Abstract

X-ray wavefront sensing techniques play an important role in both in situ metrology of X-ray optics and X-ray phase contrast imaging. In this letter, we report an approach to measure wavefront aberrations simply using abrasive paper. The wavefront phase change induced by the sample under test was extracted from the speckle displacement by applying a cross-correlation algorithm to two series of speckle images collected using two one-dimensional scans, whilst scanning the abrasive paper in a transverse direction to the incident X-ray beam. The angular sensitivity of the proposed method is shown to be around 2 nanoradians. The potential of the proposed technique for characterizing X-ray optics and the study of biomedical specimens is demonstrated by imaging representative samples.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  20. S. Berujon, H. Wang, S. Alcock, and K. Sawhney, “At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6438–6446 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Kottler, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “A two-directional approach for grating based differential phase contrast imaging using hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1175–1181 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. C. Diemoz, A. Bravin, M. Langer, and P. Coan, “Analytical and experimental determination of signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit in three phase-contrast imaging techniques,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27670–27690 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sawhney, H. Wang, J. Sutter, S. Alcock, and S. Berujon, “At-wavelength Metrology of X-ray Optics at Diamond Light Source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 26(5), 17–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase microscopy using the speckle tracking technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 154105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray multimodal imaging using a random-phase object,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063813 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. C. Diemoz, A. Bravin, M. Langer, and P. Coan, “Analytical and experimental determination of signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit in three phase-contrast imaging techniques,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27670–27690 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. Olivo and R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 074106 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Kottler, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “A two-directional approach for grating based differential phase contrast imaging using hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1175–1181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352(3), 622–628 (1995).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An X-ray Interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[Crossref]

Alcock, S.

S. Berujon, H. Wang, S. Alcock, and K. Sawhney, “At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6438–6446 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sawhney, H. Wang, J. Sutter, S. Alcock, and S. Berujon, “At-wavelength Metrology of X-ray Optics at Diamond Light Source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 26(5), 17–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alcock, S. G.

Alianelli, L.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asundi, A.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Atwood, R.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benner, B.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Berujon, S.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, J. Sutter, S. G. Alcock, U. Wagner, and C. Rau, “Fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2518–2521 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, S. Alcock, and K. Sawhney, “At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6438–6446 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase microscopy using the speckle tracking technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 154105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sawhney, H. Wang, J. Sutter, S. Alcock, and S. Berujon, “At-wavelength Metrology of X-ray Optics at Diamond Light Source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 26(5), 17–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray multimodal imaging using a random-phase object,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063813 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bérujon, S.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonse, U.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An X-ray Interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[Crossref]

Bravin, A.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Diemoz, A. Bravin, M. Langer, and P. Coan, “Analytical and experimental determination of signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit in three phase-contrast imaging techniques,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27670–27690 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucourt, S.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “A two-directional approach for grating based differential phase contrast imaging using hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1175–1181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cauchon, G.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cerbino, R.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cloetens, P.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coan, P.

David, C.

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “A two-directional approach for grating based differential phase contrast imaging using hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1175–1181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[Crossref]

Diemoz, P. C.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Diemoz, A. Bravin, M. Langer, and P. Coan, “Analytical and experimental determination of signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit in three phase-contrast imaging techniques,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27670–27690 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolbnya, I. P.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Douillet, D.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dovillaire, G.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drakopoulos, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Endrizzi, M.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, D.

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

Garrett, R.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gentle, I.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goldberg, K. A.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gureyev, T. E.

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hart, M.

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An X-ray Interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[Crossref]

Herzen, J.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hipp, A.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Idir, M.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ignatyev, K.

Kottler, C.

Langer, M.

Laundy, D.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Duc, G.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lengeler, B.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Levecq, X.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mayo, S. C.

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercere, P.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Momose, A.

A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352(3), 622–628 (1995).
[Crossref]

Moreno, T.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morgan, K. S.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munro, P. R. T.

Naulleau, P. P.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nesterets, Y. I.

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nohammer, B.

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nugent, K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Olivo, A.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Olivo, K. Ignatyev, P. R. T. Munro, and R. D. Speller, “Noninterferometric phase-contrast images obtained with incoherent x-ray sources,” Appl. Opt. 50(12), 1765–1769 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Olivo and R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 074106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Paganin, D. M.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, B.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pape, I.

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase microscopy using the speckle tracking technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 154105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pedersen, U. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pešic, Z. D.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peverini, L.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, F.

C. Kottler, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and O. Bunk, “A two-directional approach for grating based differential phase contrast imaging using hard x-rays,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1175–1181 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pogany, A.

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

Preece, G. M.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qian, K.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rau, C.

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, J. Sutter, S. G. Alcock, U. Wagner, and C. Rau, “Fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2518–2521 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Richwin, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Robinson, I. K.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutishauser, S.

Sawhney, K.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, J. Sutter, S. G. Alcock, U. Wagner, and C. Rau, “Fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2518–2521 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, S. Alcock, and K. Sawhney, “At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6438–6446 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase microscopy using the speckle tracking technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 154105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sawhney, H. Wang, J. Sutter, S. Alcock, and S. Berujon, “At-wavelength Metrology of X-ray Optics at Diamond Light Source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 26(5), 17–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray multimodal imaging using a random-phase object,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063813 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schroer, C.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scott, S. M.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Siu, K. K. W.

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

Snigirev, A.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Snigireva, I.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Solak, H. H.

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[Crossref]

Speller, R.

A. Olivo and R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 074106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Speller, R. D.

Stevenson, A. W.

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sutter, J.

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, J. Sutter, S. G. Alcock, U. Wagner, and C. Rau, “Fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2518–2521 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Sawhney, H. Wang, J. Sutter, S. Alcock, and S. Berujon, “At-wavelength Metrology of X-ray Optics at Diamond Light Source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 26(5), 17–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, M. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tummler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wagner, U.

Walton, R. D.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, J. Sutter, S. G. Alcock, U. Wagner, and C. Rau, “Fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using x-ray grating interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2518–2521 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, S. Alcock, and K. Sawhney, “At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6438–6446 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase microscopy using the speckle tracking technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 154105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sawhney, H. Wang, J. Sutter, S. Alcock, and S. Berujon, “At-wavelength Metrology of X-ray Optics at Diamond Light Source,” Synchrotron Radiat. News 26(5), 17–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray multimodal imaging using a random-phase object,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063813 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wilkins, S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wilkins, S. W.

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pogany, D. Gao, and S. W. Wilkins, “Contrast and resolution in imaging with a microfocus x-ray source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(7), 2774–2782 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zapata, C. E.

P. C. Diemoz, M. Endrizzi, C. E. Zapata, Z. D. Pešić, C. Rau, A. Bravin, I. K. Robinson, and A. Olivo, “X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging with Nanoradian Angular Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(13), 138105 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, E.

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, K. Sawhney, S. Berujon, E. Ziegler, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16550–16559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[Crossref]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 387–390 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

U. Bonse and M. Hart, “An X-ray Interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(8), 155–156 (1965).
[Crossref]

A. Olivo and R. Speller, “A coded-aperture technique allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 074106 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. David, B. Nohammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3287–3289 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Berujon, H. Wang, I. Pape, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase microscopy using the speckle tracking technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 154105 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. S. Morgan, D. M. Paganin, and K. K. W. Siu, “X-ray phase imaging with a paper analyzer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 124102 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Pan, K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 20(6), 062001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys. 2(4), 258–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. W. Wilkins, T. E. Gureyev, D. Gao, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard X-rays,” Nature 384(6607), 335–338 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

A. Momose, “Demonstration of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography using an X-ray interferometer,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 352(3), 622–628 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A (1)

S. W. Wilkins, Y. I. Nesterets, T. E. Gureyev, S. C. Mayo, A. Pogany, and A. W. Stevenson, “On the evolution and relative merits of hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 372(2010), 20130021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. David, M. Bech, G. Le Duc, A. Bravin, and P. Cloetens, “High-resolution brain tumor visualization using three-dimensional x-ray phase contrast tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 52(23), 6923–6930 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Berujon, H. Wang, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray multimodal imaging using a random-phase object,” Phys. Rev. A 86(6), 063813 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Bérujon, E. Ziegler, R. Cerbino, and L. Peverini, “Two-Dimensional X-Ray Beam Phase Sensing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 158102 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Mercere, S. Bucourt, G. Cauchon, D. Douillet, G. Dovillaire, K. A. Goldberg, M. Idir, X. Levecq, T. Moreno, P. P. Naulleau, S. Rekawa, and P. Zeitoun, “X-ray beam metrology and x-ray optic alignment by Hartmann wavefront sensing,” Proc. SPIE 5921, 592109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

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[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Wang, S. Berujon, J. Herzen, R. Atwood, D. Laundy, A. Hipp, and K. Sawhney, “X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8762 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup. The test sample is placed upstream of the abrasive paper, which is mounted on a precision piezo translation stage. The speckle pattern is recorded using a high resolution, X-ray area detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (Color online) A series of speckle images for the reference beam (a) and with a 1D CRL inserted into the X-ray beam (b). The speckle intensity scans (c) and the corresponding correlation coefficient (d) at the two marked positions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Vertical wavefront gradient (a), and the reconstructed phase (b) for a 1D CRL from a series of speckle images with a single exposure. The vertical wavefront gradient error (c) and phase error (d) induced by the 1D CRL for the regions marked in (a) and (b). The standard deviation of the line profile of the vertical wavefront gradient error (c) induced by the 1D CRL is 54nrad, which is significantly larger than the sensitivity of the proposed technique. The scale bar is equal to 0.2mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Phase gradient from two series of reference images (averaged over 5 exposures) with step size μ = 0.5 and μ = 1.0μm along the marked line in Fig. 3 (a). The sensitivity for step size μ = 0.5 and μ = 1.0μm is 2.1nrad and 3.8nrad respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Horizontal wavefront gradient (a), vertical wavefront gradient (b) and phase image (c) of a section of the fin of a Mackerel fish from a series of speckle images with single exposure. The scale bar is equal to 0.5mm.

Equations (6)

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I s , r ( x , y , y p ) = n = 0 N { A n s , r ( x , y ) exp [ i B n s , r ( x , y ) ( y p + φ n s , r ( x , y ) ] } ,
v ( x , y ) = φ n s ( x , y ) φ n r ( x , y ) .
Φ ( x , y ) y = 2 π λ α y ( x , y ) 2 π λ ( L 1 + L 2 + L 3 ) v ( x , y ) μ L 1 L 3 ,
f = R 0 2 δ .
α y tan α y = y f .
Δ θ μ η N L 3 .

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