Abstract

We investigated the upconversion luminescence of three aluminoborate glasses doped with Tb3+, Eu3+, and Dy3+ under the excitation of 2.6-μm femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. Efficient upconversion luminescence appearing in the visible light spectral region was observed in all three glasses and the emission spectra are quite similar to those obtained under single photon excitation. From the dependence of the luminescence intensity on the excitation intensity in the low excitation intensity regime, it was revealed that a four-photon process is involved in the generation of the upconversion luminescence in the Tb3+- and Eu3+-doped glasses while a mixed two- and three-photon process is involved in the Dy3+-doped glass. In the high excitation intensity regime, a reduction of the slope to about 1.0 was observed for all glasses. A physical mechanism based on the super saturation of the intermediate states of the rare-earth ions was employed to interpret the upconversion luminescence under the excitation of long-wavelength fs laser pulses. Significantly broadened luminescence spectra were observed in thick glasses under high excitation intensities and it can be attributed to the self-focusing of the laser beam in the thick glasses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

J. Liu, R. Wu, N. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Zhan, and S. He, “Deep, high contrast microscopic cell imaging using three-photon luminescence of β-(NaYF4:Er3+/NaYF4) nanoprobe excited by 1480-nm CW laser of only 1.5-mW,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(5), 1857–1866 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, G. Chen, Y. Zhu, L. Huo, W. Mao, D. Zou, X. Sun, E. Wu, H. Zeng, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Intense multiphoton upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 individual nanocrystals by saturation excitation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(2), 364–369 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87(4), 043820 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(9), 097601 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ł. Sójka, Z. Tang, H. Zhu, E. Bereś-Pawlik, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, and S. Sujecki, “Study of mid-infrared laser action in chalcogenide rare earth doped glass with Dy3+, Pr3+ and Tb3+,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1632–1640 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Huang and M. Gu, “Enhanced luminescent properties of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass ceramics containing BaGdF5 nanocrystalsm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 77–80 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. A. Sotiriou, D. Franco, D. Poulikakos, and A. Ferrari, “Optically stable biocompatible flame-made SiO2-coated Y2O3:Tb3+ nanophosphors for cell imaging,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3888–3897 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Xu, X. Zhang, S. Dai, B. Fan, H. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. Chen, “Efficient near-infrared down-conversion in Pr3+-Yb3+ codoped glasses and glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13056–13062 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Serrano, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Benayad, V. Mnard, and R. Moncorg, “Ytterbium sensitization in KY3F10: Pr3+, Yb3+ for silicon solar cells efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Mater. 33(7), 1028–1031 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (5)

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4:Er,Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Joshi, K. Kumar, and S. B. Rai, “Upconversion and anomalous power dependence in Ca12Al14O33:Er3+ /Yb3+ single phase nanophosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123103 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, H. Liang, H. Liu, G. Somesfalean, and Z. Zhang, “Near vacuum ultraviolet luminescence of Gd3+ and Er3+ ions generated by super saturation upconversion processes,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16366–16371 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

S. Zhang, B. Zhu, S. Zhou, S. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Multi-photon absorption upconversion luminescence of a Tb3+-doped glass excited by an infrared femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6883–6888 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Y. Zhang, G. F. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Cooperative downconversion in GdAl3(BO3) 4:RE3+,Yb3+ (RE=Pr, Tb, and Tm),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, J. Qiu, J. Song, J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. Sun, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Upconversion luminescence and optical power limiting effect based on two- and three-photon absorption processes of ZnO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 197–201 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

L. Yang, H. Song, L. Yu, Z. Liu, and S. Lu, “Unusual power-dependent and time-dependent upconversion luminescence in nanocrystals Y2O3: Ho3+/Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 116(1-2), 101–106 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Nikl, “Scintillation detectors for x-rays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), R37–R54 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, “High efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102–2105 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300(5624), 1434–1436 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Berland and G. Shen, “Excitation saturation in two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5566–5576 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

Y. D. Glinka, S. H. Lin, and Y. T. Chen, “Two-photon-excited luminescence and defect formation in SiO2 nanoparticles induced by 6.4-eV ArF laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4733–4743 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, K. D. Oskam, and A. Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4:Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science 283(5402), 663–666 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

G. Zanella, R. Zannoni, R. DallIgna, B. Locardi, P. Polato, M. Bettinelli, and A. Marigo, “A new cerium cintillating glass for X-ray detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 345(1), 198–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

K. Dunphy and W. W. Dule, “Multiphoton excitation of the 520 nm luminescence band in MgO:Al,” Phys. Status Solidi 148(2), 729–735 (1988).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

D. L. Huber, M. M. Broer, and B. Golding, “Low-temperature optical dephasing of rare-earth ions in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52(25), 2281–2284 (1984).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aarts, L.

J. M. Meijer, L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, T. J. H. Vlugt, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in YF3:Nd3+, Yb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 81(3), 035107 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4:Er,Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

Y. Xu, X. Zhang, S. Dai, B. Fan, H. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. Chen, “Efficient near-infrared down-conversion in Pr3+-Yb3+ codoped glasses and glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13056–13062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. U. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ågren, H.

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, D. R.

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudelet, M.

M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87(4), 043820 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baudisch, M.

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M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
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G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
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Lan, S.

Larson, D. R.

D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300(5624), 1434–1436 (2003).
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X. Wang, J. Qiu, J. Song, J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. Sun, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Upconversion luminescence and optical power limiting effect based on two- and three-photon absorption processes of ZnO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 197–201 (2007).
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M. Durand, K. Lim, V. Jukna, E. McKee, M. Baudelet, A. Houard, M. Richardson, A. Mysyrowicz, and A. Couairon, “Blueshifted continuum peaks from filamentation in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87(4), 043820 (2013).
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Lin, S. H.

Y. D. Glinka, S. H. Lin, and Y. T. Chen, “Two-photon-excited luminescence and defect formation in SiO2 nanoparticles induced by 6.4-eV ArF laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 62(7), 4733–4743 (2000).
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Liu, H.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

M. Durand, A. Jarnac, A. Houard, Y. Liu, S. Grabielle, N. Forget, A. Durécu, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of transparent solids: a new regime of filamentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(11), 115003 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, Z. He, L. Yu, S. Mitryukovskiy, A. Houard, B. Forestier, A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Ciliary white light: optical aspect of ultrashort laser ablation on transparent dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(9), 097601 (2013).
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M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
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Ma, H.

Y. Xu, X. Zhang, S. Dai, B. Fan, H. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. Chen, “Efficient near-infrared down-conversion in Pr3+-Yb3+ codoped glasses and glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13056–13062 (2011).
[Crossref]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
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Mao, W.

J. Zhou, G. Chen, Y. Zhu, L. Huo, W. Mao, D. Zou, X. Sun, E. Wu, H. Zeng, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Intense multiphoton upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 individual nanocrystals by saturation excitation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(2), 364–369 (2015).
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Zhang, X.

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J. Zhou, G. Chen, Y. Zhu, L. Huo, W. Mao, D. Zou, X. Sun, E. Wu, H. Zeng, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Intense multiphoton upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 individual nanocrystals by saturation excitation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(2), 364–369 (2015).
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Zhu, H.

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J. Zhou, G. Chen, Y. Zhu, L. Huo, W. Mao, D. Zou, X. Sun, E. Wu, H. Zeng, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Intense multiphoton upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 individual nanocrystals by saturation excitation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(2), 364–369 (2015).
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D. R. Larson, W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, S. W. Clark, M. P. Bruchez, F. W. Wise, and W. W. Webb, “Water-soluble quantum dots for multiphoton fluorescence imaging in vivo,” Science 300(5624), 1434–1436 (2003).
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Zou, D.

J. Zhou, G. Chen, Y. Zhu, L. Huo, W. Mao, D. Zou, X. Sun, E. Wu, H. Zeng, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Intense multiphoton upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 individual nanocrystals by saturation excitation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(2), 364–369 (2015).
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ACS Nano (2)

G. A. Sotiriou, D. Franco, D. Poulikakos, and A. Ferrari, “Optically stable biocompatible flame-made SiO2-coated Y2O3:Tb3+ nanophosphors for cell imaging,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3888–3897 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Chen, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, A. Kachynski, H. Ågren, and P. N. Prasad, “Intense visible and near-infrared upconversion photoluminescence in colloidal LiYF₄:Er³+ nanocrystals under excitation at 1490 nm,” ACS Nano 5(6), 4981–4986 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Heer, K. Kömpe, H. U. Güdel, and M. Haase, “High efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16, 2102–2105 (2004).
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B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Y. Zhang, G. F. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Cooperative downconversion in GdAl3(BO3) 4:RE3+,Yb3+ (RE=Pr, Tb, and Tm),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Chem. Rev. (1)

G. Chen, H. Qiu, P. N. Prasad, and X. Chen, “Upconversion nanoparticles: design, nanochemistry, and applications in theranostics,” Chem. Rev. 114(10), 5161–5214 (2014).
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C. Joshi, K. Kumar, and S. B. Rai, “Upconversion and anomalous power dependence in Ca12Al14O33:Er3+ /Yb3+ single phase nanophosphor,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(12), 123103 (2009).
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L. Aarts, B. M. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4:Er,Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
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J. Lumin. (1)

L. Yang, H. Song, L. Yu, Z. Liu, and S. Lu, “Unusual power-dependent and time-dependent upconversion luminescence in nanocrystals Y2O3: Ho3+/Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 116(1-2), 101–106 (2006).
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J. Zhou, G. Chen, Y. Zhu, L. Huo, W. Mao, D. Zou, X. Sun, E. Wu, H. Zeng, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Intense multiphoton upconversion of Yb3+-Tm3+ doped β-NaYF4 individual nanocrystals by saturation excitation,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(2), 364–369 (2015).
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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. Huang and M. Gu, “Enhanced luminescent properties of Tb3+ ions in transparent glass ceramics containing BaGdF5 nanocrystalsm,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 77–80 (2012).
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Y. Xu, X. Zhang, S. Dai, B. Fan, H. Ma, J. L. Adam, J. Ren, and G. Chen, “Efficient near-infrared down-conversion in Pr3+-Yb3+ codoped glasses and glass ceramics containing LaF3 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(26), 13056–13062 (2011).
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M. Nikl, “Scintillation detectors for x-rays,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(4), R37–R54 (2006).
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Nano Lett. (1)

M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, and P. N. Prasad, “High contrast in vitro and in vivo photoluminescence bioimaging using near infrared to near infrared up-conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ doped fluoride nanophosphors,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3834–3838 (2008).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Silva, D. R. Austin, A. Thai, M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, D. Faccio, A. Couairon, and J. Biegert, “Multi-octave supercontinuum generation from mid-infrared filamentation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 807 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Timmerman, I. Izeddin, P. Stallinga, I. N. Yassievich, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Space-separated quantum cutting with silicon nanocrystals for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 105–109 (2008).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Wang, J. Qiu, J. Song, J. Xu, Y. Liao, H. Sun, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Upconversion luminescence and optical power limiting effect based on two- and three-photon absorption processes of ZnO crystal,” Opt. Commun. 280(1), 197–201 (2007).
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Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Serrano, A. Braud, J. L. Doualan, P. Camy, A. Benayad, V. Mnard, and R. Moncorg, “Ytterbium sensitization in KY3F10: Pr3+, Yb3+ for silicon solar cells efficiency enhancement,” Opt. Mater. 33(7), 1028–1031 (2011).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
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RSC Advances (1)

V. Kumar, P. Rani, D. Singh, and S. Chawla, “Efficient multiphoton upconversion and synthesis route dependent emission tunability in GdPO4:Ho3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” RSC Advances 4, 36101–36105 (2014).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Excitation (black curves) and emission (red curves) spectra for the aluminoborate glasses doped with Tb3+ (a), Eu3+ (b), and Dy3+ (c) under single-photon excitation. λex and λem are the excitation wavelengths for the emission spectra and the monitoring wavelengths for the excitation spectra. The CIE chromaticity coordinates calculated for the luminescence of the glasses are shown in (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectra of the aluminoborate glasses doped with Tb3+, Eu3+, and Dy3+ in the near infrared spectral region. The final states involved in the electronic transitions are indicated by arrows.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Upconversion luminescence spectra (black curves) of the aluminoborate glasses doped with Tb3+ (a), Eu3+ (b), and Dy3+ (c) under the excitation of 2.6-μm fs laser pulses. The corresponding downconversion luminescence spectra (red curves) for the three glasses are also provided for comparison. The new emission peaks observed in the Tb3+- and Eu3+-doped glasses are indicated by arrows. The dependence of the luminescence intensity on the excitation intensity for the three glasses are presented in (d), (e), and (f), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Photos of the upconversion luminescence from the aluminoborate glasses doped with Tb3+ (a), Eu3+ (b), and Dy3+ (c) under the excitation of 2.6-μm fs laser pulses with excitation power densities of 23.6, 35.4 and 53.1 GW/cm2, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Energy level diagrams for Tb3+ (a), Eu3+ (b), and Dy3+ (c) ions in which the population of the high-energy levels induced by consecutive single-photon and multiphoton absorption and the generation of the upconversion luminescence are illustrated. CR denotes the cross relaxation process.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized emission spectra of the thick aluminoborate glasses doped with Tb3+ (a), Eu3+ (b), and Dy3+ (c) under the excitation of 2.6-μm fs laser pulses with low (black curves) and high (red curves) excitation intensities. The photos of the upconversion luminescence from the aluminoborate glasses are shown in the insets.

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