Abstract

Thin films of lithium niobate are wafer bonded onto silicon substrates and rib-loaded with a chalcogenide glass, Ge23Sb7S70, to demonstrate strongly confined single-mode submicron waveguides, microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators in the telecom C band. The 200 μm radii microring modulators present 1.2 dB/cm waveguide propagation loss, 1.2 × 105 quality factor, 0.4 GHz/V tuning rate, and 13 dB extinction ratio. The 6 mm long Mach-Zehnder modulators have a half-wave voltage-length product of 3.8 V.cm and an extinction ratio of 15 dB. The demonstrated work is a key step towards enabling wafer scale dense on-chip integration of high performance lithium niobate electro-optical devices on silicon for short reach optical interconnects and higher order advanced modulation schemes.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

2014 (4)

2013 (7)

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Heterogeneous lithium niobate photonics on silicon substrates,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25573–25581 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Rabiei, J. Ma, S. Khan, J. Chiles, and S. Fathpour, “Submicron optical waveguides and microring resonators fabricated by selective oxidation of tantalum,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6967–6972 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chen, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, “12.5 pm/V hybrid silicon and lithium niobate optical microring resonator with integrated electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27003–27010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Ibarra Fuste and M. C. Santos Blanco, “Bandwidth-length trade-off figures of merit for electro-optic traveling wave modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1548–1550 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

Y. S. Lee, G.-D. Kim, W.-J. Kim, S.-S. Lee, W.-G. Lee, and W. H. Steier, “Hybrid Si-LiNbO₃ microring electrooptically tunable resonators for active photonic devices,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1119–1121 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vorobiev, J. Berge, S. Gevorgian, M. Löffler, and E. Olsson, “Effect of interface roughness on acoustic loss in tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 024116 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electrooptical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1988 (1)

R. L. Jungerman and C. A. Flory, “Low-frequency acoustic anomalies in lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(16), 1477–1479 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

J. L. Nightingale, R. A. Becker, R. C. Willis, and J. S. Vrhel, “Characterization of frequency dispersion in Ti-diffused lithium niobate optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(10), 716–718 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity-matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 301–309 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high‐index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(7), 607–608 (1982).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

T. Tamir and S. T. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 14(3), 235–254 (1977).

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, and A. B. Lee, “Optical waveguide parabolic coupling horns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 28–30 (1977).
[Crossref]

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity-matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 301–309 (1984).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Barwicz, T.

Becker, R. A.

J. L. Nightingale, R. A. Becker, R. C. Willis, and J. S. Vrhel, “Characterization of frequency dispersion in Ti-diffused lithium niobate optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(10), 716–718 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Berge, J.

A. Vorobiev, J. Berge, S. Gevorgian, M. Löffler, and E. Olsson, “Effect of interface roughness on acoustic loss in tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 024116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

Bolten, J.

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, and A. B. Lee, “Optical waveguide parabolic coupling horns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 28–30 (1977).
[Crossref]

Byun, H.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chen, S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Chiles, J.

Chu, T.

Dalton, L. R.

Elder, D. L.

Fang, Q.

Fathpour, S.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Flory, C. A.

R. L. Jungerman and C. A. Flory, “Low-frequency acoustic anomalies in lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(16), 1477–1479 (1988).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geis, M.

Gevorgian, S.

A. Vorobiev, J. Berge, S. Gevorgian, M. Löffler, and E. Olsson, “Effect of interface roughness on acoustic loss in tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 024116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grein, M.

Gunter, P.

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, “Optical and electrooptical properties of submicrometer lithium niobate slab waveguides prepared by crystal ion slicing and wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4603–4605 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, C. W.

Hoyt, J. L.

Hsu, S. S.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Hu, Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ibarra Fuste, J. A.

Ippen, E. P.

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, “Proton exchange for high‐index waveguides in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41(7), 607–608 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

Johnston, P. V.

Jungerman, R. L.

R. L. Jungerman and C. A. Flory, “Low-frequency acoustic anomalies in lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53(16), 1477–1479 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Khan, S.

Kim, G.-D.

Kim, W.-J.

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Koeber, S.

Koenigsmann, M.

Kohler, M.

Koos, C.

Korn, D.

Korotky, S. K.

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity-matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 301–309 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kuramochi, E.

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lauermann, M.

Lee, A. B.

W. K. Burns, A. F. Milton, and A. B. Lee, “Optical waveguide parabolic coupling horns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 28–30 (1977).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-S.

Lee, W.-G.

Lee, Y. S.

Leuthold, J.

Li, K.

G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Löffler, M.

A. Vorobiev, J. Berge, S. Gevorgian, M. Löffler, and E. Olsson, “Effect of interface roughness on acoustic loss in tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 024116 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Lyszczarz, T.

Ma, J.

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(1), 69–82 (2000).
[Crossref]

Malinowski, M.

J. Chiles, M. Malinowski, A. Rao, S. Novak, K. Richardson, and S. Fathpour, “Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 111110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Malsam, D.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

R. C. Alferness, S. K. Korotky, and E. A. J. Marcatili, “Velocity-matching techniques for integrated optic traveling wave switch/modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 20(3), 301–309 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

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[Crossref]

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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Vorobiev, J. Berge, S. Gevorgian, M. Löffler, and E. Olsson, “Effect of interface roughness on acoustic loss in tunable thin film bulk acoustic wave resonators,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(2), 024116 (2011).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nanophotonics (2)

S. Fathpour, “Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon,” Nanophotonics 4(1), 143–164 (2015).
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G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, M. Nedeljkovic, Y. Hu, D. J. Thomson, K. Li, P. R. Wilson, S. Chen, and S. S. Hsu, “Recent breakthroughs in carrier depletion based silicon optical modulators,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 229–245 (2014).

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optica (1)

Other (1)

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Silicon on lithium niobate: A hybrid electrooptical platform for near- and mid-infrared photonics,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper STh1M.6.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the new platform depicting the chalcogenide (ChG) rib, lithium niobate (LN) core slab, lower optical cladding of silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon substrate (Si), and the gold metal electrodes for: (a) Microring modulators; (b) Mach-Zehnder modulators.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 COMSOL simulations of the Mach-Zehnder modulators: (a) Optical TE mode profile at 1550 nm – the thin gold stripes are the 100-nm-thick regions of the gold electrodes; (b) RF field distribution at 10 GHz – the regions marked Au are the gold metal electrodes. The chalcogenide (ChG) rib is shown with a white outline.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured transmission spectrum (blue) around one under-coupled microring resonance, and the corresponding theoretical fit (red) (b) Measured transmission spectrum (blue) around one critically coupled MRM resonance and the corresponding theoretical fit (red); (c) Measured transmission power spectrum of the critically-coupled MRM devices; (d). Optical modulation (green) following the electrical drive signal (blue) at sub-kHz frequencies. The drive signal clipping observed is a measurement artefact from the limitation of the measurement range of the oscilloscope used, and doesn’t affect the extraction of any parameters from the measured data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Sub-kHz response of a MZM with a 5.5 μm electrode gap – the blue triangular waveform is the drive signal divided by 10, the green curve is the observed modulation. The MZMs are strongly overdriven to accurately extract the Vπ; (b) Sub-MHz modulation of a different MZM with a 7 μm electrode gap. Both electrodes are 6 mm long.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Electrical S-parameters S11 (blue) and S21 (black), and electrooptic modulation parameter EO S21 (red), viz., limited by the 7 GHz photodetector cut-off.

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