Abstract

Abstract: The well-known diffractive-imaging-based optical cryptosystem is breached in the paper. The decryption key of the system can be easily accessed by the opponent by using a new type of powerful phase retrieval method. Our result, to our best knowledge, is the first work to show the security risk of the diffractive-image cryptosystem. Meanwhile, we provide a set of numerical simulations to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the presented method.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Shi, T. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Gao, S. Zhang, and H. Li, “Optical image encryption via ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1425–1427 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Optical color-image verification using multiple-pinhole phase retrieval,” J. Opt. 16(7), 075403 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. Q. Gao, Y. Wang, T. Li, and Y. Shi, “Optical encryption of unlimited-size images based on ptychographic scanning digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4700–4707 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Liu, C. L. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “A review of optical image encryption techniques,” Opt. Laser Technol. 57, 327–342 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. P. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Z. Liu, and Y. Qin, “Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code,” Opt. Commun. 332, 36–41 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Qin, Z. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Diffractive-imaging-based optical image encryption with simplified decryption from single diffraction pattern,” Appl. Opt. 53(19), 4094–4099 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Qin, Q. Gong, and Z. Wang, “Simplified optical image encryption approach using single diffraction pattern in diffractive-imaging-based scheme,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21790–21799 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 767–769 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. X. C. Cheng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. F. Meng, H. Zhang, X. F. Xu, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by amplitude modulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1575–1577 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. Qin and X. Peng, “Asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 118–120 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. D. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120–155 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. F. Barrera, C. Vargas, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Known-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3553–3555 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. X. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Dai, and D. Zhao, “Discussion and a new attack of the optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transform,” Appl. Opt. 53(2), 208–213 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic transmission microscopy in three dimensions using a multi-slice approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(8), 1606–1614 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. T. Li, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Analytic known-plaintext attack on a phase-shifting interferometry-based cryptosystem,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 306–311 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Li, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Analytic known-plaintext attack on a phase-shifting interferometry-based cryptosystem,” Appl. Opt. 54(2), 306–311 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

X. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Dai, and D. Zhao, “Discussion and a new attack of the optical asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transform,” Appl. Opt. 53(2), 208–213 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. D. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120–155 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Optical color-image verification using multiple-pinhole phase retrieval,” J. Opt. 16(7), 075403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Gao, Y. Wang, T. Li, and Y. Shi, “Optical encryption of unlimited-size images based on ptychographic scanning digital holography,” Appl. Opt. 53(21), 4700–4707 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, C. L. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “A review of optical image encryption techniques,” Opt. Laser Technol. 57, 327–342 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Z. Liu, and Y. Qin, “Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code,” Opt. Commun. 332, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, Z. Wang, and Q. Gong, “Diffractive-imaging-based optical image encryption with simplified decryption from single diffraction pattern,” Appl. Opt. 53(19), 4094–4099 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Qin, Q. Gong, and Z. Wang, “Simplified optical image encryption approach using single diffraction pattern in diffractive-imaging-based scheme,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21790–21799 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Ptychographic transmission microscopy in three dimensions using a multi-slice approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29(8), 1606–1614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Structured-illumination-based lensless diffractive imaging and its application to optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2044–2047 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “A hybrid strategy for cryptanalysis of optical encryption based on double-random phase-amplitude encoding,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(5), 1203–1206 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

1995 (1)

Agarwal, A. K.

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arcos, S.

Barrera, J. F.

Bolognini, N.

Cai, L. Z.

Carnicer, A.

Castro, A.

Chen, J. S.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. D. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120–155 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Optical color-image verification using multiple-pinhole phase retrieval,” J. Opt. 16(7), 075403 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Structured-illumination-based lensless diffractive imaging and its application to optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2044–2047 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, X. Chen, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3817–3819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. D.

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Optical color-image verification using multiple-pinhole phase retrieval,” J. Opt. 16(7), 075403 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. D. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120–155 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Structured-illumination-based lensless diffractive imaging and its application to optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2044–2047 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. B.

Cheng, X. C.

Dai, C.

Dong, G. Y.

Frauel, Y.

Gao, Q.

Gong, Q.

Gopinathan, U.

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, C. L.

S. Liu, C. L. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “A review of optical image encryption techniques,” Opt. Laser Technol. 57, 327–342 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, W.

He, W. Q.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “A hybrid strategy for cryptanalysis of optical encryption based on double-random phase-amplitude encoding,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(5), 1203–1206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. F.

Humphry, M. J.

Javidi, B.

Juvells, I.

Li, H.

Li, T.

Liao, M.

Liu, H. Z.

Z. P. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Z. Liu, and Y. Qin, “Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code,” Opt. Commun. 332, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, C. L. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “A review of optical image encryption techniques,” Opt. Laser Technol. 57, 327–342 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. L.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, Y. L.

Maiden, A. M.

Mehra, I.

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meng, X. F.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “A hybrid strategy for cryptanalysis of optical encryption based on double-random phase-amplitude encoding,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(5), 1203–1206 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. C. Cheng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. F. Meng, H. Zhang, X. F. Xu, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by amplitude modulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1575–1577 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montes-Usategui, M.

Naughton, T. J.

Nguyen-Huu, N.

Nishchal, N. K.

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

Peng, X.

Qin, W.

Qin, Y.

Refregier, P.

Rodenburg, J. M.

Shen, X. X.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Sheridan, J. T.

S. Liu, C. L. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “A review of optical image encryption techniques,” Opt. Laser Technol. 57, 327–342 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

Singh, K.

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

Situ, G.

Tebaldi, M.

Torroba, R.

Vargas, C.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. R.

Wang, Z.

Wang, Z. P.

Z. P. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Z. Liu, and Y. Qin, “Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code,” Opt. Commun. 332, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, H.

Xu, X. F.

Yu, B.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, S.

Z. P. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Z. Liu, and Y. Qin, “Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code,” Opt. Commun. 332, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Shi, T. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Gao, S. Zhang, and H. Li, “Optical image encryption via ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1425–1427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

W. Chen, B. Javidi, and X. D. Chen, “Advances in optical security systems,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6(2), 120–155 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. (2)

I. Mehra, K. Singh, A. K. Agarwal, U. Gopinathan, and N. K. Nishchal, “Encrypting digital hologram of three-dimensional object using diffractive imaging,” J. Opt. 17(3), 035707 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Optical color-image verification using multiple-pinhole phase retrieval,” J. Opt. 16(7), 075403 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

Z. P. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Z. Liu, and Y. Qin, “Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code,” Opt. Commun. 332, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Chen and X. D. Chen, “Structured-illumination-based lensless diffractive imaging and its application to optical image encryption,” Opt. Commun. 285(8), 2044–2047 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (3)

S. Liu, C. L. Guo, and J. T. Sheridan, “A review of optical image encryption techniques,” Opt. Laser Technol. 57, 327–342 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “A hybrid strategy for cryptanalysis of optical encryption based on double-random phase-amplitude encoding,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(5), 1203–1206 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, X. F. Meng, and X. L. Liu, “Collision in optical image encryption based on interference and a method for avoiding this security leak,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 31–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (9)

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20(7), 767–769 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Carnicer, M. Montes-Usategui, S. Arcos, and I. Juvells, “Vulnerability to chosen-cyphertext attacks of optical encryption schemes based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1644–1646 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Peng, P. Zhang, H. Wei, and B. Yu, “Known-plaintext attack on optical encryption based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1044–1046 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Peng, H. Wei, and P. Zhang, “Chosen-plaintext attack on lensless double-random phase encoding in the Fresnel domain,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3261–3263 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. C. Cheng, L. Z. Cai, Y. R. Wang, X. F. Meng, H. Zhang, X. F. Xu, X. X. Shen, and G. Y. Dong, “Security enhancement of double-random phase encryption by amplitude modulation,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1575–1577 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Qin and X. Peng, “Asymmetric cryptosystem based on phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 118–120 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Barrera, C. Vargas, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Known-plaintext attack on a joint transform correlator encrypting system,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3553–3555 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, X. Chen, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Optical image encryption based on diffractive imaging,” Opt. Lett. 35(22), 3817–3819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, T. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Gao, S. Zhang, and H. Li, “Optical image encryption via ptychography,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1425–1427 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme setup of diffractive-imaging-based optical cryptosystem.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Chosen plaintext-ciphertext pairs (128 × 128 × 8 bits). (a)-(b), (c)-(d), (e)-(f), and (g)- (h) represents the first, second, third and fourth plaintext-ciphertext pair applied in the attack, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (Color on line) Summation of all the known chosen plaintext applied in the proposed attack.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Phase distributions of original and retrieved keys. (a), (b) and (c) are the phase distribution of M1, M2 and M3, respectively; (d), (e), and (f) are the retrieved phase distribution of M1, M2 and M3, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Convergence curve of the original keys with the retrieved keys.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Unknown ciphertext, (b) attack result by using the retrieved keys.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Chosen plaintext-cipertext pairs (128 × 128 × 8 bits). (a)-(b), (c)-(d), (e)-(f), and (g)-(h) represents the first, second, third and fourth plaintext-ciphertext pair applied in the attack, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Robustness of the proposed attack method when the ciphertexts are contaminated by noise, (a)-(d) are decryption results when the ciphertext with random noise (SNR = 20, 10, 5, 1).

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C(μ,v)= | Fr T λ, z 3 { Fr T λ, z 2 { Fr T λ, z 1 { f M 1 (x,y) } M 2 (η,ξ) } M 3 (p,q) } | 2
ψ e,1 k = f q M 1 (r)
ψ q k = C q ψ q k | ψ q k |
ψ e,N k =Fr T λ,z 1 [ ψ q k ]
u[ f(r),g(r),Δψ(r) ]=f(r)+α g * (r) | g(r) | Δψ(r)
ψ i,N k (r)=u[ ψ i,N k (r), M N (r),Δ ψ k (r)]
M N (r)=u[ M N (r), ψ i,N k (r),Δ ψ k (r)]
ψ e,N1 k (r)= P Δ z (N1) [ ψ i,N k (r) ]
ψ i,N1 k (r)=u[ ψ i,N1 k (r), M N1 (r),Δ ψ k (r)]
M N1 (r)=u[ M N1 (r), ψ i,N1 k (r),Δ ψ k (r)]
M 1 (r)=u[ M 1 (r), f 1 ,Δ ψ k (r)]
Co= m n ( A mn A ¯ )( B mn B ¯ ) m n [ ( A mn A ¯ ) 2 ][ ( B mn B ¯ ) 2 ]

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