Abstract

We demonstrate the use of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as a compact three-color fs laser system operating at 76 MHz, limited only by the repetition rate of the pump laser. The system is suitable for background-free time-resolved four-wave mixing measurements, which arguably reach fundamental limits in signal detectivity. We give a detailed characterization of the near transform-limited multi-color pulses that are extracted from the PCF, and prove the system through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements in bipyridyl ethylene and styrene.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

S. Yampolsky, D. A. Fishman, S. Dey, E. Hulkko, M. Banik, E. O. Potma, and V. A. Apkarian, “Seeing a single molecule vibrate through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 650–656 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, Y.-R. Zhen, O. Neumann, J. K. Day, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with single-molecule sensitivity using a plasmonic Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4424 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

I. Pope, W. Langbein, P. Watson, and P. Borri, “Simultaneous hyperspectral differential-CARS, TPF and SHG microscopy with a single 5 fs Ti:Sa laser,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7096–7106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tu and S. A. Boppart, “Coherent fiber supercontinuum for biophotonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 628–645 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, M. D. King, H. Tu, Y. Zhao, and S. A. Boppart, “Broadband nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy by shaping a coherent fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8269–8275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. G. Breunig, M. Weinigel, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(2), 025604 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

D. Segale and V. A. Apkarian, “Dissipative quantum coherent dynamics probed in phase-space: electronically resonant 5-color 4-wave mixing on I2(B) in solid Kr,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(2), 024203 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Hildner, D. Brinks, and N. F. van Hulst, “Femtosecond coherence and quantum control of single molecules at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 172–177 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, D. Pestov, M. O. Scully, and A. V. Sokolov, “Simple setup for hybrid coherent Raman microspectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 795–799 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, “Optimizing the laser-pulse configuration for coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Science 316(5822), 265–268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Shi, P. Li, and Z. W. Liu, “Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy in supercontinuum optical trap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(14), 141116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, Y. Liu, and M. T. Cicerone, “Characterization of three-color CARS in a two-pulse broadband CARS spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3370–3372 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, “Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041803 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. R. Andresen, H. N. Paulsen, V. Birkedal, J. Thøgersen, and S. R. Keiding, “Broadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy employing photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(9), 1934–1938 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29(7), 775–777 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1215–1221 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

R. Zadoyan and V. A. Apkarian, “Imaging the molecular rovibrational coherence through time-gated, frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 326(1-2), 1–10 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329, 399–404 (2000).

1992 (1)

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, “Photon antibunching in the fluorescence of a single dye molecule trapped in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516–1519 (1992).

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 5, 1307–1314 (1965).

Alfimov, M. V.

Alivisatos, P.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329, 399–404 (2000).

Andresen, E. R.

Apkarian, V. A.

S. Yampolsky, D. A. Fishman, S. Dey, E. Hulkko, M. Banik, E. O. Potma, and V. A. Apkarian, “Seeing a single molecule vibrate through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 650–656 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Segale and V. A. Apkarian, “Dissipative quantum coherent dynamics probed in phase-space: electronically resonant 5-color 4-wave mixing on I2(B) in solid Kr,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(2), 024203 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zadoyan and V. A. Apkarian, “Imaging the molecular rovibrational coherence through time-gated, frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 326(1-2), 1–10 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ariunbold, G. O.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, “Optimizing the laser-pulse configuration for coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Science 316(5822), 265–268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldacchini, T.

Banik, M.

S. Yampolsky, D. A. Fishman, S. Dey, E. Hulkko, M. Banik, E. O. Potma, and V. A. Apkarian, “Seeing a single molecule vibrate through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 650–656 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

Basché, Th.

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, “Photon antibunching in the fluorescence of a single dye molecule trapped in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516–1519 (1992).

Bechtel, H. A.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329, 399–404 (2000).

Birkedal, V.

Book, L. D.

A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, “Time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: Imaging based on Raman free induction decay,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(9), 1505–1507 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boppart, S. A.

Borri, P.

Breunig, H. G.

H. G. Breunig, M. Weinigel, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(2), 025604 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brinks, D.

R. Hildner, D. Brinks, and N. F. van Hulst, “Femtosecond coherence and quantum control of single molecules at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 172–177 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bückle, R.

H. G. Breunig, M. Weinigel, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(2), 025604 (2013).
[Crossref]

Caster, A. G.

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, “Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041803 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.-X.

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cicerone, M. T.

Coen, S.

Dantus, M.

Darvin, M. E.

H. G. Breunig, M. Weinigel, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(2), 025604 (2013).
[Crossref]

Day, J. K.

Y. Zhang, Y.-R. Zhen, O. Neumann, J. K. Day, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with single-molecule sensitivity using a plasmonic Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4424 (2014).
[PubMed]

Dey, S.

S. Yampolsky, D. A. Fishman, S. Dey, E. Hulkko, M. Banik, E. O. Potma, and V. A. Apkarian, “Seeing a single molecule vibrate through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 650–656 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Dogariu, A.

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, “Optimizing the laser-pulse configuration for coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Science 316(5822), 265–268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Dudley, J.

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishman, D. A.

S. Yampolsky, D. A. Fishman, S. Dey, E. Hulkko, M. Banik, E. O. Potma, and V. A. Apkarian, “Seeing a single molecule vibrate through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 650–656 (2014).
[Crossref]

Freudiger, C. W.

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Furusawa, K.

K. Furusawa, N. Hayazawa, and S. Kawata, “Two‐beam multiplexed CARS based on a broadband oscillator,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 41(8), 840–847 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gerion, D.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329, 399–404 (2000).

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, X.

Halas, N. J.

Y. Zhang, Y.-R. Zhen, O. Neumann, J. K. Day, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with single-molecule sensitivity using a plasmonic Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4424 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hamaguchi, H.

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
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J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
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H. G. Breunig, M. Weinigel, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(2), 025604 (2013).
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W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
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Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent nonlinear optical imaging: beyond fluorescence microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

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H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, “Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(19), 4298–4300 (2004).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Zadoyan and V. A. Apkarian, “Imaging the molecular rovibrational coherence through time-gated, frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 326(1-2), 1–10 (2000).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Segale and V. A. Apkarian, “Dissipative quantum coherent dynamics probed in phase-space: electronically resonant 5-color 4-wave mixing on I2(B) in solid Kr,” J. Chem. Phys. 135(2), 024203 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
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J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

J. Peng, D. Pestov, M. O. Scully, and A. V. Sokolov, “Simple setup for hybrid coherent Raman microspectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 795–799 (2009).
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Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

H. G. Breunig, M. Weinigel, R. Bückle, M. Kellner-Höfer, J. Lademann, M. E. Darvin, W. Sterry, and K. König, “Clinical coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and multiphoton tomography of human skin with a femtosecond laser and photonic crystal fiber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(2), 025604 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Zhang, Y.-R. Zhen, O. Neumann, J. K. Day, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering with single-molecule sensitivity using a plasmonic Fano resonance,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4424 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Novotny and N. F. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
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S. Yampolsky, D. A. Fishman, S. Dey, E. Hulkko, M. Banik, E. O. Potma, and V. A. Apkarian, “Seeing a single molecule vibrate through time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 650–656 (2014).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

R. Hildner, D. Brinks, and N. F. van Hulst, “Femtosecond coherence and quantum control of single molecules at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. 7(2), 172–177 (2011).
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Nature (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418(6897), 512–514 (2002).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

B. von Vacano and M. Motzkus, “Time-resolved two color single-beam CARS employing supercontinuum and femtosecond pulse shaping,” Opt. Commun. 264(2), 488–493 (2006).
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Opt. Express (8)

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H. Li, D. A. Harris, B. Xu, P. J. Wrzesinski, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Coherent mode-selective Raman excitation towards standoff detection,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5499–5504 (2008).
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A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
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Y. J. Lee, S. H. Parekh, Y. H. Kim, and M. T. Cicerone, “Optimized continuum from a photonic crystal fiber for broadband time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4371–4379 (2010).
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T. Baldacchini and R. Zadoyan, “In situ and real time monitoring of two-photon polymerization using broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19219–19231 (2010).
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I. Pope, W. Langbein, P. Watson, and P. Borri, “Simultaneous hyperspectral differential-CARS, TPF and SHG microscopy with a single 5 fs Ti:Sa laser,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7096–7106 (2013).
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Y. Liu, M. D. King, H. Tu, Y. Zhao, and S. A. Boppart, “Broadband nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy by shaping a coherent fiber supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8269–8275 (2013).
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S. Kumar, T. Kamali, J. M. Levitte, O. Katz, B. Hermann, R. Werkmeister, B. Považay, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse CARS based multimodal nonlinear optical microscope for bioimaging,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13082–13098 (2015).
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Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. H. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, “Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 041803 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Th. Basché, W. E. Moerner, M. Orrit, and H. Talon, “Photon antibunching in the fluorescence of a single dye molecule trapped in a solid,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1516–1519 (1992).

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Pestov, R. K. Murawski, G. O. Ariunbold, X. Wang, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, V. A. Sautenkov, Y. V. Rostovtsev, A. Dogariu, Y. Huang, and M. O. Scully, “Optimizing the laser-pulse configuration for coherent Raman spectroscopy,” Science 316(5822), 265–268 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 5, 1307–1314 (1965).

Other (5)

S. Mukamel, Principles of Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy (Oxford University, 1995).

S. A. Akhmanov, V. A. Vysloukh, and A. S. Chirkin, Optics of Femtosecond Laser Pulses (AIP, 1992).

NKT Photonics application note, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers” (NKT Photonics, 2009). http://www.nktphotonics.com/files/files/Application_note_-_Supercontinuum%20-%20General.pdf

Newport Corporation application note, “Supercontinuum generation in SCG-800 photonic crystal fiber” (Newport Corporation, 2006). http://www.newport.com/file_store/Optics_and_Mechanics/AppsNote28.pdf

R. Zadoyan, T. Baldacchini, J. Carter, C.-H. Kuo, and D. Ocepek, “CARS module for multimodal microscopy,” In SPIE BiOS, 79030Z, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental apparatus for three-color three-pulse CARS ( λ / 2 – half waveplate, PCBS – polarizing cube beamsplitter, FI – Faraday isolator, AT1, AT2 – attenuator assemblies consisting of half waveplates and Glan-laser polarizers, L1, L2 – aspheric lenses for focusing and collimation, PCF – photonic crystal fiber, WE – wavelength extender, DM1, DM2 – 660 nm and 757 nm long wave pass dichroic beamsplitters, BPF1, BPF2, BPF3, BPF4 – bandpass filters centered at 800 nm, 710 nm, 610 nm, and 554 nm respectively, SPF – 390 nm short wave pass filter, APD – avalanche photodiode, Spec – spectrograph, PMT – photomultiplier tube. Inset shows the SC spectrum on log scale.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SC spectra with different output powers, (b) normalized spectra of the probe (612 nm), pump (708 nm), and Stokes (798 nm) pulses sliced from the SC spectrum given by the green trace in (a).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Cross-correlations of pump (black dotted) and probe (open orange circles) pulses with the 798 nm reference pulse.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured XFROG trace, (b) retrieved temporal (black solid) and phase profiles (open circles), together with a quadratic fit (green solid).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured (black) and simulated (red) tr-CARS traces for (a) BPE and (b) styrene. The simulations are based on the windowed inverse Fourier transform of the Raman spectra (Eq. (3) of text). The Raman spectra and window function (blue) are shown in the insets.

Equations (4)

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R = ( I L / ω ) σ η f δ t
W R ( ω ) = I P u ( ω ' ) I S t ( ω ' ω ) d ω '
S A S ( t ) = | W R ( ω ) I R ( ω ) e i ω t d ω | 2
R = ( I 0 β 2 / ω ) ( β 2 σ ) η f δ t

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