Abstract

In this paper, we introduce a graphene-based saturable absorber (GSA) with high damage threshold employing symmetrical evanescent wave interaction for highly stable mode-locking of ultrafast fiber lasers. To enhance the evanescent wave interaction between the graphene layer and the propagating light, graphene flakes are mixed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and the graphene/PDMS composite is coated onto a chemically etched fiber. The GSA exhibits polarization insensitivity due to its symmetric cross-section, which enables stable operation against environmental disturbance such as stress, bending, and temperature variation. Finally, we demonstrate a fiber laser generating 216 fs pulses with an 80 dB signal-to-noise ratio.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Martinez and Z. P. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Nozaki, N. Nishizawa, E. Omoda, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Power scaling of dispersion-managed Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser with single wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5079–5081 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. S. Kwon, H. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. Choi, K.-S. Kim, and S. Kim, “Ultrashort stretched-pulse L-band laser using carbon-nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7779–7785 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y. H. Cha, D. Y. Jeong, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22667–22672 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. X. Han, “Evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes for a multi-wavelength ultrafast all-fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Nishizawa, “Ultrashort pulse fiber lasers and their applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 090101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Purdie, D. Popa, V. Wittwer, Z. Jiang, G. Bonacchini, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, E. Lidorikis, and A. Ferrari, “Few-cycle pulses from a graphene mode-locked all-fiber laser,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1504.01682 (2015).
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  13. H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. Xin, Z.-B. Liu, Q.-W. Sheng, M. Feng, L.-G. Huang, P. Wang, W.-S. Jiang, F. Xing, Y.-G. Liu, and J.-G. Tian, “Flexible graphene saturable absorber on two-layer structure for tunable mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10239–10247 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14859–14866 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. J. Zhang, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. Poon, “Hydrofluoric acid flow etching of low-loss subwavelength-diameter biconical fiber tapers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22593–22598 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

X. Han, “Evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes for a multi-wavelength ultrafast all-fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055104 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. S. Kwon, H. Lee, J. H. Kim, J. Choi, K.-S. Kim, and S. Kim, “Ultrashort stretched-pulse L-band laser using carbon-nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7779–7785 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y. H. Cha, D. Y. Jeong, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22667–22672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, “Ultrashort pulse fiber lasers and their applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 090101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Xin, Z.-B. Liu, Q.-W. Sheng, M. Feng, L.-G. Huang, P. Wang, W.-S. Jiang, F. Xing, Y.-G. Liu, and J.-G. Tian, “Flexible graphene saturable absorber on two-layer structure for tunable mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10239–10247 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Q. Sheng, M. Feng, W. Xin, T. Han, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, and J. Tian, “Actively manipulation of operation states in passively pulsed fiber lasers by using graphene saturable absorber on microfiber,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14859–14866 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez and Z. P. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Nozaki, N. Nishizawa, E. Omoda, H. Kataura, and Y. Sakakibara, “Power scaling of dispersion-managed Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser with single wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5079–5081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Zhang, W. D. Sacher, and J. K. Poon, “Hydrofluoric acid flow etching of low-loss subwavelength-diameter biconical fiber tapers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22593–22598 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.-J.

Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cha, Y. H.

Cho, W. B.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

Choi, S. Y.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y. H. Cha, D. Y. Jeong, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22667–22672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Debnath, P.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, X. Z.

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, M.

Ferrari, A.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fuse, K.

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Han, T.

Han, W.-S.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

X. Han, “Evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes for a multi-wavelength ultrafast all-fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.-G.

Jang, S.-Y.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jeong, D. Y.

Jeong, H.

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y. H. Cha, D. Y. Jeong, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22667–22672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.-S.

Jung, B. H.

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, M.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kataura, H.

Kim, J. H.

Kim, J. W.

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-S.

Kim, S.

Koo, J.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwon, W. S.

Lee, H.

Lee, J. H.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y.-G.

Liu, Z.

Liu, Z.-B.

Loh, K.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, A.-P.

Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.-C.

Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martinez, A.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nishizawa, N.

Nozaki, Y.

Okhotnikov, O.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Omoda, E.

Pessa, M.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Polavarapu, L.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K.

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y. H. Cha, D. Y. Jeong, and D. I. Yeom, “All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22667–22672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sacher, W. D.

Sakakibara, Y.

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Q.

Sheng, Q.-W.

Song, Y. R.

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-W.

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z. P.

A. Martinez and Z. P. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Tian, J. R.

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.-G.

Tjin, S.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. G.

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xin, W.

Xing, F.

Xu, B.

Xu, Q.-H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.-C.

Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, S.

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D. I.

Yeom, D.-I.

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z. H.

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E. J.

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38‐39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (3)

J. W. Kim, S. Y. Choi, B. H. Jung, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Applicability of graphene flakes as saturable absorber for nulk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(3), 032704 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A mode-locked 1.91 µm fiber laser based on interaction between graphene oxide and evanescent field,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(11), 112702 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z.-C. Luo, W.-J. Cao, A.-P. Luo, and W.-C. Xu, “Optical deposition of graphene saturable absorber integrated in a fiber laser using a slot collimator for passive mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(5), 055103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, W. B. Cho, F. Wang, F. Torrisi, and A. C. Ferrari, “74-fs nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 153107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Nishizawa, “Ultrashort pulse fiber lasers and their applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 090101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (2)

Z. H. Yu, Y. G. Wang, X. Zhang, X. Z. Dong, J. R. Tian, and Y. R. Song, “A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015105 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Han, “Evanescent-field interaction with carbon nanotubes for a multi-wavelength ultrafast all-fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 25(5), 055104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Zhang, D. Tang, L. Zhao, Q. Bao, K. Loh, B. Lin, and S. Tjin, “Compact graphene mode‐locked wavelength‐tunable erbium‐doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Res. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Z. Ni, Y. Wang, L. Polavarapu, Z. Shen, Q.-H. Xu, D. Tang, and K. Loh, “Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser,” Nano Res. 4(3), 297–307 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Martinez and Z. P. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

D. Purdie, D. Popa, V. Wittwer, Z. Jiang, G. Bonacchini, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, E. Lidorikis, and A. Ferrari, “Few-cycle pulses from a graphene mode-locked all-fiber laser,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1504.01682 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Calculation result of the power fraction outside the etched fiber as a function of the refractive index of the coating material and the waist diameter of the etched region (inset: guide light mode profile at the etched region).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup for the hydrofluoric acid (HF) flow etching of a standard single mode fiber (b) Schematic of the graphene-based saturable absorber using an etched fiber coated with graphene/polymer composite (inset: microscope image of the transition region of the etched fiber).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental setup for power-dependent absorption measurements. (VA: variable attenuator, OC: optical coupler). (b) Nonlinear absorption properties of the fabricated GSA as a function of polarization state.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Demonstrated fiber laser setup using the graphene-based saturable absorber (LD: laser diode, WDM: wavelength division multiplexer, EDF: erbium-doped fiber, ISO: isolator, OC: optical coupler, PC: polarization controller).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Pulse output properties of the laser: (a) optical spectrum (b) autocorrelation trace, (c) RF signal spectrum at the fundamental repetition rate with 10 Hz resolution, (d) pulse train.

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