Abstract

We characterize and analyze the timing jitter of normal-dispersion mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with intra-cavity filtering. The timing jitter of Er-fiber lasers with 9-nm bandpass filters operating at + 0.0084 ps2 is measured to be 3.46 fs (rms) when integrated from 10 kHz to 10 MHz offset frequency, which is similar to the jitter level of typical stretched-pulse or soliton Er-fiber lasers. The numerical simulation based on split-step Fourier transform method shows that the measured high-frequency jitter is quantum noise-limited performance. We also develop an analytical model for filtered normal-dispersion fiber lasers by modifying the well-established noise model of stretched-pulse fiber lasers. The analytical modeling reveals that the jitter performance is improved mostly by reducing the chirp parameter by intra-cavity filtering. Both numerical simulation and analytical model fit fairly well with the measured timing jitter result.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Kim, J. Shin, D. Kwon, M. Hu, C. Wang, and J. Kim, “Reduction of timing jitter and intensity noise in normal-dispersion passively mode-locked fiber lasers by narrow band-pass filtering,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28276–28283 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond active synchronization of passively mode-locked lasers by balanced cross correlation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 947–949 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Namiki and H. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1986 (1)

Agarwal, D.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bartels, A.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Benkler, E.

Berizzi, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhatnagar, A.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bogoni, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capria, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chernov, A. I.

Cox, J. A.

J. A. Cox, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, J. Kim, and F. X. Kärtner, “Complete characterization of quantum-limited timing jitter in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3522–3524 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Debaes, C.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

F. Quinlan, T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, J. A. Taylor, M. J. Thorpe, N. Lemke, A. D. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, and S. A. Diddams, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation with an Er:fiber-based optical frequency divider,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3260–3262 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Foreman, S. M.

Fortier, T. M.

Fu, S.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopinath, J. T.

Gordon, J. P.

Grein, M. E.

Grelu, P.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hall, J. L.

Haus, H.

S. Namiki and H. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

Helman, N. C.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

Ippen, E. P.

Ivanov, E. N.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. A.

Jiang, Y.

Jung, K.

Kaertner, F. X.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kartner, F. X.

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keeler, G. A.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Kieu, K.

Kim, C.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

K. Jung and J. Kim, “Characterization of timing jitter spectra in free-running mode-locked lasers with 340 dB dynamic range over 10 decades of Fourier frequency,” Opt. Lett. 40(3), 316–319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Qin, Y. Song, H. Kim, J. Shin, D. Kwon, M. Hu, C. Wang, and J. Kim, “Reduction of timing jitter and intensity noise in normal-dispersion passively mode-locked fiber lasers by narrow band-pass filtering,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28276–28283 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Jung, J. Shin, and J. Kim, “Ultralow phase noise microwave generation from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers with subfemtosecond integrated timing jitter,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 5500906 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Kim, K. Jung, K. Kieu, and J. Kim, “Low timing jitter and intensity noise from a soliton Er-fiber laser mode-locked by a fiber taper carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29524–29530 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. K. Kim, Y. Song, K. Jung, C. Kim, H. Kim, C. H. Nam, and J. Kim, “Sub-100-as timing jitter optical pulse trains from mode-locked Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4443–4445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Song, C. Kim, K. Jung, H. Kim, and J. Kim, “Timing jitter optimization of mode-locked Yb-fiber lasers toward the attosecond regime,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14518–14525 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Cox, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, J. Kim, and F. X. Kärtner, “Complete characterization of quantum-limited timing jitter in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3522–3524 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, J. A. Cox, J. Chen, and F. X. Kartner, “Drift-free femtosecond timing synchronization of remote optical and microwave sources,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 733–736 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond active synchronization of passively mode-locked lasers by balanced cross correlation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 947–949 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T. K.

Kirchner, M. S.

Kolner, B. H.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kracht, D.

Kuzucu, O.

Kwon, D.

Laghezza, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langrock, C.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lazzeri, E.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemke, N.

Li, R.

Ludlow, A. D.

Ma, L. S.

Malacarne, A.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFerran, J. J.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

McNeilage, C.

Miller, D. A. B.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Murnane, M. M.

Nam, C. H.

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki and H. Haus, “Noise of the stretched pulse fiber laser: I. Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 649–659 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nelson, B. E.

G. A. Keeler, B. E. Nelson, D. Agarwal, C. Debaes, N. C. Helman, A. Bhatnagar, and D. A. B. Miller, “The benefits of ultrashort optical pulses in optically interconnected systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 477–485 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neumann, J.

Notcutt, M.

Oates, C. W.

J. J. McFerran, E. N. Ivanov, A. Bartels, G. Wilpers, C. W. Oates, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Low-noise synthesis of microwave signals from an optical source,” Electron. Lett. 41(11), 650–651 (2005).
[Crossref]

Obraztsova, E. D.

Onori, D.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouyang, C.

Paschotta, R.

Petrich, G. S.

Pinna, S.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porzi, C.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prochnow, O.

Qin, P.

Quinlan, F.

Scaffardi, M.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Scott, R. P.

R. P. Scott, C. Langrock, and B. H. Kolner, “High-dynamic-range laser amplitude and phase noise measurement techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 641–655 (2001).
[Crossref]

Scotti, F.

P. Ghelfi, F. Laghezza, F. Scotti, G. Serafino, A. Capria, S. Pinna, D. Onori, C. Porzi, M. Scaffardi, A. Malacarne, V. Vercesi, E. Lazzeri, F. Berizzi, and A. Bogoni, “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature 507(7492), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Searls, J.

Serafino, G.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the filtered normal-dispersion Er-fiber laser. (b) Measured output optical spectrum. EDF, erbium-doped fiber; LD, laser diode; OI, optical isolator; PBC, pump beam combiner; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; SF, spectral filter; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

RF spectrum (a) with resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, (b) with frequency span of 1 GHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reduction of RIN by intra-cavity filtering.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for timing jitter measurement with the BOC. BD, balanced detector; DM, dichoric mirror; PBS, polarization beam splitter; PI, proportional-integral controller. fB denotes the PLL locking bandwidth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured timing jitter power spectral density and integrated timing jitter of normal-dispersion Er-fiber laser (a) with and (b) without intra-cavity filtering. Note that timing jitter of filtered laser is measured by the BOC whereas timing jitter of filter-less laser is measured by direct photodetection and microwave mixer, which caused the measurement resolution floor above 20 kHz offset frequency (dashed line (c)).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical spectra from the numerical and experimental results. (b) Pulse shape and chirp from numerical analysis. (c) Pulse width and spectrum evolution in the cavity.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Numerical timing jitter estimation. (b) Calculated timing jitter by the modified Namiki-Haus noise model. (i) ASE-originated direct timing jitter; (ii) center frequency noise-originated timing jitter coupled by dispersion; (iii) center frequency noise-originated timing jitter coupled by pulse chirp. Blue curve shows the measured result for comparison.

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