Abstract

A compact high-directionality backlight module combined with a striped diffuser is proposed to achieve an adjustable viewing angle for eco-display. The micro-prisms on the compact light guide plate guide the emitting rays to the normal viewing angle, whereas a set of striped diffusers scatter the rays to a wide viewing angle. View cones of ± 10° / ± 55° were obtained for narrow/wide viewing modes with 88% / 85% uniformity of spatial luminance, respectively. Compared with the conventional backlight, the optical efficiencies were increased by factors of 1.47 and 1.38 in narrow and wide viewing modes, respectively. In addition, only 5% of power consumption was needed when the backlight worked in private narrow viewing mode to maintain the same luminance as that of a conventional backlight.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser, ” SID Symp. Digest36(1),1218–1221 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing adjustable LCDs, ” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 1425–1427 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. T. Chen, J. W. Pan, Y. W. Hu, and S. H. Tu, “Design of a novel hybrid light guide plate for viewing angle switchable backlight module, ” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1181–1184 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Ishikawa and X. D. Mi, “New design for a highly collimating turning film,” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 514–517 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2015 (1)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

T. Iwai and T. Asakura, “Speckle reduction in coherent information processing,” Proc. IEEE 84(5), 765–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M.

M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asakura, T.

T. Iwai and T. Asakura, “Speckle reduction in coherent information processing,” Proc. IEEE 84(5), 765–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bergman, T.

T. Dekker, T. Bergman, and G. Vissenberg, “From backlight to luminaire,” in SID Symp. Digest43(1), 248–251 (2012).

Chao, W. C.

Chen, B. T.

B. T. Chen, J. W. Pan, Y. W. Hu, and S. H. Tu, “Design of a novel hybrid light guide plate for viewing angle switchable backlight module, ” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1181–1184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, H. M.

K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing adjustable LCDs, ” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 1425–1427 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chien, K. W.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing adjustable LCDs, ” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 1425–1427 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chin, M. H.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dekker, T.

T. Dekker, T. Bergman, and G. Vissenberg, “From backlight to luminaire,” in SID Symp. Digest43(1), 248–251 (2012).

Halldórsson, T.

Hisatake, Y.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser, ” SID Symp. Digest36(1),1218–1221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsu, Y. J.

K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing adjustable LCDs, ” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 1425–1427 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. W.

B. T. Chen, J. W. Pan, Y. W. Hu, and S. H. Tu, “Design of a novel hybrid light guide plate for viewing angle switchable backlight module, ” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1181–1184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. P.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

T. Ishikawa and X. D. Mi, “New design for a highly collimating turning film,” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 514–517 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ishiko, H.

K. Käläntär, M. Okada, and H. Ishiko, “Monolithic block-wised light guide with controlled optical crosstalk for field-sequential color/scanning LCD, ” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 1038–1041 (2009).

Iwai, T.

T. Iwai and T. Asakura, “Speckle reduction in coherent information processing,” Proc. IEEE 84(5), 765–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jeong, E.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ji, S.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Käläntär, K.

K. Käläntär and M. Okada, “A monolithic block-wise functional light-guide for 2-D dimming backlight, ” SID Symp. Digest41(1), 997–1000 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Käläntär, M. Okada, and H. Ishiko, “Monolithic block-wised light guide with controlled optical crosstalk for field-sequential color/scanning LCD, ” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 1038–1041 (2009).

Kang, S. W.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser, ” SID Symp. Digest36(1),1218–1221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, G. D.

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lu, J. G.

Lu, J.-G.

Y.-J. Wang, J.-G. Lu, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A novel highly collimating backlight module using a double wedge-shaped light guide plate,” SID Symp. Digest43(1), 1035–1038 (2012).

Mi, X. D.

T. Ishikawa and X. D. Mi, “New design for a highly collimating turning film,” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 514–517 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murayama, A.

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser, ” SID Symp. Digest36(1),1218–1221 (2005).
[Crossref]

Okada, M.

K. Käläntär, M. Okada, and H. Ishiko, “Monolithic block-wised light guide with controlled optical crosstalk for field-sequential color/scanning LCD, ” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 1038–1041 (2009).

K. Käläntär and M. Okada, “A monolithic block-wise functional light-guide for 2-D dimming backlight, ” SID Symp. Digest41(1), 997–1000 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, S. H.

Pan, J. W.

B. T. Chen, J. W. Pan, Y. W. Hu, and S. H. Tu, “Design of a novel hybrid light guide plate for viewing angle switchable backlight module, ” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1181–1184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pétursson, P. R.

Shieh, H. P. D.

Y. J. Wang, S. H. Ouyang, W. C. Chao, J. G. Lu, and H. P. D. Shieh, “High directional backlight using an integrated light guide plate,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1567–1575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H.-P. D.

Y.-J. Wang, J.-G. Lu, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A novel highly collimating backlight module using a double wedge-shaped light guide plate,” SID Symp. Digest43(1), 1035–1038 (2012).

Tschudi, T.

Tu, S. H.

B. T. Chen, J. W. Pan, Y. W. Hu, and S. H. Tu, “Design of a novel hybrid light guide plate for viewing angle switchable backlight module, ” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1181–1184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vissenberg, G.

T. Dekker, T. Bergman, and G. Vissenberg, “From backlight to luminaire,” in SID Symp. Digest43(1), 248–251 (2012).

Wang, L.

Wang, Y. J.

Wang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Wang, J.-G. Lu, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A novel highly collimating backlight module using a double wedge-shaped light guide plate,” SID Symp. Digest43(1), 1035–1038 (2012).

Wu, S. T.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yao, P. H.

Yoon, S.

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 62–76 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. J. Lim, E. Jeong, M. H. Chin, S. Ji, G. D. Lee, and S. H. Lee, “Viewing angle switching of patterned vertical alignment liquid crystal display,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(8), 085110 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Kim, Y. J. Lim, S. Yoon, S. W. Kang, S. H. Lee, M. Kim, and S. T. Wu, “A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(14), 145502 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Adachi, “Controllable-viewing-angle display using a hybrid aligned nematic liquid-crystal cell,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7920–7925 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Iwai and T. Asakura, “Speckle reduction in coherent information processing,” Proc. IEEE 84(5), 765–781 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

Y.-J. Wang, J.-G. Lu, and H.-P. D. Shieh, “A novel highly collimating backlight module using a double wedge-shaped light guide plate,” SID Symp. Digest43(1), 1035–1038 (2012).

Y. Hisatake, Y. Kawata, and A. Murayama, “Viewing angle controllable LCD using variable optical compensator and variable diffuser, ” SID Symp. Digest36(1),1218–1221 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. W. Chien, Y. J. Hsu, and H. M. Chen, “Dual light source for backlight systems for smart viewing adjustable LCDs, ” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 1425–1427 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. T. Chen, J. W. Pan, Y. W. Hu, and S. H. Tu, “Design of a novel hybrid light guide plate for viewing angle switchable backlight module, ” SID Symp. Digest44(1), 1181–1184 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ishikawa and X. D. Mi, “New design for a highly collimating turning film,” SID Symp. Digest37(1), 514–517 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Käläntär, M. Okada, and H. Ishiko, “Monolithic block-wised light guide with controlled optical crosstalk for field-sequential color/scanning LCD, ” SID Symp. Digest40(1), 1038–1041 (2009).

K. Käläntär and M. Okada, “A monolithic block-wise functional light-guide for 2-D dimming backlight, ” SID Symp. Digest41(1), 997–1000 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Lux and L. Koblinger, Monte Carlo Particle Transport Methods: Neutron and Photon Calculations (Chemical Rubber Company, 1991).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1969).

T. Dekker, T. Bergman, and G. Vissenberg, “From backlight to luminaire,” in SID Symp. Digest43(1), 248–251 (2012).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Isometric view of the backlight configuration. CLS: collimated light source, LGP: light guide plate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Light propagation in light guide plate (LGP) along different planes: (a) x-z plane with top view, and (b) y-z plane with side view.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The switchable viewing angle display works in different modes: (a) narrow viewing angle (NVA) mode, and (b) wide viewing angle (WVA) mode.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The light intensity distributions of the backlight operating in different modes, and compared with the conventional backlight.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The effect of (a) divergence angle of light source and (b) radius of vertex angle of micro-prism on backlight light distribution.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic diagram of striped diffuser shift and (b) light distribution of the backlight in two modes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Prototype of the switchable viewing angle backlight. Micro-prism of group A in pane (a), micro-prism of group B in pane (b), micro-prism of group C in pane (c), and the general view in pane (d).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Angular distribution of backlight in dual directions without diffuser, (b) fabrication irregularities on micro-prisms, (c) locations of the receivers according to different groups of micro-prism, and (d) light distribution broadened by the different groups of micro-prism.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Top view of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of striped inverted cone and (b) cross-sectional view.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Striped diffuser with different haze.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Angular distribution of normalized light intensities with different types of diffusers.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The spatial luminance distributions of the backlight in (a) WVA and (b) NVA mode.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the backlight module.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical characteristics for three types of diffusers.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 1 = tan 1 ( H c l s / W ) γ = tan 1 ( W / L ) δ = tan 1 ( L/W ) θ 1 = θ 2 = ( 180 γ ) / 2 θ 3 = θ 4 = ( 90 δ ) / 2 β 1 = 90 α 1 θ 1 β 2 = 90 δ θ 3
φ = tan 1 ( L / H ) ψ = tan 1 ( H / L ) ω 1 = ω 2 = ( 90 φ ) / 2 ω 3 = ω 4 = ( 90 ψ ) / 2 α 2 = 90 φ ω 2 β 3 = β 4 = 90 ψ ω 3

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