Abstract

We demonstrate a compact iodine-stabilized laser operating at 531 nm using a coin-sized light source consisting of a 1062-nm distributed-feedback diode laser and a frequency-doubling element. A hyperfine transition of molecular iodine is observed using the light source with saturated absorption spectroscopy. The light source is frequency stabilized to the observed iodine transition and achieves frequency stability at the 10−12 level. The absolute frequency of the compact laser stabilized to the a1 hyperfine component of the R(36)32 – 0 transition is determined as 564074632419(8) kHz with a relative uncertainty of 1.4×10−11. The iodine-stabilized laser can be used for various applications including interferometric measurements.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 6, 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (5)

K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20, 13769–13776 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. G. Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimeter-per-second level,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. D. Yushkin, A. N. Sapunov, Yu. F. Stus, E. N. Kalish, I. A. Bunin, and D. A. Nosov, “Measurements with the new GABL-M field ballistic gravimeter under tundra conditions,” Meas. Tech. 54, 1111–1116 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lurie, P. S. Light, J. Anstie, T. M. Stace, P. C. Abbott, F. Benabid, and A. N. Luiten, “Saturation spectroscopy of iodine in hollow-core optical fiber,” Opt. Express 20, 11906–11917 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. X. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 235, 377–385 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Bitou, K. Sasaki, S. Iwasaki, and F.-L. Hong, “Compact I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for long gauge block interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2867–2871 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (4)

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM-INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry-Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, “Frequency stable I2 Raman laser excited by a cw frequency doubled monolithic Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184, 215–223 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abbott, P. C.

Akamatsu, D.

Akamatsu, J.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
[Crossref]

Allison, T. K.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anstie, J.

Apolonskii, A.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, “Frequency stable I2 Raman laser excited by a cw frequency doubled monolithic Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184, 215–223 (2000).
[Crossref]

Araya, A.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
[Crossref]

Argence, B.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. de Vismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, “Molecular laser stabilization at low frequencies for the LISA mission,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Auger, G.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. de Vismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, “Molecular laser stabilization at low frequencies for the LISA mission,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baba, M.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Bacis, R.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[Crossref]

Barrett, M. D.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

Bi, Z. Y.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bishof, M.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bitou, Y.

Y. Bitou, K. Sasaki, S. Iwasaki, and F.-L. Hong, “Compact I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for long gauge block interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2867–2871 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bloom, B. J.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bodermann, B.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bordé, Ch. J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bromley, S. L.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunin, I. A.

V. D. Yushkin, A. N. Sapunov, Yu. F. Stus, E. N. Kalish, I. A. Bunin, and D. A. Nosov, “Measurements with the new GABL-M field ballistic gravimeter under tundra conditions,” Meas. Tech. 54, 1111–1116 (2012).
[Crossref]

Camp, J.

Camparo, J.

Campbell, S. L.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camy, G.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. P.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cerny, D.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[Crossref]

Churassy, S.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cingöz, A.

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Coffer, J.

Crozet, P.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
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T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. G. Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimeter-per-second level,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
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Daimon, Y.

Das, M.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 6, 185–189 (2015).
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de Vismes, E.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. de Vismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, “Molecular laser stabilization at low frequencies for the LISA mission,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
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Deng, Y. K.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
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Descoubes, J.-P.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of 127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I-Main resonances,” J. Physique 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
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M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
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Fermann, M. E.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
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Fujita, N.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Fujiwara, C.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Fukuda, Y.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
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Gao, C. Q.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
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S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas Du Spectre D’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode (Editions de CNRS, 1978).

Guo, R. X.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. X. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 235, 377–385 (2004).
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F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
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J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
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J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
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M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
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Halloin, H.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. de Vismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, “Molecular laser stabilization at low frequencies for the LISA mission,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
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Hanada, H.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
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T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. G. Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimeter-per-second level,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
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Hartl, I.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
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Hernández, J. I. G.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. G. Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimeter-per-second level,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
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Higashi, T.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
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Hinze, U.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, “Frequency stable I2 Raman laser excited by a cw frequency doubled monolithic Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184, 215–223 (2000).
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Hirano, M.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. G. Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimeter-per-second level,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
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Hong, F.-L.

H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, M. Yasuda, Y. Nakajima, K. Iwakuni, D. Akamatsu, S. Okubo, T. Kohno, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Spectroscopy of 171Yb in an optical lattice based on laser linewidth transfer using a narrow linewidth frequency comb,” Opt. Express 21, 7891–7896 (2013).
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K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, Y. Nakajima, T. Kobayashi, K. Hosaka, A. Onae, and F.-L. Hong, “Narrow linewidth comb realized with a mode-locked fiber laser using an intra-cavity waveguide electro-optic modulator for high-speed control,” Opt. Express 20, 13769–13776 (2012).
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Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, M. Yasuda, T. Kohno, S. Kawato, T. Kobayashi, T. Katsuyama, and F.-L. Hong, “A multi-branch, fiber-based frequency comb with millihertz-level relative linewidths using an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 18, 1667–1676 (2010).
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F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, K. Hosaka, M. Yasuda, and A. Onae, “Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine using a frequency-stable light source at 578 nm,” Opt. Express 17, 1652–1659 (2009).
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H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435, 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, M. Takamoto, R. Higashi, Y. Fukuyama, J. Jiang, and H. Katori, “Frequency measurement of a Sr lattice clock using an SI-second-referenced optical frequency comb linked by a global positioning system (GPS),” Opt. Express 13, 5253–5262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. X. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 235, 377–385 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Bitou, K. Sasaki, S. Iwasaki, and F.-L. Hong, “Compact I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for long gauge block interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2867–2871 (2003).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin-spin and scalar spin-spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM-INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
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Hosaka, K.

Hutson, R. B.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
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Ichikawa, N.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
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Ikeuchi, M.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Inaba, H.

Ishikawa, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. X. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 235, 377–385 (2004).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin-spin and scalar spin-spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Iwakuni, K.

Iwasaki, S.

Y. Bitou, K. Sasaki, S. Iwasaki, and F.-L. Hong, “Compact I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for long gauge block interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 2867–2871 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeannin, O.

B. Argence, H. Halloin, O. Jeannin, P. Prat, O. Turazza, E. de Vismes, G. Auger, and E. Plagnol, “Molecular laser stabilization at low frequencies for the LISA mission,” Phys. Rev. D 81, 082002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

Juncar, P.

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM-INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kabir, M. H.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Kalish, E. N.

V. D. Yushkin, A. N. Sapunov, Yu. F. Stus, E. N. Kalish, I. A. Bunin, and D. A. Nosov, “Measurements with the new GABL-M field ballistic gravimeter under tundra conditions,” Meas. Tech. 54, 1111–1116 (2012).
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Kanaya, T.

M. Musha, T. Kanaya, K. Nakagawa, and K. Ueda, “The short- and long-term frequency stabilization of an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser in reference to a Fabry-Perot cavity and an iodine saturated absorption line,” Opt. Commun. 183, 165–173 (2000).
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Kasahara, S.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Katô, H.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Katori, H.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 6, 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, M. Takamoto, R. Higashi, Y. Fukuyama, J. Jiang, and H. Katori, “Frequency measurement of a Sr lattice clock using an SI-second-referenced optical frequency comb linked by a global positioning system (GPS),” Opt. Express 13, 5253–5262 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Takamoto, F.-L. Hong, R. Higashi, and H. Katori, “An optical lattice clock,” Nature 435, 321–324 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katsuyama, T.

Kawasaki, I.

S. Takemoto, A. Araya, J. Akamatsu, W. Morii, H. Momose, M. Ohashi, I. Kawasaki, T. Higashi, Y. Fukuda, S. Miyoki, T. Uchiyama, D. Tatsumi, H. Hanada, I. Naito, S. Telada, N. Ichikawa, K. Onoue, and Y. Wada, “A 100 m laser strainmeter system installed in a 1 km deep tunnel at Kamioka, Gifu, Japan,” J. Geodyn. 38, 477–488 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kawato, S.

Kimura, Y.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Klug, M.

M. Klug, K. Schulze, U. Hinze, A. Apolonskii, E. Tiemann, and B. Wellegehausen, “Frequency stable I2 Raman laser excited by a cw frequency doubled monolithic Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun. 184, 215–223 (2000).
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Knöckel, H.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
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Kobayashi, T.

Kohno, T.

Kokuyama, W.

Kremser, S.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
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Kuwano, H.

H. Katô, M. Baba, S. Kasahara, K. Ishikawa, M. Misono, Y. Kimura, J. O’Reilly, H. Kuwano, T. Shimamoto, T. Shinano, C. Fujiwara, M. Ikeuchi, N. Fujita, M. H. Kabir, M. Ushino, R. Takahashi, and Y. Matsunobu, Doppler-free High Resolution Spectral Atlas of Iodine Molecule 15,000 to 19,000 cm−1 (JSPS, 2000).

Lamrini, M.

M. Lamrini, R. Bacis, D. Cerny, S. Churassy, P. Crozet, and A. J. Ross, “The electronic transition dipole moment of the B0u+→X0g+ transition in iodine,” J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8780–8783 (1994).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Y.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
[Crossref]

Light, P. S.

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas Du Spectre D’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode (Editions de CNRS, 1978).

Luiten, A. N.

Lurie, A.

Ma, L. S.

J. Ye, L. S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Molecular iodine clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 270801 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ma, L.-S.

L. Robertsson, S. Picard, F.-L. Hong, Y. Millerioux, P. Juncar, and L.-S. Ma, “International comparison of 127I2-stabilized frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers between the BIPM, the NRLM and the BNM-INM, October 2000,” Metrologia 38, 567–572 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Manescau, A.

T. Wilken, G. L. Curto, R. A. Probst, T. Steinmetz, A. Manescau, L. Pasquini, J. I. G. Hernández, R. Rebolo, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, and R. Holzwarth, “A spectrograph for exoplanet observations calibrated at the centimeter-per-second level,” Nature 485, 611–614 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marti, G. E.

T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, H.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14, 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Y. Zhang, R. X. Guo, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Frequency reproducibility of an iodine-stabilized Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 235, 377–385 (2004).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, Y. Zhang, J. Ishikawa, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Vibration dependence of the tensor spin-spin and scalar spin-spin hyperfine interactions by precision measurement of hyperfine structures of 127I2 near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 946–953 (2002).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matsunobu, Y.

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A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482, 68–71 (2012).
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F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

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T. L. Nicholson, S. L. Campbell, R. B. Hutson, G. E. Marti, B. J. Bloom, R. L. McNally, W. Zhang, M. D. Barrett, M. S. Safronova, G. F. Strouse, W. L. Tew, and J. Ye, “Systematic evaluation of an atomic clock at 2 × 10−18 total uncertainty,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6896 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
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J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. J. Zang, J. P. Cao, Y. Li, C. Y. Li, Y. K. Deng, and C. Q. Gao, “Realization of four-pass I2 absorption cell in 532-nm optical frequency standard,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 56, 673–676 (2007).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z. Y. Bi, J. Zhang, K. Seta, A. Onae, J. Yoda, and H. Matsumoto, “Portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
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Meas. Tech. (1)

V. D. Yushkin, A. N. Sapunov, Yu. F. Stus, E. N. Kalish, I. A. Bunin, and D. A. Nosov, “Measurements with the new GABL-M field ballistic gravimeter under tundra conditions,” Meas. Tech. 54, 1111–1116 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nat. Photonics 6, 185–189 (2015).
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Nature (4)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup (not to scale). DFB-DL: Distributed-feedback diode laser, PPLN: Periodically poled lithium niobate, AL: Aspheric lens, DM: Dichroic mirror, ISO: Isolator, PBS: Polarization beam splitter, LO: Local oscillator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Picture of the compact laser module with a one-cent coin of the United States of America. FPC: Flexible printed circuit. (b) Schematic diagram of the compact laser module. DFB-LD: Distributed-feedback diode laser, SOA: Semiconductor optical amplifier, PPLN: Periodically poled lithium niobate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectrum of the beat signal between the free-running compact laser and the optical frequency comb stabilized to the H maser. The resolution bandwidth was 300 kHz. fbeat denotes the beat frequency between the laser and the comb, and frep the repetition rate of the comb.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Third derivative signal of the saturated absorption spectrum for the a1 hyperfine component of the R(36)32 − 0 transition obtained with an acquisition time of 5 ms in a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Allan standard deviation calculated from the measured beat frequency between the compact laser locked on the a1 component of the R(36)32 − 0 transition and the optical frequency comb stabilized to the H maser.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured absolute frequency of the compact laser locked on the a1 component of the R(36)32 − 0 transition. The solid red line indicates the weighted mean of the nine measured frequencies. The uncertainty of the weighted mean is 0.91 kHz and the reduced chi-square χ reduced 2 = 5.3.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured frequency shifts of the compact laser locked on the a1 component of the R(36)32−0 transition: (a) pressure shift, (b) power shift, (c) modulation-induced shift, and (d) shift due to the servo electronics offset. The solid red line in each figure indicates the best fit of a linear function using the weighted least square method.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Most significant contributions to the estimated frequency uncertainty of the compact laser locked on the a1 component of the R(36)32 − 0 transition.

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