Abstract

Fresnel lenses used as primary optics in concentrating photovoltaic modules may show warping produced by lens manufacturing or module assembly (e.g., stress during molding or weight load) or due to stress during operation (e.g., mismatch of thermal expansion between different materials). To quantify this problem, a simple method called “checkerboard method” is presented. The proposed method identifies shape errors on the front surface of primary lenses by analyzing the Fresnel reflections. This paper also deals with the quantification of the effects these curvatures have on their optical performance and on the electrical performance of concentrating modules incorporating them. This method can be used to perform quality control of Fresnel lenses in scenarios of high volume production.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Wang, P. Su, R. E. Parks, J. M. Sasian, and J. H. Burge, “A low-cost, flexible, high dynamic range test for free-form illumination optics,” in International Optical Design Conference and Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest, p. ITuE3 (2010).
  3. P. Su, R. E. Parks, L. Wang, R. P. Angel, and J. H. Burge, “Software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Appl. Opt. 49(23), 4404–4412 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. A. Jenkins, and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1957).
  5. A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).
  9. T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) pp. 000487–000492 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Leutz, L. Fu, and H. P. Annen, “Stress in large-area optics for solar concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 7412, 741206 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14894–14901 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Su, R. E. Parks, L. Wang, R. P. Angel, and J. H. Burge, “Software configurable optical test system: a computerized reverse Hartmann test,” Appl. Opt. 49(23), 4404–4412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Leutz, L. Fu, and H. P. Annen, “Stress in large-area optics for solar concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 7412, 741206 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Andreev, V. M.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Angel, R. P.

Annen, H. P.

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Leutz, L. Fu, and H. P. Annen, “Stress in large-area optics for solar concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 7412, 741206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Antón, I.

R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14894–14901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Askins, S.

R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benitez, P.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benítez, P.

Bett, A. W.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buljan, M.

Burge, J. H.

Chaves, J.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, J.

T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) pp. 000487–000492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cvetkovic, A.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davidyuk, N. Y.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dimroth, F.

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Domínguez, C.

R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14894–14901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernandez, P. M.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Leutz, L. Fu, and H. P. Annen, “Stress in large-area optics for solar concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 7412, 741206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gombert, A.

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).

Gonzalez, O.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

González, L.

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, M.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hernández, M.

Herrero, R.

R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hornung, T.

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ibarreche, A.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ionova, E. A.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, S.

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leutz, R.

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Leutz, L. Fu, and H. P. Annen, “Stress in large-area optics for solar concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 7412, 741206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luce, T.

T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) pp. 000487–000492 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mbakop, J.

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

McConnell, R. D.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miñano, J. C.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mohedano, R.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neubauer, M.

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).

Nitz, P.

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).

Parks, R. E.

Pokrovskiy, P. V.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rumyantsev, V. D.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sadchikov, N. A.

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sala, G.

R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Luminescence inverse method for CPV optical characterization,” Opt. Express 21(S6Suppl 6), A1028–A1034 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Domínguez, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14894–14901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schult, T.

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).

Su, P.

Victoria, M.

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Zamora, P.

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, and M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (5)

V. D. Rumyantsev, N. Y. Davidyuk, E. A. Ionova, P. V. Pokrovskiy, N. A. Sadchikov, V. M. Andreev, A. W. Bett, R. D. McConnell, G. Sala, and F. Dimroth, “Thermal regimes of Fresnel lenses and cells in “All‐Glass” HCPV modules,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 89–92 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Schult, M. Neubauer, P. Nitz, and A. Gombert, “Temperature dependence of Fresnel lenses for concentrating photovoltaics,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1277, 85 (2010).

T. Hornung, M. Neubauer, A. Gombert, P. Nitz, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Fresnel lens concentrator with improved thermal behavior,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 66–69 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Askins, M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, G. Sala, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Effects of temperature on hybrid lens performance | Browse - AIP Conference Proceedings,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 57–60 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Gonzalez, P. Zamora, P. Benitez, P. M. Fernandez, A. Ibarreche, M. Hernandez, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, F. Dimroth, S. Kurtz, G. Sala, and A. W. Bett, “Performance modeling of Fresnel‐based CPV systems: effects of deformations under real operation conditions,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1407, 74–78 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. P. Annen, L. Fu, R. Leutz, L. González, and J. Mbakop, “Direct comparison of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silicone-on-glass (SOG) for Fresnel lenses in concentrating photovoltaics (CPV),” Proc. SPIE 8112, 811204 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Leutz, L. Fu, and H. P. Annen, “Stress in large-area optics for solar concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 7412, 741206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (2)

R. Herrero, M. Victoria, C. Domínguez, S. Askins, I. Antón, and G. Sala, “Concentration photovoltaic optical system irradiance distribution measurements and its effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 20(4), 423–430 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Victoria, R. Herrero, C. Domínguez, I. Antón, S. Askins, and G. Sala, “Characterization of the spatial distribution of irradiance and spectrum in concentrating photovoltaic systems and their effect on multi-junction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 21(3), 308–318 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. Wang, P. Su, R. E. Parks, J. M. Sasian, and J. H. Burge, “A low-cost, flexible, high dynamic range test for free-form illumination optics,” in International Optical Design Conference and Optical Fabrication and Testing, OSA Technical Digest, p. ITuE3 (2010).

T. Luce and J. Cohen, “The path to volume production for CPV optics,” 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) pp. 000487–000492 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. A. Jenkins, and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1957).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Set-up used to map the sunlight reflected off the primary lenses of a CPV module onto a white Lambertian surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) CCD image showing the Fresnel reflections given in the front surface of a CPV module; (b) The module is formed by 6 optics-cell units (each unit comprises a flat Fresnel lens as primary optical element (POE), an inverted refractive pyramid as a secondary optical element (SOE) and a multi-junction (MJ) solar cell).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Set-up of the checkerboard method: the reference pattern is in front of the lens or CPV module to be evaluated and a CCD camera is aimed at the lens aperture area.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images of the Fresnel reflections occurred at the front surface of the 6 lenses (Nº 1 to Nº 6) in the CPV module of Fig. 2(b) versus the Fresnel reflections occurred in a flat mirror (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Examples of CCD images (lens and mirror) with information of the Fresnel reflections in the front surface of lenses made out of PMMA; (b) The maps of curvatures (in m−1) measured by the checkerboard method for two PMMA lenses (lens A and lens B). Negative and positive values are related to concave and convex shapes respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples of CCD images and maps of curvatures (in m−1) measured by the checkerboard method of two Fresnel lenses made out PMMA fielded for several years. Negative and positive values are related to concave and convex shapes respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The maps of curvatures (in m−1) measured by the checkerboard method for the six optical system-cell units presented in the CPV module under study. Negative and positive values are related to concave and convex shapes respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

I-V curve measured for the 6 optical system-cell units presented in the CPV module under study at the Helios 3198 CPV solar simulator (under an irradiance of 850 Wm−2, 25 °C ambient temperature and AM1.5D equivalent spectrum).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Measured angular transmittance curves; (b) Misalignments and semi acceptance angle (AA) of the six optical system-cell units of the module under study measured at the Helios 3198 CPV solar simulator (under an irradiance of 850 Wm−2, 25 °C ambient temperature and AM1.5D equivalent spectrum).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Current generated by each unit at the module optimum alignment (0 degrees with respect to the light source) in terms of RMS of the maps of curvatures for the lenses of each unit.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 RMS of the maps of curvatures for the single and unassembled lenses investigated in section 3

Tables Icon

Table 2 RMS of the maps of curvatures for the lenses of the CPV module investigated in section 4

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