Abstract

High bandwidth carrier phase and repetition rate control are critical for the construction of low phase noise optical frequency combs. Here we demonstrate the use of a graphene modulator for the former and a bulk electro-optic modulator for the latter enabling record low phase noise operation of an Er fiber frequency comb. For applications that do not require carrier phase control, we show that the form factor of a fiber comb can be reduced by adapting a graphene modulator for rapid repetition rate control. Moreover, the whole system demonstration is performed with all-polarization maintaining Er fiber frequency combs, highly suitable for applications in the field.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (2)

M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Lee, S. Suzuki, W. Xie, and T. R. Schibli, “Broadband graphene electro-optic modulators with sub-wavelength thickness,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5264–5269 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13769–13776 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. H. Wu, K. Kieu, N. Peyghambarian, and R. J. Jones, “Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5313–5318 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F. L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. T. Vasko, “Saturation of interband absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 82(24), 245422 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, “The evolving optical frequency comb,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B51–B62 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1388–1402 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2948–2950 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Anderson, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Assion, A.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, E.

Benabid, F.

Benko, C.

Bergquist, J. C.

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bethge, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudot, R.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourgeois, P. Y.

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coddington, I.

Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coq, Y. L.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Cox, J. A.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

Diddams, S. A.

Eikema, K. S. E.

Fermann, M. E.

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Frei, H.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fuse, K.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

Grebing, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haberl, F.

Hagemann, C.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hati, A.

Hofer, M.

Hoffmann, M.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

Hong, F.-L.

Hosaka, K.

Hudson, D. D.

Inaba, H.

Iwakuni, K.

Jiang, Y.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

Jones, R. J.

Jung, K.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Katsuyama, T.

Kawato, S.

Keller, U.

Kersalé, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kessler, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K.

Kim, J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klenner, A.

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, T.

Kohno, T.

Koke, S.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kundermann, S.

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Le Coq, Y.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lecomte, S.

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. C.

Lee, C.-C.

C.-C. Lee, S. Suzuki, W. Xie, and T. R. Schibli, “Broadband graphene electro-optic modulators with sub-wavelength thickness,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5264–5269 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Legero, T.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leibrandt, D. R.

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Lours, M.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ludlow, A. D.

Luiten, A. N.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin, M. J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miller, J. M.

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Millo, J.

Minoshima, K.

Mohr, C.

Nakajima, Y.

Neely, W.

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ober, M. H.

Onae, A.

Peyghambarian, N.

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Portuondo-Campa, E.

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riehle, F.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruehl, A.

Santarelli, G.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-C. Lee, S. Suzuki, W. Xie, and T. R. Schibli, “Broadband graphene electro-optic modulators with sub-wavelength thickness,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5264–5269 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schilt, S.

Schmidt, A. J.

Shin, J.

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sterr, U.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suzuki, S.

Swann, W. C.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. A.

Thorpe, M. J.

Tillman, K. A.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Vasko, F. T.

F. T. Vasko, “Saturation of interband absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 82(24), 245422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Washburn, B. R.

Wu, T. H.

Xie, W.

Xu, Z.

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, S.

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2948–2950 (2005).
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Yost, D. C.

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C.-C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108(1), 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Kundermann, E. Portuondo-Campa, and S. Lecomte, “Ultra-low-noise 1 µm optical frequency comb,” Electron. Lett. 50(17), 1231–1232 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. R. Newbury and B. R. Washburn, “Theory of the frequency comb output from a femtosecond fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41(11), 1388–1402 (2005).
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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

W. Zhang, Z. Xu, M. Lours, R. Boudot, Y. Kersalé, A. N. Luiten, Y. Le Coq, and G. Santarelli, “Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58(5), 900–908 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Lours, M. Fischer, R. Holzwarth, G. Santarelli, and Y. Coq, “Characterizing a fiber-based frequency comb with electro-optic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 59(3), 432–438 (2012).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (6)

N. R. Newbury, “Searching for applications with a fine-tooth comb,” Nat. Photonics 5(4), 186–188 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Koke, C. Grebing, H. Frei, A. Anderson, A. Assion, and G. Steinmeyer, “Direct frequency comb synthesis with arbitrary offset and shot-noise-limited phase noise,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 462–465 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Kessler, C. Hagemann, C. Grebing, T. Legero, U. Sterr, F. Riehle, M. J. Martin, L. Chen, and J. Ye, “A sub-40-mHz-linewidth laser based on a silicon single-crystal optical cavity,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 687–692 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, “Generation of ultrastable microwave via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, I. Hartl, D. C. Yost, M. J. Martin, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Optical frequency comb with submillihertz linewidth and more than 10 W average power,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 355–359 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (9)

K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20(13), 13769–13776 (2012).
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L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
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Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F. L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1667–1676 (2010).
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M. Hoffmann, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “CEO stabilization of a femtosecond laser using a SESAM as fast opto-optical modulator,” Opt. Express 21(24), 30054–30064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Leibrandt, M. J. Thorpe, J. C. Bergquist, and T. Rosenband, “Field-test of a robust, portable, frequency-stable laser,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10278–10286 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Gigahertz frequency comb from a diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31008–31019 (2014).
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J. Lim, K. Knabe, K. A. Tillman, W. Neely, Y. Wang, R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Couny, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, K. L. Corwin, J. W. Nicholson, and B. R. Washburn, “A phase-stabilized carbon nanotube fiber laser frequency comb,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14115–14120 (2009).
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T. H. Wu, K. Kieu, N. Peyghambarian, and R. J. Jones, “Low noise erbium fiber fs frequency comb based on a tapered-fiber carbon nanotube design,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5313–5318 (2011).
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C.-C. Lee, S. Suzuki, W. Xie, and T. R. Schibli, “Broadband graphene electro-optic modulators with sub-wavelength thickness,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5264–5269 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, J. W. Nicholson, W. C. Swann, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “High-performance, vibration-immune, fiber-laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 638–640 (2009).
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C. Benko, A. Ruehl, M. J. Martin, K. S. E. Eikema, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Full phase stabilization of a Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb via high-bandwidth transducers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2196–2198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Millo, R. Boudot, M. Lours, P. Y. Bourgeois, A. N. Luiten, Y. L. Coq, Y. Kersalé, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-low-noise microwave extraction from fiber-based optical frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3707–3709 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2948–2950 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hofer, M. E. Fermann, F. Haberl, M. H. Ober, and A. J. Schmidt, “Mode locking with cross-phase and self-phase modulation,” Opt. Lett. 16(7), 502–504 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and T. R. Schibli, “Frequency comb stabilization with bandwidth beyond the limit of gain lifetime by an intracavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3084–3086 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. T. Vasko, “Saturation of interband absorption in graphene,” Phys. Rev. B 82(24), 245422 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Y. Hongzhi, “Saturable Absorption and Two-Photon Absorption in Graphene,” Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore (2012).

I. Hartl, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, T. R. Schibli, A. Onae, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, and H. Matsumoto, “Long-term carrier envelope phase locking of a PM fiber frequency comb source,” Opt. Fiber Comm. Conf., OFC (2005); paper OFJ2.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of laser system. LD, laser diode; WDM, wavelength divison multiplexer; EDF, erbium-doped fiber; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; HWP, half waveplate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; EOM, electro-optic modulator; SA, saturable absorber; BPF, bandpass filter; PD, photo detector; HNLF, highly nonlinear fiber; PPLN, periodically-poled LiNbO3. (b) Optical spectrum from the oscillator. (c) RF spectrum of free-running fceo with 100 kHz RBW.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sliced structure of the graphene modulator. The bottom contact, a thin layer of metal with high reflectance (silver or gold for near IR light), serves both as an electrical contact and a highly reflective mirror. The thickness of the high-k dielectric determines the intensity of light experienced by graphene, thus providing design freedom in the insertion loss and modulation depth of the device, despite the universal broadband 2.3% absorption of graphene.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic for locking of fceo and fbeat. fceo is observed by the self-referencing scheme, and locked by a GM. fbeat is the beat between one of the comb teeth and a single longitudinal mode CW laser and locked by an EOM. The fixed point of a GM is near the optical carrier frequency. The fixed point of an EOM is near fceo.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transfer function of graphene modulator (GM) (red) and pump current modulation (blue) for optical power, in (a) amplitude and (b) phase. (c) RF spectrum of locked fceo by GM with 3 kHz RBW. The inset is the RF spectrum of locked fceo by pump current modulation with 3 kHz RBW. (d) RF spectrum of locked fbeat by an EOM with 3 kHz RBW. (e) PSD of locked fceo. (f) PSD of locked fbeat. (b, c, d, and e) are in-loop measurements.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) In-loop RF spectrum of locked fbeat' by GM with 3 kHz RBW. (b) In-loop RF spectrum of locked fbeat' by EOM with 3 kHz RBW.

Equations (1)

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f beat ' n f rep f CW = f beat f ceo = ( n f rep + f ceo f CW ) f ceo

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