Abstract

Generally, echelle grating ruling is performed on a thick Al film. Consequently, high-quality large-area thick Al films preparation becomes one of the most important factors to realize a high-performance large-size echelle grating. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-step deposition process to improve thick Al films quality. Compared with the traditional single-step deposition process, it is found that the multi-step deposition process can effectively suppress large-size grains growth resulting in a low surface roughness and high internal compactness of thick Al films. The differences between single- and multi-step deposition processes are discussed in detail. By using multi-step deposition process, we prepared high-quality large-area Al films with a thickness more than 10 μm on a 520 mm × 420 mm neoceramic glass substrate.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  24. D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Empirical relations among scattering, roughness parameters, and thickness of aluminum films,” Appl. Opt. 32(31), 6341–6346 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 1115–1122 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Karabacak, “Thin-film growth dynamics with shadowing and re-emission effects,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 052501 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Onishi, E. Iwamura, and K. Takagi, “Morphology of sputter deposited Al alloy films,” Thin Solid Films 340(1-2), 306–316 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

X. T. Li, H. L. Yu, X. D. Qi, S. L. Feng, J. C. Cui, S. W. Zhang, Jirigalantu, and Y. Tang, “300 mm ruling engine producing gratings and echelles under interferometric control in China,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1819–1826 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. Z. Li, H. G. Yang, X. Y. Wang, and J. S. Gao, “Investigations of high-quality aluminum film with large-area uniformity for large-size echelle grating,” Wuli Xuebao 63(15), 157801 (2014).

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, H. Nakamura, D. Wulff-Molder, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Protected and enhanced aluminum mirrors for the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), A125–A130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Song, L. C. Chen, and B. J. Li, “A fast simulation method of silicon nanophotonic echelle gratings and its applications in the design of on-chio spectrometers,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 141, 369–382 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. Karabacak, “Thin-film growth dynamics with shadowing and re-emission effects,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 052501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2003 (2)

P. Lindblom, “Echelle gratings acting as one,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4549–4559 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, and I. Sobchenko, “Linear rate of grain growth in thin films during deposition,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245408 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

T. Onishi, E. Iwamura, and K. Takagi, “Morphology of sputter deposited Al alloy films,” Thin Solid Films 340(1-2), 306–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 1115–1122 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Life prolongation of far ultraviolet reflecting aluminum coatings by periodic recoating of the oxidized surface,” Opt. Commun. 135(1-3), 60–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Empirical relations among scattering, roughness parameters, and thickness of aluminum films,” Appl. Opt. 32(31), 6341–6346 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Barnard, M. I. Crockett, J. C. Ivaldi, and P. L. Lundberg, “Design and evaluation of an echelle grating optical system for ICP-OES,” Anal. Chem. 65(9), 1225–1230 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Z. Lai and S. D. Sarma, “Kinetic growth with surface relaxation: continuum versus atomistic models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2348–2351 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

1962 (1)

1950 (1)

G. Harrison, “The Challenge of the Ruled Grating,” Phys. Today 3(9), 6–12 (1950).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

J. Strong, “The evaporation process and its application to the aluminizing of large telescope mirrors,” Astrophys. J. 83(5), 401–423 (1936).
[Crossref]

Ashley, J.

Aznárez, J. A.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Life prolongation of far ultraviolet reflecting aluminum coatings by periodic recoating of the oxidized surface,” Opt. Commun. 135(1-3), 60–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Empirical relations among scattering, roughness parameters, and thickness of aluminum films,” Appl. Opt. 32(31), 6341–6346 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bach, B.

Bach, B. W.

K. G. Bach and B. W. Bach., “Large-ruled monolithic echelle gratings,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 118 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bach, K. G.

K. G. Bach and B. W. Bach., “Large-ruled monolithic echelle gratings,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 118 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baeke, A.

Barnard, T. W.

T. W. Barnard, M. I. Crockett, J. C. Ivaldi, and P. L. Lundberg, “Design and evaluation of an echelle grating optical system for ICP-OES,” Anal. Chem. 65(9), 1225–1230 (1993).
[Crossref]

Battaile, C. C.

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Becklin, E. E.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bendiksen, O.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bennett, H. E.

Bennett, J. M.

Berkenbosch, S.

Bradford, A. P.

Brett, M. J.

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 1115–1122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brims, G.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Butler, J. E.

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Canfield, J.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. F.

J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. C.

J. Song, L. C. Chen, and B. J. Li, “A fast simulation method of silicon nanophotonic echelle gratings and its applications in the design of on-chio spectrometers,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 141, 369–382 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clairquin, R.

Connell, J. R.

Crockett, M. I.

T. W. Barnard, M. I. Crockett, J. C. Ivaldi, and P. L. Lundberg, “Design and evaluation of an echelle grating optical system for ICP-OES,” Anal. Chem. 65(9), 1225–1230 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cui, J. C.

De Vos, L.

Dubois, J. P.

Duparré, A.

Engman, S.

Feigl, T.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. L.

Figer, D. F.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gao, J. S.

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Li, H. G. Yang, X. Y. Wang, and J. S. Gao, “Investigations of high-quality aluminum film with large-area uniformity for large-size echelle grating,” Wuli Xuebao 63(15), 157801 (2014).

Gatto, A.

Gebhardt, A.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Glorieux, S.

Graham, J. R.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gusak, A. M.

K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, and I. Sobchenko, “Linear rate of grain growth in thin films during deposition,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hare, J.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Harrison, G.

G. Harrison, “The Challenge of the Ruled Grating,” Phys. Today 3(9), 6–12 (1950).
[Crossref]

Harrison, G. R.

Hass, G.

Heiße, H.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Hon, M. H.

J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S. J.

S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ivaldi, J. C.

T. W. Barnard, M. I. Crockett, J. C. Ivaldi, and P. L. Lundberg, “Design and evaluation of an echelle grating optical system for ICP-OES,” Anal. Chem. 65(9), 1225–1230 (1993).
[Crossref]

Iwamura, E.

T. Onishi, E. Iwamura, and K. Takagi, “Morphology of sputter deposited Al alloy films,” Thin Solid Films 340(1-2), 306–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jeong, C. O.

S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jirigalantu,

Jobst, P. J.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Joo, Y. C.

S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, N.

Kalinnikov, Y.

Karabacak, T.

T. Karabacak, “Thin-film growth dynamics with shadowing and re-emission effects,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 052501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kazukonis, H.

Korablev, O.

Kuo, H. H.

J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lacayanga, F.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lai, Z.

Z. Lai and S. D. Sarma, “Kinetic growth with surface relaxation: continuum versus atomistic models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2348–2351 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larkin, J. E.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Larruquert, J. I.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Life prolongation of far ultraviolet reflecting aluminum coatings by periodic recoating of the oxidized surface,” Opt. Commun. 135(1-3), 60–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Empirical relations among scattering, roughness parameters, and thickness of aluminum films,” Appl. Opt. 32(31), 6341–6346 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larson, S. B.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leu, I. C.

J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
[Crossref]

Levenson, N. G.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, B. J.

J. Song, L. C. Chen, and B. J. Li, “A fast simulation method of silicon nanophotonic echelle gratings and its applications in the design of on-chio spectrometers,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 141, 369–382 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, X. T.

Li, Z. Z.

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Li, H. G. Yang, X. Y. Wang, and J. S. Gao, “Investigations of high-quality aluminum film with large-area uniformity for large-size echelle grating,” Wuli Xuebao 63(15), 157801 (2014).

Lindblom, P.

Lundberg, P. L.

T. W. Barnard, M. I. Crockett, J. C. Ivaldi, and P. L. Lundberg, “Design and evaluation of an echelle grating optical system for ICP-OES,” Anal. Chem. 65(9), 1225–1230 (1993).
[Crossref]

Magnone, N.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Martínez, A.

McLean, I. S.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Méndez, J. A.

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Life prolongation of far ultraviolet reflecting aluminum coatings by periodic recoating of the oxidized surface,” Opt. Commun. 135(1-3), 60–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Empirical relations among scattering, roughness parameters, and thickness of aluminum films,” Appl. Opt. 32(31), 6341–6346 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moelans, W.

Nakamura, H.

Neefs, E.

Nevejans, D.

Onishi, T.

T. Onishi, E. Iwamura, and K. Takagi, “Morphology of sputter deposited Al alloy films,” Thin Solid Films 340(1-2), 306–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

Osantowski, J. F.

Paritosh, D. J.

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Qi, X. D.

Regalado, L. E.

Risse, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 1115–1122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sarma, S. D.

Z. Lai and S. D. Sarma, “Kinetic growth with surface relaxation: continuum versus atomistic models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2348–2351 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schürmann, M.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. F.

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sit, J. C.

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 1115–1122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sobchenko, I.

K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, and I. Sobchenko, “Linear rate of grain growth in thin films during deposition,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

J. Song, L. C. Chen, and B. J. Li, “A fast simulation method of silicon nanophotonic echelle gratings and its applications in the design of on-chio spectrometers,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 141, 369–382 (2013).
[Crossref]

Srolovitz, D. J.

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stenzel, O.

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, H. Nakamura, D. Wulff-Molder, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Protected and enhanced aluminum mirrors for the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), A125–A130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Strong, J.

J. Strong, “The evaporation process and its application to the aluminizing of large telescope mirrors,” Astrophys. J. 83(5), 401–423 (1936).
[Crossref]

Takagi, K.

T. Onishi, E. Iwamura, and K. Takagi, “Morphology of sputter deposited Al alloy films,” Thin Solid Films 340(1-2), 306–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

Teplitz, H. I.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thompson, S. W.

Toft, A. R.

Tu, K. N.

K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, and I. Sobchenko, “Linear rate of grain growth in thin films during deposition,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Van Ransbeeck, E.

Villa, F.

Villard, E.

Vinogradov, I.

Wang, X. Y.

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Li, H. G. Yang, X. Y. Wang, and J. S. Gao, “Investigations of high-quality aluminum film with large-area uniformity for large-size echelle grating,” Wuli Xuebao 63(15), 157801 (2014).

Wilbrandt, S.

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, H. Nakamura, D. Wulff-Molder, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Protected and enhanced aluminum mirrors for the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), A125–A130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Wong, W.

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wulff-Molder, D.

Yang, H. G.

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Li, H. G. Yang, X. Y. Wang, and J. S. Gao, “Investigations of high-quality aluminum film with large-area uniformity for large-size echelle grating,” Wuli Xuebao 63(15), 157801 (2014).

Yang, M.

Yu, H. L.

Yulin, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. W.

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. T. Li, H. L. Yu, X. D. Qi, S. L. Feng, J. C. Cui, S. W. Zhang, Jirigalantu, and Y. Tang, “300 mm ruling engine producing gratings and echelles under interferometric control in China,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1819–1826 (2015).
[Crossref]

Acta Mater. (1)

D. J. Paritosh, D. J. Srolovitz, C. C. Battaile, X. Li, and J. E. Butler, “Simulation of faceted film growth in two-dimensions: microstructure, morphology and texture,” Acta Mater. 47(7), 2269–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

T. W. Barnard, M. I. Crockett, J. C. Ivaldi, and P. L. Lundberg, “Design and evaluation of an echelle grating optical system for ICP-OES,” Anal. Chem. 65(9), 1225–1230 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (9)

D. Nevejans, E. Neefs, E. Van Ransbeeck, S. Berkenbosch, R. Clairquin, L. De Vos, W. Moelans, S. Glorieux, A. Baeke, O. Korablev, I. Vinogradov, Y. Kalinnikov, B. Bach, J. P. Dubois, and E. Villard, “Compact high-resolution spaceborne echelle grating spectrometer with acousto-optical tunable filter based order sorting for the infrared domain from 2.2 to 4.3 microm,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5191–5206 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Engman and P. Lindblom, “Blaze characteristics of echelle gratings,” Appl. Opt. 21(23), 4356–4362 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lindblom, “Echelle gratings acting as one,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4549–4559 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. T. Li, H. L. Yu, X. D. Qi, S. L. Feng, J. C. Cui, S. W. Zhang, Jirigalantu, and Y. Tang, “300 mm ruling engine producing gratings and echelles under interferometric control in China,” Appl. Opt. 54(7), 1819–1826 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. P. Bradford, G. Hass, J. F. Osantowski, and A. R. Toft, “Preparation of mirror coatings for the vacuum ultraviolet in a 2-m evaporator,” Appl. Opt. 8(6), 1183–1189 (1969).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, H. Nakamura, D. Wulff-Molder, A. Duparré, and N. Kaiser, “Protected and enhanced aluminum mirrors for the VUV,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), A125–A130 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yang, A. Gatto, and N. Kaiser, “Highly reflecting aluminum-protected optical coatings for the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(1), 178–183 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Empirical relations among scattering, roughness parameters, and thickness of aluminum films,” Appl. Opt. 32(31), 6341–6346 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Villa, A. Martínez, and L. E. Regalado, “Correction masks for thickness uniformity in large-area thin films,” Appl. Opt. 39(10), 1602–1610 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. Strong, “The evaporation process and its application to the aluminizing of large telescope mirrors,” Astrophys. J. 83(5), 401–423 (1936).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

T. Karabacak, “Thin-film growth dynamics with shadowing and re-emission effects,” J. Nanophotonics 5(1), 052501 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Robbie, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Advanced techniques for glancing angle deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16(3), 1115–1122 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. I. Larruquert, J. A. Méndez, and J. A. Aznárez, “Life prolongation of far ultraviolet reflecting aluminum coatings by periodic recoating of the oxidized surface,” Opt. Commun. 135(1-3), 60–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. G. Yang, Z. Z. Li, X. Y. Wang, Z. F. Shen, J. S. Gao, and S. W. Zhang, “Radial-quality uniformity investigations of large-area thick Al films,” Opt. Eng. 54(4), 045106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. N. Tu, A. M. Gusak, and I. Sobchenko, “Linear rate of grain growth in thin films during deposition,” Phys. Rev. B 67(24), 245408 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Z. Lai and S. D. Sarma, “Kinetic growth with surface relaxation: continuum versus atomistic models,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(18), 2348–2351 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

G. Harrison, “The Challenge of the Ruled Grating,” Phys. Today 3(9), 6–12 (1950).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

K. G. Bach and B. W. Bach., “Large-ruled monolithic echelle gratings,” Proc. SPIE 4014, 118 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. S. McLean, E. E. Becklin, O. Bendiksen, G. Brims, J. Canfield, D. F. Figer, J. R. Graham, J. Hare, F. Lacayanga, J. E. Larkin, S. B. Larson, N. G. Levenson, N. Magnone, H. I. Teplitz, and W. Wong, “Design and development of NIRSPEC: a near-infrared echelle spectrograph for the Keck II telescope,” Proc. SPIE 3354, 566–578 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K (2012).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagnetics Res. (1)

J. Song, L. C. Chen, and B. J. Li, “A fast simulation method of silicon nanophotonic echelle gratings and its applications in the design of on-chio spectrometers,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res. 141, 369–382 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scr. Mater. (1)

S. J. Hwang, J. H. Lee, C. O. Jeong, and Y. C. Joo, “Effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on hillock distributions in pure Al films,” Scr. Mater. 56(1), 17–20 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

J. F. Chang, H. H. Kuo, I. C. Leu, and M. H. Hon, “The effects of thickness and operation temperature on ZnO:Al thin film CO gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 84(2-3), 258–264 (2002).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Onishi, E. Iwamura, and K. Takagi, “Morphology of sputter deposited Al alloy films,” Thin Solid Films 340(1-2), 306–316 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wuli Xuebao (1)

Z. Z. Li, H. G. Yang, X. Y. Wang, and J. S. Gao, “Investigations of high-quality aluminum film with large-area uniformity for large-size echelle grating,” Wuli Xuebao 63(15), 157801 (2014).

Other (1)

H. A. Macleod, Thin-film optical filters, (Taylor & Francis, 2010), Chap.13.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A schematic structure diagram of the electron-beam evaporation coating system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Both the experimental and theoretical thickness uniformity of thick Al films as a function of fixture height along the radius direction; (b) The surface reflectance of thick Al films in the visible region at various radial positions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Top surface AFM image and (b) cross-sectional SEM images of 12 μm-thick Al films fabricated by the single-step deposition process.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Top surface AFM image and (b) cross-sectional SEM images of 12 μm-thick Al films fabricated by the multi-step deposition process.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Surface AFM images of Al films with various thickness fabricated by the same single-step deposition process (a) 1 μm; (b) 4 μm; (c) 8 μm; (d) 12 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The dependence of average grain size and surface roughness Rq on the thickness of Al films.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 AFM images of Al films deposited at various baking temperatures.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The dependence of average grain size and surface roughness Rq on the substrate temperature.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Change profiles of substrate temperature during both single- and multi-step deposition processes.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a). Neoceramic glass substrate with size of 520 mm × 420 mm × 200 mm; (b). Large-area thick aluminum films deposited on neoceramic glass substrate.

Equations (1)

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T p = 0 T C H ( N + 1 ) [ H 2 + ( D + R P ) 2 4 D R P sin 2 ( ω t / 2 ) ] ( N + 3 ) d ( ω t )

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