’s emission spectra in neutral white and warm white. (b)(c) the luminous flux of the flexible white LED structures at 5000K/3000K driven at currents from 0 to 1000 mA.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The picture and (b) the luminous flux and voltage of the flexible white LED for different bending diameters
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Thermal resistance of flexible white LED
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 the life time test of flexible white LED device by 1000 hours
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The simulated results at different chip to chip pitches and (b) at different silicon glue thicknesses.

Equations (1)

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U n i f o r m i t y = ( L min / L max ) x 1 00 %

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