Abstract

The total internal reflection (TIR) effect in conventional electroluminescent devices causes a large amount of light energy trapped in the devices and result in heat energy that adversely affects the performance of the device. In order to enhance the light out-coupling efficiency without sacrificing the electrical properties, a micro-rod array (MRA) structure fabricated by a femtosecond laser was demonstrated. Green, blue, and red organic light-emitting diodes were employed to verify the effect of the proposed method, which increases out-coupling efficiencies by a factor of 1.9, 1.7, and 1.82, respectively, compared with conventional devices. This highly effective method is compatible with current device fabrication processes and is applicable to full-color electroluminescent devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

J. H. Jang and M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, “Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: cathode structure for plasmonic application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 173301 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 92–96 (2008).

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. L. Chen, A. C. Wei, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Increased organic light-emitting diode panel light efficiency by optimizing structure and improving alignment of pyramidal array light-enhancing layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1521–1525 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241112 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nakamura, H. Fujii, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, M.

M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ahn, C. W.

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, “Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: cathode structure for plasmonic application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 173301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, H. W.

Chen, M. L.

M. L. Chen, A. C. Wei, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Increased organic light-emitting diode panel light efficiency by optimizing structure and improving alignment of pyramidal array light-enhancing layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1521–1525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chien, K. W.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 92–96 (2008).

Cho, T. Y.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. C.

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, “Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: cathode structure for plasmonic application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 173301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davis, K. M.

Dierolf, V.

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[Crossref]

Du, D.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duggal, A. R.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faircloth, T. J.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. R. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fujii, H.

T. Nakamura, H. Fujii, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

Ho, Y. L.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, H. H.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsu, S. Y.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. P.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 92–96 (2008).

Ishikawa, K.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. H.

J. H. Jang and M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Juni, N.

T. Nakamura, H. Fujii, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, G. H.

Kim, K.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kong, J. H.

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kwon, J. H.

Lee, I.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. L.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. L.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. C.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. C.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

Liu, S. H.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

T. Nakamura, H. Fujii, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, M.-C.

J. H. Jang and M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, M. J.

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peumans, P.

M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J. D.

Saafir, A. K.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shiang, J. J.

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shieh, H. P. D.

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 92–96 (2008).

M. L. Chen, A. C. Wei, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Increased organic light-emitting diode panel light efficiency by optimizing structure and improving alignment of pyramidal array light-enhancing layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1521–1525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Son, Y. H.

Song, Y. W.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[Crossref]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, Y.

M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y. R.

Y. R. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tansu, N.

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, N.

T. Nakamura, H. Fujii, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, A. C.

M. L. Chen, A. C. Wei, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Increased organic light-emitting diode panel light efficiency by optimizing structure and improving alignment of pyramidal array light-enhancing layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1521–1525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wei, P. K.

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. J.

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, “Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: cathode structure for plasmonic application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 173301 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. K.

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X. J.

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhao, H.

Ziebarth, J. M.

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

J. M. Ziebarth, A. K. Saafir, S. Fan, and M. D. McGehee, “Extracting light from polymer light-emitting diodes using stamped Bragg gratings,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(5), 451–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

K. Hong, H. K. Yu, I. Lee, K. Kim, S. Kim, and J. L. Lee, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting diodes: Spontaneously formed nanofacet-structured MgO as a refractive index modulation layer,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4890–4894 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Y. Hsu, M. C. Lee, K. L. Lee, and P. K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Yang, K. C. Choi, and C. W. Ahn, “Surface plasmon-enhanced spontaneous emission rate in an organic light-emitting device structure: cathode structure for plasmonic application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 173301 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Agrawal, Y. Sun, S. R. Forrest, and P. Peumans, “Enhanced outcoupling from organic light-emitting diodes using aperiodic dielectric mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 241112 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, “Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(23), 3071 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. J. Yang, S. H. Liu, H. H. Hsieh, C. C. Liu, T. Y. Cho, and C. C. Wu, “Microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices integrated with microlens arrays: simultaneous enhancement of quantum efficiency, cd/A efficiency, color performances, and image resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 253508 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

H. J. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X. J. Yu, and H. S. Kwok, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic light emitting diodes using nanoporous films,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(3), 1649–1654 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. J. Shiang, T. J. Faircloth, and A. R. Duggal, “Experimental demonstration of increased organic light emitting device output via volumetric light scattering,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2889–2895 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324–3327 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y. W. Song, and Y. H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7629–7636 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (2)

J. H. Jang and M.-C. Oh, “Outcoupling enhancement of OLEDs with a randomly distributed ITO pattern fabricated by maskless wet etching method,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(11), 900–903 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. P. D. Shieh, Y. P. Huang, and K. W. Chien, “Micro-optics for liquid crystal displays applications,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(1), 92–96 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. L. Chen, A. C. Wei, and H. P. D. Shieh, “Increased organic light-emitting diode panel light efficiency by optimizing structure and improving alignment of pyramidal array light-enhancing layers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(4A), 1521–1525 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, “Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(8), 449–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Nakamura, H. Fujii, N. Juni, and N. Tsutsumi, “Enhanced coupling of light from organic electroluminescent device using diffusive particle dispersed high refractive index resin substrate,” Opt. Rev. 13(2), 104–110 (2006).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. Fujita, S. Takahashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Simultaneous inhibition and redistribution of spontaneous light emission in photonic crystals,” Science 308(5726), 1296–1298 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

I. Lux and L. Koblinger, Monte Carlo Particle Transport Methods: Neutron and Photon Calculations (Chemical Rubber Company, 1991).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the mechanism for the out-coupling efficiency enhancement: (a) conventional OLED and (b) the proposed method with a micro-rod array (MRA) in a glass substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the fabrication process for the pre-design specifications of the MRA structure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Properties of the MRA: (a) a cross-sectional view obtained by SEM, (b) parallel transmittance of the glass, (c) the roughness of typical glass, and (d) MRA-glass.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Different arrangements for the MRA with a 3% duty ratio and (b) distance of MRA from glass/ITO interface.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Photoelectric properties of a green OLED for different duty ratios of the MRA: (a) current density–current efficiency and increase factor of current efficiency and (b) voltage–current density and voltage–power efficiency.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical properties of red, green, and blue OLEDs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Angular distributions of the normalized light intensities of devices with and without MRAs compared with a typical Lambertian light source.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optical characteristics for glass substrate.

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Table 2 Factor of increase in the optical efficiency for different arrangements of the MRA.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Factor of increase in the optical efficiency for different distances of MRA from glass/ITO interface.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Factor of increase in the optical efficiency for different glass refractive indices.

Tables Icon

Table 5 Factor of increase in the optical efficiency for different duty ratios of the MRA.

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