Abstract

We analyze how to realize Rec. 2020 wide color gamut with quantum dots. For photoluminescence, our simulation indicates that we are able to achieve over 97% of the Rec. 2020 standard with quantum dots by optimizing the emission spectra and redesigning the color filters. For electroluminescence, by optimizing the emission spectra of quantum dots is adequate to render over 97% of the Rec. 2020 standard. We also analyze the efficiency and angular performance of these devices, and then compare results with LCDs using green and red phosphors-based LED backlight. Our results indicate that quantum dot display is an outstanding candidate for achieving wide color gamut and high optical efficiency.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (7)

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka and Y. Nishida, “Metric of color-space coverage for wide-gamut displays,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7802–7808 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S.-T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, Z. Wang, Q. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Luminescence and energy transfer of 432 nm blue LED radiation-converting phosphor Ca4Y6O(SiO4)6:Eu2+, Mn2+ for warm white LEDs,” RSC Advances 5(6), 4448–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zhu, Z. Luo, and S.-T. Wu, “Light extraction analysis and enhancement in a quantum dot light emitting diode,” Opt. Express 22(S7Suppl 7), A1783–A1798 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Display Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

S. Kim, S. H. Im, and S.-W. Kim, “Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5205–5214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Chen, and S.-T. Wu, “Wide color gamut LCD with a quantum dot backlight,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26269–26284 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

R. L. Donofrio, “Review paper: The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(10), 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. V. Chellappan, E. Erden, and H. Urey, “Laser-based displays: A review,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), F79–F98 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03B001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

M. Reyes-Sierra and C. A. C. Coello, “Multi-objective particle swarm optimizers: a survey of the state-of-the-art,” Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res. 2, 287–308 (2006).

R. Lu, Q. Hong, Z. Ge, and S.-T. Wu, “Color shift reduction of a multi-domain IPS-LCD using RGB-LED backlight,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6243–6252 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

K. A. Neyts, “Simulation of light emission from thin-film microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(4), 962–971 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

An, Z.

Bu, Z.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chellappan, K. V.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cho, E.

Coello, C. A. C.

M. Reyes-Sierra and C. A. C. Coello, “Multi-objective particle swarm optimizers: a survey of the state-of-the-art,” Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res. 2, 287–308 (2006).

Dai, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Y.

Donofrio, R. L.

R. L. Donofrio, “Review paper: The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(10), 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Erden, E.

Freitag, P.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Furno, M.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ge, Z.

Guo, Q.

P. Li, Z. Wang, Q. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Luminescence and energy transfer of 432 nm blue LED radiation-converting phosphor Ca4Y6O(SiO4)6:Eu2+, Mn2+ for warm white LEDs,” RSC Advances 5(6), 4448–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holloway, P. H.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Hong, Q.

Hu, M.

Hyvonen, J.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Im, S. H.

S. Kim, S. H. Im, and S.-W. Kim, “Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5205–5214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, E.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, Y.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, S.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E.

Kim, H. Y.

J.-J. Lyu, J. Sohn, H. Y. Kim, and S. Lee, “Recent trends on patterned vertical alignment (PVA) and fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal displays for liquid crystal television applications,” J. Display Technol. 3(4), 404–412 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. H. Im, and S.-W. Kim, “Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5205–5214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-W.

S. Kim, S. H. Im, and S.-W. Kim, “Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5205–5214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, W.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-J. Lyu, J. Sohn, H. Y. Kim, and S. Lee, “Recent trends on patterned vertical alignment (PVA) and fringe-field switching (FFS) liquid crystal displays for liquid crystal television applications,” J. Display Technol. 3(4), 404–412 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, L. S.

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.-C.

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

P. Li, Z. Wang, Q. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Luminescence and energy transfer of 432 nm blue LED radiation-converting phosphor Ca4Y6O(SiO4)6:Eu2+, Mn2+ for warm white LEDs,” RSC Advances 5(6), 4448–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liang, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

Luo, Z.

Lüssem, B.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lyu, J.-J.

Manders, J. R.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Masaoka, K.

Nakasu, E.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K. A.

Nishida, Y.

Niu, Y.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.

Park, S.-S.

Peng, F.

H. Chen, M. Hu, F. Peng, J. Li, Z. An, and S.-T. Wu, “Ultra-low viscosity liquid crystal materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 655–660 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pointer, M. R.

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Reyes-Sierra, M.

M. Reyes-Sierra and C. A. C. Coello, “Multi-objective particle swarm optimizers: a survey of the state-of-the-art,” Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res. 2, 287–308 (2006).

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03B001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shao, X.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shewmon, N. T.

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohn, I.

Sohn, J.

Sugawara, M.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tian, C.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Titov, A.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Tsai, W.-C.

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Urey, H.

Wang, J.

H. Liang, R. Zhu, Y. Dong, S.-T. Wu, J. Li, J. Wang, and J. Zhou, “Enhancing the outcoupling efficiency of quantum dot LEDs with internal nano-scattering pattern,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12910–12922 (2015).
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X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

P. Li, Z. Wang, Q. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Luminescence and energy transfer of 432 nm blue LED radiation-converting phosphor Ca4Y6O(SiO4)6:Eu2+, Mn2+ for warm white LEDs,” RSC Advances 5(6), 4448–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

Xu, D.

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Xu, and S.-T. Wu, “Emerging quantum-dots-enhanced LCDs,” J. Display Technol. 10(7), 526–539 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xue, J.

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Yang, C.

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Yang, Z.

P. Li, Z. Wang, Q. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Luminescence and energy transfer of 432 nm blue LED radiation-converting phosphor Ca4Y6O(SiO4)6:Eu2+, Mn2+ for warm white LEDs,” RSC Advances 5(6), 4448–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhan, H.

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Zhou, J.

Zhu, R.

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes: Influence of cavity design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
[Crossref]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res. (1)

M. Reyes-Sierra and C. A. C. Coello, “Multi-objective particle swarm optimizers: a survey of the state-of-the-art,” Int. J. Comput. Intell. Res. 2, 287–308 (2006).

J. Display Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (2)

H. Zhan, Z. Xu, C. Tian, Y. Wang, M. Chen, W. Kim, Z. Bu, X. Shao, and S. Lee, “Achieving standard wide color gamut by tuning led backlight and color filter spectrum in LCD,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 22(11), 545–551 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. L. Donofrio, “Review paper: The Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 19(10), 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Schadt, “Milestone in the history of field-effect liquid crystal displays and materials,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03B001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

H. Chen, Z. Luo, D. Xu, F. Peng, S.-T. Wu, M.-C. Li, S.-L. Lee, and W.-C. Tsai, “A fast-response A-film-enhanced fringe field switching liquid crystal display,” Liq. Cryst. 42(4), 537–542 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Shen, W. Cao, N. T. Shewmon, C. Yang, L. S. Li, and J. Xue, “High-efficiency, low turn-on voltage blue-violet quantum-dot-based light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1211–1216 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

S. Kim, S. H. Im, and S.-W. Kim, “Performance of light-emitting-diode based on quantum dots,” Nanoscale 5(12), 5205–5214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Yang, Y. Zheng, W. Cao, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, J. R. Manders, J. Xue, P. H. Holloway, and L. Qian, “High-efficiency light-emitting devices based on quantum dots with tailored nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 259–266 (2015).

Nature (1)

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

RSC Advances (1)

P. Li, Z. Wang, Q. Guo, and Z. Yang, “Luminescence and energy transfer of 432 nm blue LED radiation-converting phosphor Ca4Y6O(SiO4)6:Eu2+, Mn2+ for warm white LEDs,” RSC Advances 5(6), 4448–4453 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

J. F. Van Derlofske, J. M. Hillis, A. Lathrop, J. Wheatley, J. Thielen, and G. Benoit, “19.1: Invited paper: Illuminating the value of larger color gamuts for quantum dot displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 237–240 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. A. C. Coello and G. B. Lamont, Applications of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (World Scientific, 2004).

J. S. Steckel, R. Colby, W. Liu, K. Hutchinson, C. Breen, J. Ritter, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “68.1: Invited paper: Quantum dot manufacturing requirements for the high volume LCD market,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 943–945 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, S. Gensler, J. Hartlove, J. Yurek, E. Lee, J. Thielen, J. Van Derlofske, J. Hillis, G. Benoit, J. Tibbit, and A. Lathrop, “Quantum dots: optimizing LCD systems to achieve Rec. 2020 color performance,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46(1), 173–175 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Hillis, J. Thielen, J. Tibbits, A. Lathrop, D. Lamb, and J. Van Derlofske, “Closing in on Rec. 2020 – how close is close enough?” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46(1), 223–226 (2015).

Y. Ito, T. Hori, H. Tani, Y. Ueno, T. Kusunoki, H. Nomura, and H. Kondo, “59.1: A backlight system with a phosphor sheet providing both wider color gamut and higher efficiency,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 44(1), 816–819 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-L. Chen, J.-C. Hsiang, Y.-H. Wu, and C.-L. Yang, “P-118: Multi-domain fringe-field switched mobile LCD for reducing color shift by zigzag-like pixel design,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 41(1), 1709–1712 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adobe Systems Inc., “Adobe RGB (1998) color image encoding,” 2005.

SMPTE RP 431–2, “D-cinema quality — reference projector and environment,” 2011.

ITU-R Recommendation BT.709–5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” 2002.

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, “Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange,” 2012.

J. S. Steckel, J. Ho, C. Hamilton, C. Breen, W. Liu, P. Allen, J. Xi, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “12.1: Invited paper: Quantum dots: the ultimate down-conversion material for LCD displays,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 130–133 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, V. Hardev, J. Hartlove, J. Hofler, and E. Lee, “66.1: Distinguised paper: A high-efficiency wide-color-gamut solid-state backlight system for LCDs using quantum dot enhancement film,” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 43(1), 895–896 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, J.-M. Caruge, Z. Zhou, C. Hamilton, Z. Popovic, J. Ho, M. Stevenson, G. Liu, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, P. T. Kazlas, J. Steckel, and S. Coe-Sullivan, “Ultra-bright, highly efficient, low roll-off inverted quantum-dot light emitting devices (QLEDs),” SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46(1), 270–273 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The transmittance of two color filters; (b) the Pareto front of the QD-LCDs with different boundary condition, LC mode and color filters; (c) the transmittance and the corresponding optimized output spectra for the two color filters; and (d) the simulated color gamut for the two optimized output spectra.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) One of the proposed CFs with wide color gamut. (b) The transmittance of our modified CFs based on the CFs for TV. (c) The Pareto front of the wide color gamut display with our modified CFs and all the linewidths of the three primaries are set at 20nm, for both MVA and n-FFS modes. (d) Simulated color triangle of the wide color gamut QD-LCD (MVA mode).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Device structures and (b) emission spectra of the RGB QLEDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The relationship between color gamut and LER for RGB QLEDs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Color gamut representation of the proposed RGB QLEDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Color gamut of a RGB QLED in (a) CIE 1931 and (b) CIE 1976; (c) emission spectra of the RGB QLEDs and (d) color gamut comparison of Rec. 2020 and the QLED display in CIE LAB, the wireframe color gamut is Rec. 2020 and the solid color gamut is the RGB QLED.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Color shift of QD-LCDs for 2D n-FFS and 4D MVA, and (b) the normalized output spectra of the QD-LCD at different viewing angle.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Angular dependent emission spectra for the RGB QLED; and (b) Color Shift of the RGB QLEDs.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The spectra of the RG phosphor embedded LCD and (b) its color triangle.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Isoquality curves of the perceived quality metric

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 System colorimetry of Rec. 2020 standard

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optimized values of the two wide color gamut n-FFS LCDs with CF1 and CF2, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optimized values of two wide color gamut MVA LCDs with 10-nm-linewidth primary colors for CF1 and CF2, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 4 System parameters of the widest color gamut we can get with the modified color filters, for both MVA and n-FFS modes.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C o l o r G a m u t A r e a = A d i s p l a y A s t a n d a r d ,
C o l o r G a m u t C o v e r a g e = A d i s p l a y A s t a n d a r d A s t a n d a r d .
L E R = K m S o u t ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ S o u t ( λ ) d λ .
T E = S o u t ( λ ) d λ S i n ( λ ) d λ .
T L E = L E R T E = K m S o u t ( λ ) V ( λ ) d λ S i n ( λ ) d λ .
S o u t ( λ ) = R S o u t , r ( λ ) + G S o u t , g ( λ ) + B S o u t , b ( λ ) , R + G + B = 1.
S i ( λ , λ 0 , Δ λ ) = e 4 ln 2 ( λ λ 0 ) 2 Δ λ 2 ,

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