Abstract

Coupling of light to and from integrated optical circuits has been recognized as a major practical challenge since the early years of photonics. The coupling is particularly difficult for high index contrast waveguides such as silicon-on-insulator, since the cross-sectional area of silicon wire waveguides is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than that of a standard single-mode fiber. Here, we experimentally demonstrate unprecedented control over the light coupling between the optical fiber and silicon chip by constructing the nanophotonic coupler with ultra-high coupling efficiency simultaneously for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. We specifically demonstrate a subwavelength refractive index engineered nanostructure to mitigate loss and wavelength resonances by suppressing diffraction effects, enabling a coupling efficiency over 92% (0.32 dB) and polarization independent operation for a broad spectral range exceeding 100 nm.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Editorial, “Simply silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 491 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Absil, P.

Almeida, V. R.

Alonso-Ramos, C.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

Bedard, D.

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Berroth, M.

Bock, P.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

Bojko, R.

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ctyroký, P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, and P. Cheben, “Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 87810B (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Cheng, Z.

Chrostowski, L.

Ctyroký, J.

J. Ctyroký, P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, and P. Cheben, “Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 87810B (2013).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Gyves, A. V.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

Editorial,

Editorial, “Simply silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 491 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fournier, M.

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fung, C. K.

Fung, K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, T. J.

Hugonin, J.-P.

Janz, S.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamei, T.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

Kunze, A.

Kwiecien, P.

J. Ctyroký, P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, and P. Cheben, “Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 87810B (2013).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Lalanne and J.-P. Hugonin, “High-order effective-medium theory of subwavelength gratings in classical mounting: application to volume holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(7), 1843–1851 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

Le Roux, X.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lederer, F.

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lepage, G.

Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, S. M. G.

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lyan, P.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manako, S.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marzban, B.

S. Romero-García, B. Marzban, F. Merget, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Edge couplers with relaxed alignment tolerance for pick-and-place hybrid integration of III-V lasers with SOI waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200611 (2014).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Merget, F.

S. Romero-García, B. Marzban, F. Merget, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Edge couplers with relaxed alignment tolerance for pick-and-place hybrid integration of III-V lasers with SOI waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200611 (2014).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernandez, I.

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

Molina-Fernández, I.

Mori, M.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morita, H.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Omoda, E.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orobtchouk, R.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Panepucci, R. R.

Patel, D.

Paul, T.

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peucheret, C.

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Porzier, C.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Richter, I.

J. Ctyroký, P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, and P. Cheben, “Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 87810B (2013).
[Crossref]

Rockstuhl, C.

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Roman, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Romero-García, S.

S. Romero-García, B. Marzban, F. Merget, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Edge couplers with relaxed alignment tolerance for pick-and-place hybrid integration of III-V lasers with SOI waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200611 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

Schmid, J.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schmid, J. H.

Schrauwen, J.

Selvaraja, S.

Shen, B.

S. Romero-García, B. Marzban, F. Merget, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Edge couplers with relaxed alignment tolerance for pick-and-place hybrid integration of III-V lasers with SOI waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200611 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Shoji, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smigaj, W.

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, M.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

Takei, R.

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

Veerasubramanian, V.

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vogel, W.

Wang, Y.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

S. Romero-García, B. Marzban, F. Merget, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Edge couplers with relaxed alignment tolerance for pick-and-place hybrid integration of III-V lasers with SOI waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200611 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

Yamada, K.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, M.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhong, Q.

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

R. Takei, E. Omoda, M. Suzuki, S. Manako, T. Kamei, M. Mori, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultranarrow silicon inverse taper waveguide fabricated with double-patterning photolithography for low-loss spot-size converter,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 052202 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Śmigaj, P. Lalanne, J. Yang, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Closed-form expression for the scattering coefficients at an interface between two periodic media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38(25), 1669–1670 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. Romero-García, B. Marzban, F. Merget, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Edge couplers with relaxed alignment tolerance for pick-and-place hybrid integration of III-V lasers with SOI waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 8200611 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, X. Le Roux, S. Laval, E. Cassan, and D. Marris-Morini, “Design, realization, and characterization of 3-D taper for fiber micro-waveguide coupling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1354–1358 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

B. Ben Bakir, A. V. de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-Loss (<1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Editorial, “Simply silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 491 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D. X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, “Refractive index engineering with subwavelength gratings for efficient microphotonic couplers and planar waveguide multiplexers,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2526–2528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered subwavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, H. Ou, and C. Peucheret, “Ultrahigh-efficiency apodized grating coupler using fully etched photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2732–2734 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Halir, L. Zavargo-Peche, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, R. Ma, J. H. Schmid, S. Janz, A. Densmore, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernandez, M. Fournier, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Single etch grating couplers for mass fabrication with DUV lithography,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 44(12-13), 521–526 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Ctyroký, P. Kwiecien, I. Richter, and P. Cheben, “Analysis of couplers between photonic nanowires and subwavelength grating waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8781, 87810B (2013).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Other (1)

T. Barwicz, A. Janta-Polczynski, M. Khater, Y. Thibodeau, R. Leidy, J. Maling, S. Martel, S. Engelmann, J. S. Orcutt, P. Fortier, and W. M. J. Green, “An O-band metamaterial converter interfacing standard optical fibers to silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC, 2015), paper Th3F.3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Subwavelength grating nanophotonic coupler. (a) Structure schematic. (b) SEM image of the nanocoupler. (c) Detail view of the coupler tip and (d) intermediate section positioned at 15 μm from the junction with silicon wire waveguide. The images were taken prior to the SiO2 cladding deposition.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mode size at the coupler tip. Calculated mode field diameter with respect to the subwavelength grating index at the coupler tip, including both horizontal (solid) and vertical (dash) field diameters at 1/e2 intensity points, for the tip widths of 250 nm (A) and 220 nm (B). Blue (red) lines correspond to quasi-TE (TM) polarizations. Inset shows the calculated intensity profiles at the fiber tip for the two orthogonal polarization states.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Bloch mode effective index. Calculations of the Bloch mode effective index for the SWG waveguide as a function of the segment length using MIT Photonic Bands software package. Blue (red) symbols correspond to quasi TE (TM) polarizations for a waveguide width of 250 nm and period of 400 nm. Green symbols correspond to waveguide width of 220 nm, yielding polarization independent effective index. Inset shows a calculated Bloch mode field.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental fibre-chip coupling loss. Loss measured for the nominal (N1) and biased (N2 and N3) subwavelength grating nanophotonic couplers, and three conventional inverse coupler designs (I1, I2 and I3). Square (circle) symbols correspond to TE (TM) polarizations. Inset: Measured fibre-chip coupling loss as a function of wavelength for SWG coupler designs N1, N2 and N3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental mode profile. Top: 3D rendering of a measured far field mode profile for the quasi-TE mode of the nominal coupler design. Bottom: Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of the far field mode profile of the coupler for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes.

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