Abstract

We fabricate a free-standing molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) saturable absorber by embedding liquid-phase exfoliated few-layer MoSe2 flakes into a polymer film. The MoSe2-polymer composite is used to Q-switch fiber lasers based on ytterbium (Yb), erbium (Er) and thulium (Tm) gain fiber, producing trains of microsecond-duration pulses with kilohertz repetition rates at 1060 nm, 1566 nm and 1924 nm, respectively. Such operating wavelengths correspond to sub-bandgap saturable absorption in MoSe2, which is explained in the context of edge-states, building upon studies of other semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based saturable absorbers. Our work adds few-layer MoSe2 to the growing catalog of TMDs with remarkable optical properties, which offer new opportunities for photonic devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  44. Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 205422 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (8)

K.-G. Zhou, M. Zhao, M.-J. Chang, Q. Wang, X.-Z. Wu, Y. Song, and H.-L. Zhang, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Small 11, 694 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeizhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 373 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, S. Chen, I. L. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 479 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A79 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (17)

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 25258 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Xu, Y. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Weng, and R. Moncorgé, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 nanosecond laser using MoS2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 28934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-um fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. W. Shim, K. Yoo, S.-B. Seo, J. Shin, D. Y. Jung, I.-S. Kang, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Cho, and S.-Y. Choi, “Large-area single-layer MoSe2 and its van der Waals heterostructures,” ACS Nano 8, 6655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Shaw, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, N. O. Weiss, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer MoSe2 nanosheets,” Nano Res. 7, 511 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, E. Ringe, B. K. Tay, and P. M. Ajayan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T.-R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y.-T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H.-T. Jeng, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of defect-free graphene,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46, 14 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, D. Popa, V. Nicolosi, G. Privitera, F. Bonaccorso, and A. C. Ferrari, “Solution-phase exfoliation of graphite for ultrafast photonics,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 247, 2953 (2010).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Garmire, “Resonant optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1094 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, “Bulk and surface optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Joensen, R. F. Frindt, and S. R. Morrison, “Single-layer MoS2,” Mater. Res. Bull. 21, 457 (1986).
[Crossref]

1972 (2)

J. M. Doviak and A. D. Yoffe, “Exciton-exciton interaction in MoSe2 during laser irradiation,” Phys. Lett. A 38A, 59 (1972).
[Crossref]

A. R. Beal, J. C. Knights, and W. Y. Liang, “Transmission spectra of some transition metal dichalcogenides: II. Group VIA: trigonal prismatic coordination,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 5, 3540 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

B. Evans and R. Hazelwood, “Optical and structural properties of MoSe2,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A 4, 181 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
[Crossref]

1963 (1)

P. B. James and M. T. Lavik, “The crystal structure of MoSe2,” Acta Cryst. 16, 1183 (1963).
[Crossref]

Ahn, C. W.

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J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568 (2011).
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Feng, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
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A. R. Beal, J. C. Knights, and W. Y. Liang, “Transmission spectra of some transition metal dichalcogenides: II. Group VIA: trigonal prismatic coordination,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 5, 3540 (1972).
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Moore, R.

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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
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Perkins, J. M.

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T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, D. Popa, V. Nicolosi, G. Privitera, F. Bonaccorso, and A. C. Ferrari, “Solution-phase exfoliation of graphite for ultrafast photonics,” Phys. Stat. Sol. B 247, 2953 (2010).
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Wang, J. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

K.-G. Zhou, M. Zhao, M.-J. Chang, Q. Wang, X.-Z. Wu, Y. Song, and H.-L. Zhang, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Small 11, 694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, E. Ringe, B. K. Tay, and P. M. Ajayan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Xu, Y. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Huang, J. Peng, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Weng, and R. Moncorgé, “Passively Q-switched Nd:YAlO3 nanosecond laser using MoS2 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 28934 (2014).
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Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
[Crossref]

Weiss, N. O.

J. C. Shaw, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, N. O. Weiss, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer MoSe2 nanosheets,” Nano Res. 7, 511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

Wilson, J. A.

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
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Wong, P. P.

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, “Bulk and surface optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5, 555 (1987).
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Woodward, R. I.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A30 (2015).
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M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522 (2015).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113 (2014).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, T. H. Runcorn, S. V. Popov, F. Torrisi, R. C. T. Howe, and T. Hasan, “Q-switched fiber laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” in CLEO:2014, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper SM3H-6.

Wu, J.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-um fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, K.

Wu, X.-Z.

K.-G. Zhou, M. Zhao, M.-J. Chang, Q. Wang, X.-Z. Wu, Y. Song, and H.-L. Zhang, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Small 11, 694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Xu, W.-C.

Yan, H.

Y. Zhang, T.-R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y.-T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H.-T. Jeng, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 111 (2014).
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Yan, P.

Yang, H.

Ye, G.

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, E. Ringe, B. K. Tay, and P. M. Ajayan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeom, D.-I.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224 (2015).
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S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeizhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 373 (2015).
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Yoffe, A. D.

J. M. Doviak and A. D. Yoffe, “Exciton-exciton interaction in MoSe2 during laser irradiation,” Phys. Lett. A 38A, 59 (1972).
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J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
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Yoo, K.

G. W. Shim, K. Yoo, S.-B. Seo, J. Shin, D. Y. Jung, I.-S. Kang, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Cho, and S.-Y. Choi, “Large-area single-layer MoSe2 and its van der Waals heterostructures,” ACS Nano 8, 6655 (2014).
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Young, K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331, 568 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538 (2014).
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H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4591 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.-L.

K.-G. Zhou, M. Zhao, M.-J. Chang, Q. Wang, X.-Z. Wu, Y. Song, and H.-L. Zhang, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Small 11, 694 (2015).
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K.-G. Zhou and H.-L. Zhang, “Lighten the olympia of the flatland: probing and manipulating the photonic properties of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides,” Small (submitted).

Zhang, K.

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319 (2014).
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Zhang, L.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting of layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors,” arXiv:1503.02257 (2015).

Zhang, M.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” Photon. Res. 3, A30 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341 (2014).
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N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting of layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors,” arXiv:1503.02257 (2015).

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22, 17341 (2014).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453 (2014).
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Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 205422 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dong, Y. Li, Y. Feng, S. Zhang, X. Zhang, C. Chang, J. Fan, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Optical limiting of layered transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors,” arXiv:1503.02257 (2015).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, T.-R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y.-T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H.-T. Jeng, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, H.

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

K.-G. Zhou, M. Zhao, M.-J. Chang, Q. Wang, X.-Z. Wu, Y. Song, and H.-L. Zhang, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Small 11, 694 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zhong, M.

Zhou, B.

Y. Zhang, T.-R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y.-T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H.-T. Jeng, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

J. C. Shaw, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, N. O. Weiss, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer MoSe2 nanosheets,” Nano Res. 7, 511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.-G.

K.-G. Zhou, M. Zhao, M.-J. Chang, Q. Wang, X.-Z. Wu, Y. Song, and H.-L. Zhang, “Size-dependent nonlinear optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Small 11, 694 (2015).
[Crossref]

K.-G. Zhou and H.-L. Zhang, “Lighten the olympia of the flatland: probing and manipulating the photonic properties of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides,” Small (submitted).

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

J. N. Coleman, “Liquid exfoliation of defect-free graphene,” Acc. Chem. Res. 46, 14 (2013).
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ACS Nano (4)

G. Cunningham, M. Lotya, C. S. Cucinotta, S. Sanvito, S. D. Bergin, R. Menzel, M. S. P. Shaffer, and J. N. Coleman, “Solvent exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides: dispersibility of exfoliated nanosheets varies only weakly between compounds,” ACS Nano 6, 3468 (2012).
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G. W. Shim, K. Yoo, S.-B. Seo, J. Shin, D. Y. Jung, I.-S. Kang, C. W. Ahn, B. J. Cho, and S.-Y. Choi, “Large-area single-layer MoSe2 and its van der Waals heterostructures,” ACS Nano 8, 6655 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Gong, G. Shi, W. L. Chow, K. Keyshar, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, J. Lou, Z. Liu, E. Ringe, B. K. Tay, and P. M. Ajayan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of crystalline monolayer MoSe2,” ACS Nano 8, 5125 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260 (2013).
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P. B. James and M. T. Lavik, “The crystal structure of MoSe2,” Acta Cryst. 16, 1183 (1963).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Phys. (1)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of the observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18, 193 (1969).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. Hagan, and E. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1990).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-um fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32, 4679 (2014).
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J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

Q. Ouyang, H. Yu, K. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Saturable absorption and the changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption of MoS2 nanoflake array films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 6319 (2014).
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S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, K. Lo, T. S. Matthews, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Thermally driven crossover from indirect toward direct bandgap in 2D semiconductors: MoSe2 versus MoS2,” Nano Lett. 12, 5576 (2012).
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Nano Res. (2)

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. C. Shaw, H. Zhou, Y. Chen, N. O. Weiss, Y. Liu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer MoSe2 nanosheets,” Nano Res. 7, 511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6, 10530 (2014).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699 (2012).
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Y. Zhang, T.-R. Chang, B. Zhou, Y.-T. Cui, H. Yan, Z. Liu, F. Schmitt, J. Lee, R. Moore, Y. Chen, H. Lin, H.-T. Jeng, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, A. Bansil, and Z.-X. Shen, “Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 111 (2014).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, T. Nazari, H. Jeong, J. Kim, K. Choi, J.-U. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. Cheong, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Saturable optical absorption in MoS2 nano-sheet optically deposited on the optical fiber facet,” Opt. Commun. 335, 224 (2015).
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Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Photon. Res. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. Li, A. Chernikov, X. Zhang, A. Rigosi, H. M. Hill, A. M. van der Zande, D. A. Chenet, E.-M. Shih, J. Hone, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical dielectric function of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides: MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 205422 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Kumar, Q. Cui, F. Ceballos, D. He, Y. Wang, and H. Zhao, “Exciton-exciton annihilation in MoSe2 monolayers,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 125427 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 136805 (2010).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Phys. Stat. Sol. B (1)

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[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Linear optical absorption of MoSe2 flakes in a 10% (v/v) dispersion, showing characteristic excitonic peaks (A & B) (inset: photograph of the diluted dispersion). AFM characterization of MoSe2 flakes: (b) AFM image of a typical flake and two thickness profiles; (c) distribution of flake thicknesses; (d) distribution of lateral flake dimensions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of MoSe2-PVA composite. (b) Optical micrograph showing absence of aggregates. (c) Schematic showing integration of MoSe2 SA device between two fiber patch cords.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Few-layer MoSe2-PVA SA characterization: (a) linear optical absorption, with highlighted absorption values at the operating wavelengths of our MoSe2-based Q-switched lasers; (b) nonlinear optical absorption (at 1566 nm) measured by a Z-scan technique and well fitted by a two-level SA model [46], where α is absorption, I is incident intensity, αs is modulation depth, αns is nonsaturable absorption and Isat is saturation intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Yb:fiber Q-switched laser: (a) cavity schematic; (b) output pulse train at 65.0 kHz repetition rate; (c) pulse profile with 2.85 μs duration for 8.0 mW average output power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Er:fiber Q-switched laser: (a) cavity schematic; (b) output pulse train at 29.4 kHz repetition rate; (c) pulse profile with 5.65 μs duration for 24.5 mW average output power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Tm:fiber Q-switched laser: (a) cavity schematic; (b) output pulse train at 16.9 kHz repetition rate; (c) pulse profile with 7.11 μs duration for 0.79 mW average output power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra for Q-switched operation of few-layer MoSe2 Q-switched Yb- and Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers; the Yb and Er spectrum were measured using an optical spectrum analyzer (0.02 nm resolution), while the Tm spectrum was measured on a spectrometer (∼0.1 nm resolution).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of pulse duration and repetition rate with average output power for (a) Yb-, (b) Er-, and (c) Tm-doped fiber lasers, Q-switched with a few-layer MoSe2 SA.

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