Abstract

A micro-cavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer based on dual capillaries is proposed and demonstrated for gas pressure measurement. Such a device is fabricated by fusion splicing of a tiny segment of a main-capillary with a feeding-capillary on one end, and a single mode fiber on the other, to allow gas enters the main-capillary via the feeding-capillary. The reflection spectrum of the interferometer device shifts with the variation of gas pressure due to the dependence of gas refractive index on the pressure applied. During the device fabrication process, a core-offset fusion splicing method is adopted, which turns out to be highly effective for reducing the detection limit of the sensor. The experimental results obtained show that the proposed device exhibits a high gas pressure sensitivity of 4147 pm/MPa, a low temperature cross-sensitivity of less than 0.3 KPa/°C at atmospheric pressure, and an excellently low detection limit down to ~4.81 KPa. The robust tip structure, ultra-compact device size and ease of fabrication make the device an attractive candidate for reliable and highly sensitive gas pressure measurement in a precise location.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

2012 (8)

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Hu and D. Chen, “Side-hole dual-core photonic crystal fiber for hydrostatic pressure sensing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(14), 2382–2387 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, “High-sensitivity fiber-tip pressure sensor with graphene diaphragm,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2493–2495 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xu, D. Ren, X. Shi, C. Li, W. Lu, L. Lu, L. Lu, and B. Yu, “High-sensitivity Fabry-Perot interferometric pressure sensor based on a nanothick silver diaphragm,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 133–135 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Coelho, P. A. R. Tafulo, P. A. S. Jorge, J. L. Santos, D. Viegas, K. Schuster, J. Kobelke, and O. Frazão, “Simultaneous measurement of partial pressure of O2 and CO2 with a hybrid interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3063–3065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, and T. Zhu, “High sensitivity gas refractometer based on all-fiber open-cavity Fabry–Pérot interferometer formed by large lateral offset splicing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(5), 912–915 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Liao, T. Y. Hu, and D. N. Wang, “Optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and fusion splicing for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22813–22818 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, Y. S. Hou, and T. Zhu, “Microbubble based fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer formed by fusion splicing single-mode fibers for strain measurement,” Appl. Opt. 51(8), 1033–1036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

C. Wu, H. Y. Fu, K. K. Qureshi, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “High-pressure and high-temperature characteristics of a Fabry-Perot interferometer based on photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(3), 412–414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, W. P. Wen, J. Yao, D. Wu, L. C. Xu, and T. Zhu, “In-line all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer high temperature sensor formed by large lateral offset splicing,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 401–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Donlagic, “All-fiber micromachined microcell,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3148–3150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, and W. Jin, “A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1561–1563 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (1)

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuat. A 118, 117 (2005).

1967 (1)

Adnet, A.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuat. A 118, 117 (2005).

Ahmad, H.

M. R. Islam, M. M. Ali, M. H. Lai, K. S. Lim, and H. Ahmad, “Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 7451–7488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ali, M. M.

M. R. Islam, M. M. Ali, M. H. Lai, K. S. Lim, and H. Ahmad, “Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 7451–7488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Chen, X.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G. H.

Chitaree, R.

Coelho, L.

Dai, J. Y.

Deng, M.

Dong, X.

Donlagic, D.

Du, C.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duan, D. W.

Fan, X.

Feng, J.

Fink, T.

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

Fu, H. Y.

Grover, C. P.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuat. A 118, 117 (2005).

Guan, B. O.

Han, M.

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, L. C. Xu, and M. Han, “Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1593–1598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, H. L.

Hou, Y. S.

Hu, G.

Hu, T.

Hu, T. Y.

Huang, Q.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Islam, M. R.

M. R. Islam, M. M. Ali, M. H. Lai, K. S. Lim, and H. Ahmad, “Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 7451–7488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, L.

L. Jin, B. O. Guan, and H. F. Wei, “Sensitivity characteristics of Fabry-Perot pressure sensors based on hollow-core microstructured fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(15), 2526–2532 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, and W. Jin, “A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1561–1563 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, “High-sensitivity fiber-tip pressure sensor with graphene diaphragm,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2493–2495 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, and W. Jin, “A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1561–1563 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jorge, P. A. S.

Ju, J.

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, and W. Jin, “A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1561–1563 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kobelke, J.

Kou, J. L.

Lai, M. H.

M. R. Islam, M. M. Ali, M. H. Lai, K. S. Lim, and H. Ahmad, “Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 7451–7488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, H.

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liao, C.

Liao, C. R.

Lim, K. S.

M. R. Islam, M. M. Ali, M. H. Lai, K. S. Lim, and H. Ahmad, “Chronology of Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber-optic sensors and their applications: a review,” Sensors (Basel) 14(4), 7451–7488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Lu, L.

Lu, W.

Lu, Y. Q.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, W. Jin, H. L. Ho, and J. Y. Dai, “High-sensitivity fiber-tip pressure sensor with graphene diaphragm,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2493–2495 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, J. Ju, L. Jin, and W. Jin, “A compact fiber-tip micro-cavity sensor for high-pressure measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(21), 1561–1563 (2011).
[Crossref]

Martynkien, T.

T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, “Sensitivity of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber to hydrostatic pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(16), 1562–1565 (2013).

Mathar, R. J.

R. J. Mathar, “Refractive index of humid air in the infrared: model fits,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(5), 470–476 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mergo, P.

T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, “Sensitivity of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber to hydrostatic pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(16), 1562–1565 (2013).

Owens, J. C.

Peng, W.

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

Petersen, D. H.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pevec, S.

Qiao, X.

Qureshi, K. K.

Rao, Y. J.

Ren, D.

Ruan, S.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Santos, J. L.

Savenko, A.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuster, K.

Shi, X.

Sun, F. G.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuat. A 118, 117 (2005).

Tafulo, P. A. R.

Talataisong, W.

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, C. P.

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, and W. Urbanczyk, “Sensitivity of birefringent microstructured polymer optical fiber to hydrostatic pressure,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(16), 1562–1565 (2013).

Viegas, D.

Wang, C.

Wang, D.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, R.

Wang, Y.

Wei, H.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, H. F.

Wen, W. P.

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, W. P. Wen, J. Yao, D. Wu, L. C. Xu, and T. Zhu, “In-line all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer high temperature sensor formed by large lateral offset splicing,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 401–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

White, I. M.

Wu, C.

Wu, D.

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, W. P. Wen, J. Yao, D. Wu, L. C. Xu, and T. Zhu, “In-line all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer high temperature sensor formed by large lateral offset splicing,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 401–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiao, G. Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuat. A 118, 117 (2005).

Xu, F.

Xu, L.

Xu, L. C.

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, W. P. Wen, J. Yao, D. Wu, L. C. Xu, and T. Zhu, “In-line all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer high temperature sensor formed by large lateral offset splicing,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 401–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Deng, C. P. Tang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, L. C. Xu, and M. Han, “Refractive index measurement using photonic crystal fiber-based Fabry-Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1593–1598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, K.

Yang, X. C.

Yao, J.

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, W. P. Wen, J. Yao, D. Wu, L. C. Xu, and T. Zhu, “In-line all-fibre Fabry-Perot interferometer high temperature sensor formed by large lateral offset splicing,” Electron. Lett. 47(6), 401–403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ye, L.

Yu, B.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, W.

W. Yuan, F. Wang, A. Savenko, D. H. Petersen, and O. Bang, “Note: Optical fiber milled by focused ion beam and its application for Fabry-Pérot refractive index sensor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 076103 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, N. Liu, T. Fink, H. Li, W. Peng, and M. Han, “Fiber-optic pressure sensor based on π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating on side-hole fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1519–1522 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, “Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry–Pérot interferometer sensor,” Sens. Actuat. A 118, 117 (2005).

Zhou, J.

Zhu, T.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, C. Du, S. Ruan, and H. Wei, “Enhancing the pressure sensitivity of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a microchannel,” Appl. Phys. B 120(3), 461–467 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram and (b) the microphotograph of the micro-cavity fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer (MFFPI) sensor tip.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated ER versus the intensity ratio of the two interference beams.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Recorded interference spectra of MFFPIs corresponding to (a) different core-offset values; and (b) different cavity lengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for gas pressure measurement.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reflection spectra of the sensor under different pressures; (b) dip wavelength and OPD versus pressure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Reflection spectral of the sensor under different temperatures; (b) dip wavelength versus temperature. Inset: reflection spectral of the sensor under the temperature of 16 and 48°C.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Main fusion splicing parameters in our experiments.

Equations (8)

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I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos φ ,
F S R λ 1 λ 2 / 2 n L .
d λ m d P = d λ m d n d n d P = λ m n d n d P ,
n = 1 + 2.8793 × 10 9 × P 1 + 0.003661 × t .
E R = 10 l o g 10 ( 1 + I 2 / I 1 1 I 2 / I 1 ) 2 .         ( I 1 > I 2 ) .
S T = d λ m / d T = λ m ( α + ξ ) ,
Δ = S T / ( d λ m / d P ) = P / T ,
R = 3 σ = 3 σ ampl noise 2 + σ temp induced 2 + σ spect res 2 .

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