Abstract

An ultra-compact rotational symmetric lens with double freeform surfaces based on the edge-ray principle is designed in this paper. The lens redistributes light emitting from a Lambertian LED light source to achieve uniform illumination within the target area. The initial design is optimized for optics compactness under structural constraints and illumination requirement using the genetic algorithm. A design for the double-freeform-surface lens with a height of the optics system h = 12.56 mm for a circular LED source with a diameter D = 10 mm is demonstrated for uniform illumination within 45° and thus achieves optics compactness h/D = 1.256, which is half of that achieved by the single-freeform-surface lens. The Monte-Carlo ray-tracing result shows an illumination circular area with a clear cut-off at R = 1000 mm at the target plane in a distance H = 1000 mm. The uniformity within the target illumination area is greater than 0.9 and the light output efficiency is as high as 0.9865.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Ries and J. Muschaweck, “Tailored freeform optical surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(3), 590–595 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12958–12966 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9055–9063 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. Karapetyan, A. Morozov, and M. Potapova, “Beam Reshaping for Rectangular Area Illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6637, 66370S (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.
  12. P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Bäuerle, A. Bruneton, R. Wester, J. Stollenwerk, and P. Loosen, “Algorithm for irradiance tailoring using multiple freeform optical surfaces,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14477–14485 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, N. Shatz, and J. C. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005), Chaps. 7–8.
  15. O. Kückmann, “High power LED arrays: special requirements on packaging technology,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 613404 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. R. Ries and R. Winston, “Tailored edge-ray reflectors for illumination,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(4), 1260–1264 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  17. X. L. Mao, H. T. Li, Y. J. Han, and Y. Luo, “A two-step design method for high compact rotationally symmetric optical system for LED surface light source,” Opt. Express 22(S2), A233-A247 (2014).
  18. Elmer, The Optical Design of Reflectors.2nd (John Wiley & Sons, 1980), p. 14.
  19. M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. L. Davenport, et al., “Optimization for illumination systems: the next level of design,” Proc. SPIE 5456, 81 (2014).
  21. R. R. Shannon, The Art and Science of Optical Design (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 348–355.

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Bäuerle, A. Bruneton, R. Wester, J. Stollenwerk, and P. Loosen, “Algorithm for irradiance tailoring using multiple freeform optical surfaces,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14477–14485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, Z. Feng, Y. Han, and H. Li, “Design of compact and smooth free-form optical system with uniform illuminance for LED source,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9055–9063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

K. Karapetyan, A. Morozov, and M. Potapova, “Beam Reshaping for Rectangular Area Illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6637, 66370S (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Kückmann, “High power LED arrays: special requirements on packaging technology,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 613404 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1994 (1)

Bäuerle, A.

Benítez, P.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Blen, J.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bruneton, A.

Chakmakjian, S.

D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
[Crossref]

Chaves, J. L.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. J.

K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
[Crossref]

Dannberg, P.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
[Crossref]

Davenport, T. L.

T. L. Davenport, et al., “Optimization for illumination systems: the next level of design,” Proc. SPIE 5456, 81 (2014).

Ding, Y.

Doskolovich, L. L.

M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
[Crossref]

Dross, O.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, Z.

Fournier, F. R.

F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gebhardt, A.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
[Crossref]

Gu, P. F.

Han, Y.

Han, Y. J.

Hsieh, H.-T.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, W.-Y.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. L.

K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. L.

K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
[Crossref]

Jansen, O. T. A.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karapetyan, K.

K. Karapetyan, A. Morozov, and M. Potapova, “Beam Reshaping for Rectangular Area Illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6637, 66370S (2007).
[Crossref]

Kazanskiy, N. L.

M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
[Crossref]

Kirkilionis, M.

V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.

Kravchenko, S. V.

M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
[Crossref]

Krömker, S.

V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.

Kückmann, O.

O. Kückmann, “High power LED arrays: special requirements on packaging technology,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 613404 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kudaev, S.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, H. T.

Liu, X.

Loosen, P.

Louwers, D. J.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lozano, G.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Mao, X. L.

Miñano, J. C.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mohedano, R.

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moiseev, M. A.

M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
[Crossref]

Morozov, A.

K. Karapetyan, A. Morozov, and M. Potapova, “Beam Reshaping for Rectangular Area Illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6637, 66370S (2007).
[Crossref]

Morris, G. M.

D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
[Crossref]

Murai, S.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muschaweck, J.

Oliker, V. I.

V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.

Potapova, M.

K. Karapetyan, A. Morozov, and M. Potapova, “Beam Reshaping for Rectangular Area Illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6637, 66370S (2007).
[Crossref]

Rannacher, R.

V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.

Ries, H.

Ries, H. R.

Rivas, J. G.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rodríguez, S. R. K.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sales, T. R. M.

D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
[Crossref]

Schertler, D. J.

D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, P.

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
[Crossref]

Stollenwerk, J.

Su, G.-D. J.

Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
[Crossref]

Tomi, F.

V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.

Verschuuren, M. A.

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. Y.

K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
[Crossref]

Wester, R.

Winston, R.

Zheng, Z. R.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

G. Lozano, D. J. Louwers, S. R. K. Rodríguez, S. Murai, O. T. A. Jansen, M. A. Verschuuren, and J. G. Rivas, “Plasmonics for solid-state lighting: enhanced excitation and directional emission of highly efficient light source,” Light Sci. Appl. 2(5), e66 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, J. Blen, R. Mohedano, J. L. Chaves, and O. Dross, “Simultaneous multiple surface optical design method in three dimensions,” Opt. Eng. 43(7), 1489–1502 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (9)

O. Kückmann, “High power LED arrays: special requirements on packaging technology,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 613404 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Moiseev, S. V. Kravchenko, L. L. Doskolovich, and N. L. Kazanskiy, “Design of LED optics with two aspherical surfaces and the highest efficiency,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502N (2012).
[Crossref]

T. L. Davenport, et al., “Optimization for illumination systems: the next level of design,” Proc. SPIE 5456, 81 (2014).

Y.-C. Lee, H.-T. Hsieh, W.-Y. Hsu, and G.-D. J. Su, “LED beam shaping using microlens arrays,” Proc. SPIE 7423, 74230V (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Schreiber, S. Kudaev, P. Dannberg, and A. Gebhardt, “Microoptics for homogeneous LED-illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6196, 61960P (2006).
[Crossref]

F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Schertler, T. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, and G. M. Morris, “LED luminaire with controlled light distribution,” Proc. SPIE 6337, 63371E (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Karapetyan, A. Morozov, and M. Potapova, “Beam Reshaping for Rectangular Area Illumination,” Proc. SPIE 6637, 66370S (2007).
[Crossref]

K. L. Huang, J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, and L. L. Huang, “Free-form lens design for LED indoor illumination,” Proc. SPIE 7852, 78521D (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, N. Shatz, and J. C. Bortz, Nonimaging Optics (Elsevier, 2005), Chaps. 7–8.

V. I. Oliker, “Mathematical aspects of design of beam shaping surfaces in geometrical optics,” in Trends in Nonlinear Analysis, edsM. Kirkilionis, S. Krömker, R. Rannacher, and F. Tomi (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2002), pp. 191–222.

R. R. Shannon, The Art and Science of Optical Design (Cambridge University, 1997), pp. 348–355.

Elmer, The Optical Design of Reflectors.2nd (John Wiley & Sons, 1980), p. 14.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Principle of “luminance engineering”. Light source with dimension D has a projection Dθ in the θ direction;(b) The initial design process of the profile of the lens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 An initial design of the lens profile with notation of structural constraints, the gap between endpoints and the angle of elevation. h, r, d, and β are 14.00 mm, 15.08 mm, 4.58 mm, and 13.03 o, respectively in this demonstration.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The Pareto front of MF1 and MF2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) An optimized lens profile for the LED source expressed in red line; (b) the simulated result of illumination using LightTools.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of illuminance profiles between the single-freeform-surface lens and the double-freeform-surfaces lens. The former is adopted from [17].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Target restrictive parameters for the design case

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D θ = D 0 cos 2 θ ,
y= a i x 2 + b i ,
φ 1 =γ φ 0 ,
N= N x x ^ + N y y ^ = n o e o n Ι e Ι n o 2 + n Ι 2 2 n o n Ι e o e Ι ,
a 1 = k A 0 / 2 x A 0 ; b 1 = y A 0 a 1 x A 0 2 .
n Ι e Ι ×N= n O e O ×N.
θ max = tan 1 ( R H ),
{ MF 1 =h+α β β T d d T | θ max θ T | Δ θ ¯ MF 2 =r+α β β T d d T | θ max θ T | Δ θ ¯ ,

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