Abstract

We propose, analyze and optimize a two-dimensional conical photonic crystal geometry to enhance light extraction from a high refractive index material, such as an inorganic scintillator. The conical geometry suppresses Fresnel reflections at an optical interface due to adiabatic impedance matching from a gradient index effect. The periodic array of cone structures with a pitch larger than the wavelength of light diffracts light into higher-order modes with different propagating angles, enabling certain photons to overcome total internal reflection (TIR). The numerical simulation shows simultaneous light yield gains relative to a flat surface both below and above the critical angle and how key parameters affect the light extraction efficiency. Our optimized design provides a 46% gain in light yield when the conical photonic crystals are coated on an LSO (cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate) scintillator.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. M. Lalau-Keraly, S. Bhargava, O. D. Miller, and E. Yablonovitch, “Adjoint shape optimization applied to electromagnetic design,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21693–21701 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

X. Sheng, L. Z. Broderick, J. Hu, L. Yang, A. Eshed, E. A. Fitzgerald, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Design and fabrication of high-index-contrast self-assembled texture for light extraction enhancement in LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A701–A709 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Improving light extraction from heavy inorganic scintillators by photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(5), 2475–2482 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Rao, R. Winfield, and L. Keeney, “Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 283(11), 2446–2450 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, S. Matake, S. Okutani, H. Sano, and K. Asakawa, “Improvement of the light extraction efficiency of top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes by a two-dimensional diffraction layer fabricated using self-assembled nanoparticles,” Appl. Opt. 48(31), 5889–5896 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (5)

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kikuta, S. Hino, A. Maruyama, and A. Mizutani, “Estimation method for the light extraction efficiency of light-emitting elements with a rigorous grating diffraction theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(5), 1207–1213 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Morford, W. S. Shih, and J. Dachsteiner, “Press-patterned UV-curable high refractive index coatings - art. no. 612301,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 6123, 12301 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. C. Kim and Y. R. Do, “Nanohole-templated organic light-emitting diodes fabricated using laser-interfering lithography: moth-eye lighting,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1598–1603 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1978 (2)

Adhikari, S.

Akasaki, I.

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asakawa, K.

Auffray, E.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Improving light extraction from heavy inorganic scintillators by photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(5), 2475–2482 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1102–1106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barbastathis, G.

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhargava, S.

Broderick, L. Z.

Chang, C. H.

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cho, C. O.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cho, H. K.

Cho, J.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, H. J.

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Choi, K. J.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K. K.

Choi, W. J.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R. E.

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dachsteiner, J.

R. Morford, W. S. Shih, and J. Dachsteiner, “Press-patterned UV-curable high refractive index coatings - art. no. 612301,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 6123, 12301 (2006).

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diana, F. S.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Y. R.

Eshed, A.

Fabjan, C. W.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

Fujimoto, A.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gerken, M.

Gu, M.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hino, S.

Hiraoka, T.

Honshio, A.

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, C. Z.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
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Huang, B. W.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
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Im, J. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
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H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
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D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
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H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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J. Rao, R. Winfield, and L. Keeney, “Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 283(11), 2446–2450 (2010).
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Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
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Kim, H. G.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
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Kim, J.

Kim, J. G.

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
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Kim, J. J.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
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Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, Y. C.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kinoshita, H.

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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Kluge, C.

Knapitsch, A.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
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A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
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M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Improving light extraction from heavy inorganic scintillators by photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(5), 2475–2482 (2010).
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M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1102–1106 (2008).
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Kweon, H. S.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
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Lalau-Keraly, C. M.

Leclercq, J. L.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
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A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
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Lecoq, P.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
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A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
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M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Improving light extraction from heavy inorganic scintillators by photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(5), 2475–2482 (2010).
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M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1102–1106 (2008).
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Lee, J. S.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, S. N.

Lee, Y.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

Lei, P. H.

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
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Letartre, X.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
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A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
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D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
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P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
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D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
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Magnusson, R.

Manna, L.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
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Maruyama, A.

Matake, S.

Mazurczyk, R.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

McKinley, G. H.

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
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J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
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F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
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Miller, O. D.

Miyake, Y.

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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Moharam, M. G.

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R. Morford, W. S. Shih, and J. Dachsteiner, “Press-patterned UV-curable high refractive index coatings - art. no. 612301,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 6123, 12301 (2006).

Mormile, P.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
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H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
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Nakamura, S.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, T.

Okutani, S.

Pal, S.

Park, K. C.

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Q. H.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
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Park, Y.

H. Kim, K. K. Choi, K. K. Kim, J. Cho, S. N. Lee, Y. Park, J. S. Kwak, and T. Y. Seong, “Light-extraction enhancement of vertical-injection GaN-based light-emitting diodes fabricated with highly integrated surface textures,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1273–1275 (2008).
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D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
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Patra, S. K.

Petroff, P. M.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petti, L.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pignalosa, P.

Pradana, A.

Rao, J.

J. Rao, R. Winfield, and L. Keeney, “Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 283(11), 2446–2450 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rippa, M.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roh, Y. G.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sano, H.

Seong, T. Y.

Sharma, R.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheng, X.

Shih, W. S.

R. Morford, W. S. Shih, and J. Dachsteiner, “Press-patterned UV-curable high refractive index coatings - art. no. 612301,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 6123, 12301 (2006).

Shiomi, H.

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, H.

Sone, C.

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
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Tai, R.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winfield, R.

J. Rao, R. Winfield, and L. Keeney, “Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 283(11), 2446–2450 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
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Xue, C.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
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Yablonovitch, E.

Yang, L.

Yi, Y.

Young, L.

Zanella, M.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
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Zhmakin, A. I.

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
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Zhou, J.

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
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Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

K. C. Park, H. J. Choi, C. H. Chang, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Nanotextured silica surfaces with robust superhydrophobicity and omnidirectional broadband supertransmissivity,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3789–3799 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. Zhu, S. Wu, C. Xue, J. Zhao, L. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, M. Gu, H. Chen, and R. Tai, “Enhanced light extraction of scintillator using large-area photonic crystal structures fabricated by soft-X-ray interference lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(24), 241901 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, C. O. Cho, Y. G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q. H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 203508 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. S. Liu, T. W. Lin, B. W. Huang, F. S. Juang, P. H. Lei, and C. Z. Hu, “Light-extraction enhancement in GaN-based light-emitting diodes using grade-refractive index amorphous titanium oxide films with porous structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 143502 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Ichikawa and T. Baba, “Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 457–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (4)

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Improving light extraction from heavy inorganic scintillators by photonic crystals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 57(5), 2475–2482 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Kronberger, E. Auffray, and P. Lecoq, “Probing the concepts of photonic crystals on scintillating materials,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55(3), 1102–1106 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J. L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

F. S. Diana, A. David, I. Meinel, R. Sharma, C. Weisbuch, S. Nakamura, and P. M. Petroff, “Photonic crystal-assisted light extraction from a colloidal quantum dot/GaN hybrid structure,” Nano Lett. 6(6), 1116–1120 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

L. Petti, M. Rippa, J. Zhou, L. Manna, M. Zanella, and P. Mormile, “Novel hybrid organic/inorganic 2D quasiperiodic PC: from diffraction pattern to vertical light extraction,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 371 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Rao, R. Winfield, and L. Keeney, “Moth-eye-structured light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Commun. 283(11), 2446–2450 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. (1)

H. Kasugai, K. Nagamatsu, Y. Miyake, A. Honshio, T. Kawashima, K. Iida, M. Iwaya, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, H. Kinoshita, and H. Shiomi, “Light extraction process in moth-eye structure,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 3(6), 2165–2168 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. (1)

R. Morford, W. S. Shih, and J. Dachsteiner, “Press-patterned UV-curable high refractive index coatings - art. no. 612301,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Ins. 6123, 12301 (2006).

Small (1)

J. G. Kim, H. J. Choi, K. C. Park, R. E. Cohen, G. H. McKinley, and G. Barbastathis, “Multifunctional inverted nanocone arrays for non-wetting, self-cleaning transparent surface with high mechanical robustness,” Small 10(12), 2487–2494 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) A schematic of light extracting environment for a scintillator; (b) The concept of conical photonic crystals on a scintillator surface for enhancing light extraction efficiency.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A schematic of the light incident on (a) a flat surface and (b) a photonic crystal surface; (c) a schematic of the photonic crystal surface of the Bragg diffraction phase matching diagrams between a scintillator and air in k-space. The large waveguide mode circle has a radius kg = 2nscπ/λ, and the small air circle has a radius k0 = 2nairπ/λ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission distribution separated into different diffraction modes for (a) TE (E-field parallel to the plane of incidence) and (b) TM polarization calculated using RCWA. A 1D triangular grating is simulated at a wavelength of λ = 420 nm with a refractive index of 1.82 both for the scintillator and the light extracting material. White dotted lines representing the θe-P relationship following the analytic equation. Each line indicates the boundaries confining the area where each diffraction mode exists, following conservation of the in-plain k-vector.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission versus emission angle and pitch, calculated using RCWA. A 1D triangular grating is simulated at a wavelength of λ = 420 nm using (a) TE polarized light and (b) TM polarized light. The refractive index of the scintillator and the light extracting material was set to 1.82.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Effect of refractive indices on light transmission through conical photonic crystals (H = 0.8 μm) calculated using RCWA. All the emission and azimuthal angles (0° ≤ θe ≤ 90°, 0° ≤ θazimuthal ≤ 90°) and polarization components (TE and TM) are incorporated into the simulation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optimization results for the pitch and height of the conical photonic crystal as a light extracting layer on an LSO scintillator surface coupled with (a) air and (b) index matching liquid (noil = 1.5).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Light transmission for (a) conical photonic crystal structures with a pitch over wavelength (P/λ) from subwavelength scale (0.33) and a height over wavelength (H/λ) of 1.48 on an inorganic scintillator calculated using 3D FDTD. In the simulation, light illumination is assumed to be a transverse electric (TE) polarized irradiation. The refractive indices of the light extracting layer and the scintillator are assumed to be 1.82; (b) the comparison of light transmission among flat surface and nanotextured surfaces calculated using 3D FDTD and RCWA.

Equations (2)

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n air sin( θ out )= n coating sin( θ e )+m λ P , m=±1,2,3.
θ e =si n 1 [ ( m λ P ±1 ) 1 n coating ], m=±1,2,3.

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