Abstract

In this paper we present a simple model to predict the behavior of the transversal mode instability threshold when different parameters of a fiber amplifier system are changed. The simulation model includes an estimation of the photodarkening losses which shows the strong influence that this effect has on the mode instability threshold and on its behavior. Comparison of the simulation results with experimental measurements reveal that the mode instability threshold in a fiber amplifier system is reached for a constant average heat load value in good approximation. Based on this model, the expected behavior of the mode instability threshold when changing the seed wavelength, the seed power and/or the fiber length will be presented and discussed. Additionally, guidelines for increasing the average power of fiber amplifier systems will be provided.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (6)

2013 (10)

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Méchin, and D. Tregoat, “Mitigation of photodarkening phenomenon in fiber lasers by 633 nm light exposure,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 196–198 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Johansen, M. Laurila, M. D. Maack, D. Noordegraaf, C. Jakobsen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Frequency resolved transverse mode instability in rod fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21847–21856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. G. Ward, “Modeling of transient modal instability in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12053–12067 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Naderi, I. Dajani, T. Madden, and C. Robin, “Investigations of modal instabilities in fiber amplifiers through detailed numerical simulations,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16111–16129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1944–1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2642–2656 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Increasing mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers by gain saturation,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15168–15182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermally induced mode coupling in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2382–2384 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5742–5753 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and A. Einstein-strasse, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Tandem cladding-pumping for control of excess gain in ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

1997 (2)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Andersen, T. V.

Bartelt, H.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beach, R. J.

Book, L. D.

Broeng, J.

Cadier, B.

Carstens, H.

Codemard, C. A.

C. A. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Tandem cladding-pumping for control of excess gain in ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dajani, I.

Dawson, J. W.

de Vries, O.

Dong, L.

Durrant, T.

Eidam, T.

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and A. Einstein-strasse, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Einstein-strasse, A.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fiebrandt, J.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gabler, T.

Gaida, C.

Gebavi, H.

Gong, M.

Goodno, G. D.

Hädrich, S.

Hanf, S.

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hansen, K. R.

Heebner, J. E.

Hoffman, H. J.

Honkanen, S.

Jäger, M.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, C.

Jansen, F.

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jauregui, C.

H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and A. Einstein-strasse, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jena, F.

Jena, H.

Jetschke, S.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johansen, M. M.

Jørgensen, M. M.

Kirchhof, J.

Klenke, A.

Koplow, J. P.

Koponen, J. J.

Lablonde, L.

Lægsgaard, J.

Landais, D.

Laurila, M.

Le Goffic, O.

Leich, M.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Liao, S.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and A. Einstein-strasse, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maack, M. D.

Madden, T.

Mechin, D.

Méchin, D.

Messerly, M. J.

Milanese, D.

Modsching, N.

Monteville, A.

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Naderi, S.

Nilsson, J.

C. A. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Tandem cladding-pumping for control of excess gain in ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
[Crossref]

Noordegraaf, D.

Otto, H. J.

Otto, H.-J.

H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pax, P. H.

Physics, A.

Pulford, B.

Robin, C.

Robin, T.

Röpke, U.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Rothhardt, J.

Rothhardt, M.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

C. A. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Tandem cladding-pumping for control of excess gain in ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Schwuchow, A.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seise, E.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J. J.

Söderlund, M. J.

Sridharan, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Stutzki, F.

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

Tammela, S. K. T.

Tregoat, D.

Tropper, C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tu, A.

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and A. Einstein-strasse, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unger, S.

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, B.

Ward, B. G.

Wirth, C.

Yan, P.

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, H.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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[Crossref]

C. A. Codemard, J. K. Sahu, and J. Nilsson, “Tandem cladding-pumping for control of excess gain in ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1860–1869 (2010).
[Crossref]

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T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Limpert, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, A. Tünnermann, and A. Tu, “Yb-doped large-pitch fibres: effective single-mode operation based on higher-order mode delocalisation,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(4), e8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 861–867 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Leich, J. Fiebrandt, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, M. Jäger, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Length distributed measurement of temperature effects in Yb-doped fibers during pumping,” Opt. Eng. 53(6), 066101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (26)

M. J. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, “Heat-induced darkening and spectral broadening in photodarkened ytterbium-doped fiber under thermal cycling,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9940–9946 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, A. Liem, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermally induced waveguide changes in active fibers,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3997–4008 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, and S. K. T. Tammela, “Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11539–11544 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H. J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, F. Jena, A. Physics, and H. Jena, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Controlling mode instabilities by dynamic mode excitation with an acousto-optic deflector,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17285–17298 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Johansen, M. Laurila, M. D. Maack, D. Noordegraaf, C. Jakobsen, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Frequency resolved transverse mode instability in rod fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 21847–21856 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, and A. Einstein-strasse, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temperature-induced index gratings and their impact on mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(1), 440–451 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912–12925 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11407–11422 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Ward, “Modeling of transient modal instability in fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12053–12067 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Naderi, I. Dajani, T. Madden, and C. Robin, “Investigations of modal instabilities in fiber amplifiers through detailed numerical simulations,” Opt. Express 21(13), 16111–16129 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1944–1971 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2642–2656 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Passive mitigation strategies for mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19375–19386 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Increasing mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers by gain saturation,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15168–15182 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen and J. Lægsgaard, “Impact of gain saturation on the mode instability threshold in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11267–11278 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hädrich, F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, J. Rothhardt, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Preferential gain photonic-crystal fiber for mode stabilization at high average powers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8656–8661 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5742–5753 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gong, Y. Yuan, C. Li, P. Yan, H. Zhang, and S. Liao, “Numerical modeling of transverse mode competition in strongly pumped multimode fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3236–3246 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, N. Modsching, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Impact of photodarkening on the mode instability threshold,” Opt. Express 23(12), 15265 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (8)

G. D. Goodno, L. D. Book, and J. E. Rothenberg, “Low-phase-noise, single-frequency, single-mode 608 W thulium fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1204–1206 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gaida, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, O. de Vries, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Triple-clad large-pitch fibers for compact high-power pulsed fiber laser systems,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 209–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Robin, I. Dajani, and B. Pulford, “Modal instability-suppressing, single-frequency photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 811 W output power,” Opt. Lett. 39(3), 666–669 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermally induced mode coupling in rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37(12), 2382–2384 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, F. Jansen, C. Gaida, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High-speed modal decomposition of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4572–4574 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gebavi, S. Taccheo, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Méchin, and D. Tregoat, “Mitigation of photodarkening phenomenon in fiber lasers by 633 nm light exposure,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 196–198 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optica (1)

Other (4)

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability thresholds of fiber amplifiers,” in S. T. Hendow, ed. (2013), Vol. 8601, p. 860108.

H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Mitigation of mode instabilities by dynamic excitation of fiber modes,” in Proc. SPIE 8601, Fiber Lasers X: Technology, Systems, and Applications (2013), Vol. 8601, p. 86010A.

C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, M. Rekas, I. Tsybin, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power linear-polarized narrow linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifier,” in Proceeding of SPIE (2010), Vol. 7580, K. Tankala, ed. (2010), p. 75801H–75801H–6.

K. Brar, M. Savage-Leuchs, J. Henrie, S. Courtney, C. Dilley, and R. Afzal, “Threshold power and fiber degradation induced modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers based on large mode area fibers,” in SPIE Photonics West 2014-LASE: Lasers and Sources (2014), Vol. 8961, pp. 1–9.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The two most extended core conformations today: homogenous (left-hand side) and nano-structured (right-hand side). The relation between the bulk ion concentration (Nbulk) and the effective one (N) is given by the Area Filling Factor (AFF) in the nano-structured cores.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Evolution of the MFD with the extracted power. The graph shows the experimental measurements (blue dots), as well as the simulation results taking (red squares) and not taking (green diamonds) PD into account.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relationship between the grating amplitude and the average heat load in a fiber amplifier.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Evolution of the TMI threshold with the signal wavelength. a) Comparison of the experimental measurements with the simulations using different constant “threshold” heat loads (red solid line for 34W/m; green dashed line for 32W/m; black dashed-dotted line for 29W/m). b) Comparison of the simulation results with (red solid line) and without (green line with diamonds) PD and the experimental data corresponding to the highest TMI threshold at each wavelength (blue dotted line).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Dependence of the extracted power at the TMI threshold with the seed power. The experiments have been divided in two categories: a) low seed powers and b) high seed powers. Both the experimental data (blue dots) and the predictions of the simulation (red solid line) are plotted.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Interpretation of an active fiber as a heat-load bucket with a certain capacity (34W/m). This bucket can be filled with any combination of “productive heat load” (i.e. quantum defect heat load) and “non-productive heat load” (e.g. PD-induced heat load). In this interpretation TMI occur as soon as the heat-load bucket is full. In this graph the blue and black lines represent, respectively, the wavelength dependence of the quantum-defect-induced average heat load and the total average heat load obtained from the simulations presented in Fig. 4.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Predicted dependence of the TMI threshold with the fiber length for various situations: standard doping concentration with (blue solid line) and without (blue dashed line) PD, constant number of active ions in the fiber operating at 1030nm (red solid line) and at 1020nm (green solid line).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of different fiber systems together with their measured and expected TMI thresholds

Equations (9)

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P D 633nm (dB/m)( 175 ( N 8.74 10 25 ) 2.09 ) N 2 /N 0.46
P D 1μm (dB/m) P D 633nm (dB/m) γ
P D 1μm (dB/m)( 175 ( N AFF8.74 10 25 ) 2.09 ) N 2 /N 0.46 AFF γ
N= N 1 (z)+ N 2 (z) N 2 ( z ) N 1 ( z ) = [ P p + (z)+ P p (z) ] σ ap Γ p h υ p A + [ P s + (z)+ P s (z) ] σ as Γ s h υ s A 1 τ + [ P p + (z)+ P p (z) ][ σ ap + σ ep ] Γ p h υ p A + [ P s + (z)+ P s (z) ][ σ as + σ es ] Γ s h υ s A ± d P p ± (z) dz =[ σ ep N 2 (z) σ ap N 1 (z) ] Γ p P p ± (z) α p P p ± (z) Γ p Ln10 10 P D 1µm P p ± (z) ± d P s ± (z) dz =[ σ es N 2 (z) σ as N 1 (z) ] Γ s P s ± (z) α s P s ± (z) Γ s Ln10 10 P D 1µm P s ± (z)
Γ p = A A clad and Γ s = A ψ(x,y)dxdy
Q QD (z)=( 1 υ s υ p ) Γ p [ σ ap N 1 (z) σ ep N 2 (z) ][ P p + (z)+ P p (z) ] A
Q PD i (z)= Γ i Ln10 10 P D 1µm A [ P i + (z)+ P i (z) ]
Q PL i (z)= α i A m i [ P i + (z)+ P i (z) ]
Q(z)= Q QD (z)+ Q PD p (z)+ Q PD s (z)+ Q PL p (z)+ Q PL s (z)

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