Abstract

Using a mobile experimental testbed, we perform a series of measurements on the detection of laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) to evaluate turbulent channel distortions and crosstalk among receive states in an 84-m roofed optical link. We find that a receiver assembly using single-mode fiber coupling serves as a good signal selector in terms of crosstalk rejection. From the recorded temporal channel waveforms, we estimate average crosstalk profiles and propose an appropriate probability density function for the fluctuations of the detected OAM signal. Further measurements of OAM crosstalk are described for a horizontal 400-m link established over our campus.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Arnon, “Effects of atmospheric turbulence and building sway on optical wireless-communication systems,” Opt. Lett. 28, 129–131 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. Gibson, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448–5456 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Optics 53, 293–363 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Li and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 40, 760–763 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. I. B. Djordjevic, J. A. Anguita, and B. Vasic, “Error-correction coded orbital-angular-momentum modulation for FSO channels affected by turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2846–2852 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. A. Anguita, J. Herreros, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Coherent multimode OAM superpositions for multidimensional modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–11 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nature Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. A. Anguita, M. Neifeld, and B. Vasic, “Turbulence-induced channel crosstalk in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2414–2429 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Malik, M. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express 20, 13195–13200 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. I. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, N. K. Steinhoff, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of a free space optical link employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4062–4065 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. Tyler and R. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of quantum states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 34, 142–144 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. Rodenburg, M. Lavery, M. Malik, M. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, D. J. Robertson, M. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3735–3737 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4 × 4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4360–4363 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Adaptive optics compensation of multiple orbital angular momentum beams propagating through emulated atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2845–2848 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. P. Bierdz, M. Kwon, C. Roncaioli, and H. Deng, “High fidelity detection of the orbital angular momentum of light by time mapping,” New J. Phys. 15, 113062 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Qassim, F. M. Miatto, J. P. Torres, M. J. Padgett, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Limitations to the determination of a Laguerre-Gauss spectrum via projective, phase-flattening measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, A20–A23 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. A. Anguita and J. Herreros, “Experimental analysis of orbital angular momentum-carrying beams in turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816207 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 1998).
  20. S. Kotz and J. R. van Dorp, Beyond Beta: other continuous families of distributions with bounded support and applications (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004).

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

J. A. Anguita and J. Herreros, “Experimental analysis of orbital angular momentum-carrying beams in turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816207 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Optics 53, 293–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Tyler and R. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of quantum states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 34, 142–144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

Ahmed, N.

Andrews, L.

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 1998).

Anguita, J. A.

J. A. Anguita, J. Herreros, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Coherent multimode OAM superpositions for multidimensional modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. B. Djordjevic, J. A. Anguita, and B. Vasic, “Error-correction coded orbital-angular-momentum modulation for FSO channels affected by turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2846–2852 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. A. Anguita and J. Herreros, “Experimental analysis of orbital angular momentum-carrying beams in turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816207 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. A. Anguita, M. Neifeld, and B. Vasic, “Turbulence-induced channel crosstalk in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2414–2429 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnon, S.

Bao, C.

Beijersbergen, M.

G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berkhout, G.

G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bierdz, P.

P. Bierdz, M. Kwon, C. Roncaioli, and H. Deng, “High fidelity detection of the orbital angular momentum of light by time mapping,” New J. Phys. 15, 113062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R.

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Adaptive optics compensation of multiple orbital angular momentum beams propagating through emulated atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2845–2848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Qassim, F. M. Miatto, J. P. Torres, M. J. Padgett, E. Karimi, and R. W. Boyd, “Limitations to the determination of a Laguerre-Gauss spectrum via projective, phase-flattening measurement,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, A20–A23 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. I. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, N. K. Steinhoff, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of a free space optical link employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4062–4065 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rodenburg, M. Lavery, M. Malik, M. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, D. J. Robertson, M. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3735–3737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Malik, M. O’Sullivan, B. Rodenburg, M. Mirhosseini, J. Leach, M. P. J. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on optical communications using orbital angular momentum for encoding,” Opt. Express 20, 13195–13200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Chandrasekaran, N.

Courtial, J

G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Courtial, J.

Deng, H.

P. Bierdz, M. Kwon, C. Roncaioli, and H. Deng, “High fidelity detection of the orbital angular momentum of light by time mapping,” New J. Phys. 15, 113062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dennis, M.

M. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Optics 53, 293–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, I. B.

J. A. Anguita, J. Herreros, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Coherent multimode OAM superpositions for multidimensional modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. B. Djordjevic, J. A. Anguita, and B. Vasic, “Error-correction coded orbital-angular-momentum modulation for FSO channels affected by turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 2846–2852 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

Dolinar, S. J.

Erkmen, B. I.

Fazal, I. M

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nature Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G.

Herreros, J.

J. A. Anguita, J. Herreros, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Coherent multimode OAM superpositions for multidimensional modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Anguita and J. Herreros, “Experimental analysis of orbital angular momentum-carrying beams in turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Karimi, E.

Kotz, S.

S. Kotz and J. R. van Dorp, Beyond Beta: other continuous families of distributions with bounded support and applications (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004).

Kwon, M.

P. Bierdz, M. Kwon, C. Roncaioli, and H. Deng, “High fidelity detection of the orbital angular momentum of light by time mapping,” New J. Phys. 15, 113062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lavery, M.

Lavery, M. P. J.

Leach, J.

Li, S.

Malik, M.

Miatto, F. M.

Mirhosseini, M.

Neifeld, M.

Neifeld, M. A.

O’Holleran, K.

M. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Optics 53, 293–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan, M.

Padgett, M.

B. Rodenburg, M. Lavery, M. Malik, M. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, D. J. Robertson, M. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3735–3737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Optics 53, 293–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Gibson, J. Courtial, and M. Padgett, “Free-space information transfer using light beams carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Express 12, 5448–5456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

Phillips, R.

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 1998).

Qassim, H.

Ren, Y.

Robertson, D. J.

Rodenburg, B.

Roncaioli, C.

P. Bierdz, M. Kwon, C. Roncaioli, and H. Deng, “High fidelity detection of the orbital angular momentum of light by time mapping,” New J. Phys. 15, 113062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, J. H.

Steinhoff, N. K.

Torres, J. P.

Tur, M.

Tyler, G.

van Dorp, J. R.

S. Kotz and J. R. van Dorp, Beyond Beta: other continuous families of distributions with bounded support and applications (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004).

Vasic, B.

Wang, J.

S. Li and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 40, 760–763 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nature Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

Xie, G.

Yan, Y.

Yang, J.-Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nature Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nature Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

J. A. Anguita, J. Herreros, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Coherent multimode OAM superpositions for multidimensional modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1–11 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Wang, J.-Y. Yang, I. M Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nature Photon. 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Bierdz, M. Kwon, C. Roncaioli, and H. Deng, “High fidelity detection of the orbital angular momentum of light by time mapping,” New J. Phys. 15, 113062 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

B. Rodenburg, M. Lavery, M. Malik, M. O’Sullivan, M. Mirhosseini, D. J. Robertson, M. Padgett, and R. W. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3735–3737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Tyler and R. Boyd, “Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of quantum states of light carrying orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Lett. 34, 142–144 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, G. Xie, H. Huang, C. Bao, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, M. P. J. Lavery, B. I. Erkmen, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Adaptive optics compensation of multiple orbital angular momentum beams propagating through emulated atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2845–2848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Huang, Y. Cao, G. Xie, Y. Ren, Y. Yan, C. Bao, N. Ahmed, M. A. Neifeld, S. J. Dolinar, and A. E. Willner, “Crosstalk mitigation in a free-space orbital angular momentum multiplexed communication link using 4 × 4 MIMO equalization,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4360–4363 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li and J. Wang, “Performance evaluation of analog signal transmission in an orbital angular momentum multiplexing system,” Opt. Lett. 40, 760–763 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Arnon, “Effects of atmospheric turbulence and building sway on optical wireless-communication systems,” Opt. Lett. 28, 129–131 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ren, H. Huang, G. Xie, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, B. I. Erkmen, N. Chandrasekaran, M. P. J. Lavery, N. K. Steinhoff, M. Tur, S. Dolinar, M. A. Neifeld, M. J. Padgett, R. W. Boyd, J. H. Shapiro, and A. E. Willner, “Atmospheric turbulence effects on the performance of a free space optical link employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Opt. Lett. 38, 4062–4065 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Berkhout, M. Lavery, J Courtial, M. Beijersbergen, and M. Padgett, “Efficient Sorting of Orbital Angular Momentum States of Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. A. Anguita and J. Herreros, “Experimental analysis of orbital angular momentum-carrying beams in turbulence,” Proc. SPIE 8162, 816207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Optics (1)

M. Dennis, K. O’Holleran, and M. Padgett, “Singular optics: optical vortices and polarization singularities,” Prog. Optics 53, 293–363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

L. Andrews and R. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media (SPIE Press, 1998).

S. Kotz and J. R. van Dorp, Beyond Beta: other continuous families of distributions with bounded support and applications (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental schematic for the 84m link placed under a roofed hallway. The link is completed using a flat, 4” mirror placed about 42m away from the transmit/receive assembly.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample experimental OAM beams photographed at the exit of the expanding telescope. From top left, states 4, 16, 24, 32, 40, and 50.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histograms of the received optical signal. (a) For transmit OAM state 1. (b) For transmit state 7.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-average received signals and crosstalk on adjacent states for OAM states 0 to 10 (indicated on top of each plot). Bars in each plot have been normalized by the total received optical power. Signals recorded with the 84-m experiment.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental OAM transmission over 400 m. Time average signal measured at receive OAM states 0 to 50. Transmited states are marked with an arrow within each plot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram representation for some detected OAM signals and the fit of a Johnson SB probabilty density function. Left column: 84-m range. Right column: 400-m range.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Turbulence strength estimation for the short range (red) and long range (blue) experiments. The long-range data was recorded from 18:05 hrs to 21:00 hrs, while the short-range data was recorded from 13:20 hrs to 16:20 hrs.

Equations (2)

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f Y ( y | γ , δ ) = δ 2 π 1 y ( 1 y ) exp { 1 2 [ γ + δ log ( y 1 y ) ] 2 }
r 2 = 2.42 C n 2 L 3 W 0 1 / 3 F 2 1 ( 1 / 3 , 1 ; 4 ; 1 | Θ 0 | ) ,

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