Abstract

In adaptive optics system (AOS) for optical telescopes, the reported wavefront sensing strategy consists of two parts: a specific sensor for tip-tilt (TT) detection and another wavefront sensor for other distortions detection. Thus, a part of incident light has to be used for TT detection, which decreases the light energy used by wavefront sensor and eventually reduces the precision of wavefront correction. In this paper, a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based wavefront measurement method is presented for both large amplitude TT and other distortions’ measurement. Experiments were performed for testing the presented wavefront method and validating the wavefront detection and correction ability of the single-sensor based AOS. With adaptive correction, the root-mean-square of residual TT was less than 0.2 λ, and a clear image was obtained in the lab. Equipped on a 1.23-meter optical telescope, the binary stars with angle distance of 0.6″ were clearly resolved using the AOS. This wavefront measurement method removes the separate TT sensor, which not only simplifies the AOS but also saves light energy for subsequent wavefront sensing and imaging, and eventually improves the detection and imaging capability of the AOS.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (2)

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721R (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sánchez, and V. Orlov, “Effect of scintillation on adaptive optics systems,” Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. 38, 193–198 (2002).

2000 (1)

F. Mahe, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, “Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime,” Proc. SPIE 4125, 77–86 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, “Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 534–544 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (2)

M. S. Belen’kii, “Fundamental limitation in adaptive optics: how to eliminate it? A full-aperture tilt measurement technique with a laser guide star,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 321–323 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. A. Tyler, “Bandwidth considerations for tracking through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(1), 773340 (1994).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. L. Laughlin, D. Rivera, and M. Morari, “Smith predictor design for robust performance,” Int. J. Control 46(2), 477–504 (1987).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

Avicola, K.

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bauvir, B.

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beeman, B. V.

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, “Fundamental limitation in adaptive optics: how to eliminate it? A full-aperture tilt measurement technique with a laser guide star,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 321–323 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bonnet, H.

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

Conan, J.-M.

F. Mahe, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, “Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime,” Proc. SPIE 4125, 77–86 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dimmler, M.

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fusco, T.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Herriot, G.

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721R (2006).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

Hu, L.

Jiang, B.

Jiang, W.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, “Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 534–544 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kuklo, T. C.

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

Laughlin, D. L.

D. L. Laughlin, D. Rivera, and M. Morari, “Smith predictor design for robust performance,” Int. J. Control 46(2), 477–504 (1987).
[Crossref]

Le Mignant, D.

Li, C.

Li, D.

Li, M.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ling, N.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Liu, Y.

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macintosh, B. A.

Mahe, F.

F. Mahe, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, “Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime,” Proc. SPIE 4125, 77–86 (2000).
[Crossref]

Meng, H.

Michau, V.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Mahe, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, “Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime,” Proc. SPIE 4125, 77–86 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morari, M.

D. L. Laughlin, D. Rivera, and M. Morari, “Smith predictor design for robust performance,” Int. J. Control 46(2), 477–504 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mu, Q.

Müller, M.

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Neyman, C. R.

Nicolle, M.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Noll, R. J.

Orlov, V.

V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sánchez, and V. Orlov, “Effect of scintillation on adaptive optics systems,” Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. 38, 193–198 (2002).

Peng, Z.

Rao, C.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rivera, D.

D. L. Laughlin, D. Rivera, and M. Morari, “Smith predictor design for robust performance,” Int. J. Control 46(2), 477–504 (1987).
[Crossref]

Rousset, G.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Mahe, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, “Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime,” Proc. SPIE 4125, 77–86 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sánchez, L.

V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sánchez, and V. Orlov, “Effect of scintillation on adaptive optics systems,” Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. 38, 193–198 (2002).

Sedghi, B.

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, F.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, “Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 534–544 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tang, G.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. R.

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tokovinin, A.

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tyler, G. A.

G. A. Tyler, “Bandwidth considerations for tracking through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(1), 773340 (1994).
[Crossref]

van Dam, M. A.

Véran, J.-P.

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721R (2006).
[Crossref]

Voitsekhovich, V.

V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sánchez, and V. Orlov, “Effect of scintillation on adaptive optics systems,” Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. 38, 193–198 (2002).

Wang, C.

Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Watson, J. A.

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xia, M.

Xian, H.

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, “Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 534–544 (1997).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Xuan, L.

Yang, C.

Yang, Q.

Yao, L.

Z. Cao, Q. Mu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, H. Meng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Optimal energy-splitting method for an open-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19331–19342 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhu, Y.

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Int. J. Control (1)

D. L. Laughlin, D. Rivera, and M. Morari, “Smith predictor design for robust performance,” Int. J. Control 46(2), 477–504 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

G. A. Tyler, “Bandwidth considerations for tracking through turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(1), 773340 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

S. Thomas, T. Fusco, A. Tokovinin, M. Nicolle, V. Michau, and G. Rousset, “Comparison of centroid computation algorithms in a Shack–Hartmann sensor,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371(1), 323–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. Mu, Z. Cao, L. Hu, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, L. Yao, and L. Xuan, “Open loop adaptive optics testbed on 2.16 meter telescope with liquid crystal corrector,” Opt. Commun. 285(6), 896–899 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (7)

F. Mahe, V. Michau, G. Rousset, and J.-M. Conan, “Scintillation effects on wavefront sensing in the Rytov regime,” Proc. SPIE 4125, 77–86 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, H. Xian, and F. Shen, “Detection error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 534–544 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Sedghi, M. Müller, H. Bonnet, M. Dimmler, and B. Bauvir, “Field stabilization (tip/tilt control) of E-ELT,” Proc. SPIE 7733, 401–412 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Jiang, N. Ling, G. Tang, M. Li, F. Shen, C. Rao, Y. Zhu, and B. Xu, “61-element adaptive optical system for 1.2-m telescope of Yunnan Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 696–703 (1998).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Véran and G. Herriot, “Woofer-tweeter tip-tilt control for NFIRAOS on TMT,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62721R (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Avicola, J. A. Watson, B. V. Beeman, T. C. Kuklo, and J. R. Taylor, “Design and performance of the tip-tilt subsystem for the Keck II telescope adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 628–637 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. S. Belen’kii, “Fundamental limitation in adaptive optics: how to eliminate it? A full-aperture tilt measurement technique with a laser guide star,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 321–323 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. (1)

V. Voitsekhovich, L. Sánchez, and V. Orlov, “Effect of scintillation on adaptive optics systems,” Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. 38, 193–198 (2002).

Other (3)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford U. Press, 1998).

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge U. Press, 1999).

R. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (CRC Press, 2010).

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (814 KB)      Lights spots moving process during correction
» Visualization 2: MOV (2508 KB)      Fiber bundle images of 100 frames recorded on the imaging CCD during correction

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of LCAOS with both TTS and SHWFS. (b) LCAOS based on a single SHWFS.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The object light spots image on the CCD pixel array of SHWFS when the light spots are out of the dynamic range of SHWFS because of the large amplitude TT. (b) Light spots image when TT is within the normal dynamic range of SHWFS.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(d) show the light spots images recorded on the CCD pixels corresponding to different incoming large TT. (e) Theoretical TT and computed CoG variation with the decreasing of incoming large TT. The red circle line shows the estimation errors. A pixel corresponds to the wavefront distortion of 20 λ.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Double threshold principle for state transition.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Control block diagram for the single-sensor based open-loop LC-AOS.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photo of the experimental layout for the single-sensor based LC-AOS in lab. M1~M4: mirrors, ATS: atmospheric turbulence simulator, L1~L11: lens.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Static correction results. (a) Lights spots moving process during correction (see Visualization 1). Top: before correction; bottom: after correction. (b) TT variation as a function of time during correction process. A pixel corresponds to 20 λ.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dynamic AO correction results. (a) Displacements along x and y directions on SHWFS. Top: before correction; bottom: after correction. A pixel corresponds to 20λ. (b) Fiber bundle images of 100 frames recorded on the imaging CCD during correction (see Visualization 2). Top: before correction; bottom: after TT correction.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Observation results of a double-star TDSC41102 on 1.23m AO telescope. (a) Before correction. (b) After correction.

Equations (1)

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C tol =[ C tol,x C tol,y ]=[ i,j=1 M x i,j I i,j i,j=1 M I i,j C x ref i,j=1 M y i,j I i,j i,j=1 M I i,j C y ref ].

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