Abstract

We study light-extraction efficiency (LEE) of AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) using flip-chip (FC) devices with varied thickness in remaining sapphire substrate by experimental output power measurement and computational methods using 3-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) and Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations. Light-output power of DUV-FCLEDs compared at a current of 20 mA increases with thicker sapphire, showing higher LEE for an LED with 250-μm-thick sapphire by ~39% than that with 100-μm-thick sapphire. In contrast, LEEs of visible FCLEDs show only marginal improvement with increasing sapphire thickness, that is, ~6% improvement for an LED with 250-μm-thick sapphire. 3D-FDTD simulation reveals a mechanism of enhanced light extraction with various sidewall roughness and thickness in sapphire substrates. Ray tracing simulation examines the light propagation behavior of DUV-FCLED structures. The enhanced output power and higher LEE strongly depends on the sidewall roughness of the sapphire substrate rather than thickness itself. The thickness starts playing a role only when the sapphire sidewalls become rough. The roughened surface of sapphire sidewall during chip-separation process is critical for TM-polarized photons from AlGaN quantum wells to escape in lateral directions before they are absorbed by p-GaN and Au-metal. Furthermore, the ray tracing results show a reasonably good agreement with the experimental result of the LEE.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. M.-K. Lee and K.-K. Kuo, “Single-step fabrication of Fresnel microlens array on sapphire substrate of flip-chip gallium nitride light emitting diode by focused ion beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical Properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical Properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Lee and K.-K. Kuo, “Single-step fabrication of Fresnel microlens array on sapphire substrate of flip-chip gallium nitride light emitting diode by focused ion beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

K. Davitt, Y. K. Song, W. Patterson Iii, A. Nurmikko, M. Gherasimova, J. Han, Y. L. Pan, and R. Chang, “290 and 340 nm UV LED arrays for fluorescence detection from single airborne particles,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9548–9555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical Properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adivarahan, V.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akasaki, I.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

Amano, H.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

Arif, R. A.

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Atsumi, K.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bell, A.

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brinkley, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, R.

Cherns, D.

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, I.-G.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, U.-S.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chua, C.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davitt, K.

Deguchi, K.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dion, J.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, R. D.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Egawa, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fang, J. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. M.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujita, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukahori, S.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukumitsu, K.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gherasimova, M.

Gilchrist, J. F.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Davitt, Y. K. Song, W. Patterson Iii, A. Nurmikko, M. Gherasimova, J. Han, Y. L. Pan, and R. Chang, “290 and 340 nm UV LED arrays for fluorescence detection from single airborne particles,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9548–9555 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasanov, N.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heidari, A.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirano, A.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Honda, Y.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, M.

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Horng, R. H.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Inazu, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ippommatsu, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, H.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Islam, M.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwaya, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jimbo, T.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Johnson, N. M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ju, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kamiyama, S.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K. M.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khizar, M.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-H.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-S.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kueller, V.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, M.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuo, K.-K.

M.-K. Lee and K.-K. Kuo, “Single-step fabrication of Fresnel microlens array on sapphire substrate of flip-chip gallium nitride light emitting diode by focused ion beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kyaw, Z.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lachab, M.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. E.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.-K.

M.-K. Lee and K.-K. Kuo, “Single-step fabrication of Fresnel microlens array on sapphire substrate of flip-chip gallium nitride light emitting diode by focused ion beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, W. Y.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, R.

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Liu, W.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Lobo, N.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
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Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mitani, T.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nagasawa, Y.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakami, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, W.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nazir, H.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Niki, I.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, N.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Norimatsu, J.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nurmikko, A.

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ohmura, E.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, K.

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical Properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y. L.

Park, Y.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Patterson Iii, W.

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernot, C.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ponce, F. A.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, H.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, G. D.

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shih, W. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.-I.

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shioji, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. K.

Sonobe, S.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stellmach, J.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sugiura, R.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takano, T.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, K.

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical Properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsubaki, K.

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Uchiyama, N.

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Umeno, M.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vogt, P.

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wang, L.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, J.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yatabe, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, and A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu, I.-G. Choi, U.-S. Choi, and J.-I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (18)

G. Yu, G. Wang, H. Ishikawa, M. Umeno, T. Egawa, J. Watanabe, and T. Jimbo, “Optical properties of wurtzite structure GaN on sapphire around fundamental absorption edge (0.78–4.77 eV) by spectroscopic ellipsometry and the optical transmission method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(24), 3209–3211 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, “231–261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-K. Ee, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, P. Kumnorkaew, and J. F. Gilchrist, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency of InGaN quantum wells light emitting diodes using SiO2/polystyrene microlens arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(22), 221107 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakami, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Lobo, H. Rodriguez, A. Knauer, M. Hoppe, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Enhancement of light extraction in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using nanopixel contact design with Al reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081109 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Ju, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, X. Zhang, L. Wang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with a grading InN composition suppressing the Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(3), 033506 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Choi, H. J. Kim, S.-S. Kim, J. P. Liu, J. Kim, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Improvement of peak quantum efficiency and efficiency droop in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes with an InAlN electron blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221105 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. P. Liu, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, J. Han, G. D. Shen, and H. B. Wang, “Barrier effect on hole transport and carrier distribution in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z.-H. Zhang, W. Liu, S. T. Tan, Y. Ji, L. Wang, B. Zhu, Y. Zhang, S. Lu, X. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “A hole accelerator for InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 153503 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Shakya, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Enhanced light extraction in III-nitride ultraviolet photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 142–144 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. N. Oder, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1231–1233 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, R. Liu, F. A. Ponce, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and D. Cherns, “Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(3), 349–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Khizar, Z. Y. Fan, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Nitride deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with microlens array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(17), 173504 (2005).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Lee and K.-K. Kuo, “Single-step fabrication of Fresnel microlens array on sapphire substrate of flip-chip gallium nitride light emitting diode by focused ion beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051111 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, and N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of III-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. (1)

M. Kumagai, N. Uchiyama, E. Ohmura, R. Sugiura, K. Atsumi, and K. Fukumitsu, “Advanced dicing technology for semiconductor wafer-stealth dicing,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 20(3), 259–265 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Takeuchi, S. Adachi, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical Properties of AlxGa1-xN alloy,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023306 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Yamada, T. Mitani, W. Narukawa, S. Shioji, I. Niki, S. Sonobe, K. Deguchi, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 12B), L1431–L1433 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Inazu, S. Fukahori, C. Pernot, M. H. Kim, T. Fujita, Y. Nagasawa, A. Hirano, M. Ippommatsu, M. Iwaya, T. Takeuchi, S. Kamiyama, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Honda, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Improvement of light extraction efficiency for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(12R), 122101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: Identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

H. Hirayama, S. Fujikawa, N. Noguchi, J. Norimatsu, T. Takano, K. Tsubaki, and N. Kamata, “222-282 nm AlGaN and InAlGaN-based deep-UV LEDs fabricated on high-quality AlN on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi 206(6), 1176–1182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, “The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes,” Science 281(5379), 956–961 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Kneissl, T. Kolbe, C. Chua, V. Kueller, N. Lobo, J. Stellmach, A. Knauer, H. Rodriguez, S. Einfeldt, Z. Yang, N. M. Johnson, and M. Weyers, “Advances in group III-nitride-based deep UV light-emitting diode technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014036 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross sectional view of a deep-UV flip-chip light-emitting diodes (DUV-FCLED) and (b) its electroluminescence (EL) spectrum measured at I = 20 mA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Increments in light-output power of InGaN-based visible and AlGaN-based DUV-FCLEDs as a function of sapphire substrate thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric/magnetic field intensity distribution of light emitted from the dipole source: (a) TE mode. (b) TM mode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized radiation patterns of DUV-FCLEDs with 100-μm and 200-μm sapphire thickness (DUV-FCLED: 100 μm and DUV-FCLED: 200 μm, respectively) measured at I = 20 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated results of relative light-extraction efficiency (LEE) for TE mode of InGaN-based visible FCLEDs and TE and TM modes of AlGaN-based DUV-FCLEDs as a function of sapphire substrate thickness with different sidewall roughness, including (a) mirror-like, (b) surface roughness = 100 nm, (c) and surface roughness = 200 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images of a sapphire sidewall after stealth laser dicing taken by (a) confocal laser scanning and (b) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (c) SEM image and schematic cross-section of dotted line, showing modified zone created by focused laser and rough surface after breakage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Light propagation simulation of DUV-FCLEDs (a) without and (b) with sidewall roughness of sapphire substrate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation and the experimental output power increment of DUV-FCLED as a function of sapphire substrate thickness.

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