Abstract

We demonstrate the use of an all-fiberized, mode-locked 1.94 μm laser with a saturable absorption device based on a tungsten disulfide (WS2)-deposited side-polished fiber. The WS2 particles were prepared via liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) without centrifugation. A series of measurements including Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the prepared particles had thick nanostructures of more than 5 layers. The prepared saturable absorption device used the evanescent field interaction mechanism between the oscillating beam and WS2 particles and its modulation depth was measured to be ~10.9% at a wavelength of 1925 nm. Incorporating the WS2-based saturable absorption device into a thulium-holmium co-doped fiber ring cavity, stable mode-locked pulses with a temporal width of ~1.3 ps at a repetition rate of 34.8 MHz were readily obtained at a wavelength of 1941 nm. The results of this experiment confirm that WS2 can be used as an effective broadband saturable absorption material that is suitable to passively generate pulses at 2 μm wavelengths.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (10)

H. Li, J. Liu, Z. Cheng, J. Xu, F. Tan, and P. Wang, “Pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6292–6303 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “All-polarization maintaining, graphene-based femtosecond Tm-doped all-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(7), 9339–9346 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. H. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.89-μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 0900206 (2015).

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. L. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of excitonic Rydberg stages in monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (17)

Z. Ye, T. Cao, K. O’Brien, H. Zhu, X. Yin, Y. Wang, S. G. Louie, and X. Zhang, “Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide,” Nature 513(7517), 214–218 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, Y.-L. Qi, H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4079–4084 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber dissipative soliton laser with 10.2 nJ pulse energy using an evanescent field interaction with graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(1), 015101 (2014).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. H. Lee, “All-fiberized, passively Q-switched 1.06 μm laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085203 (2014).
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C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 μm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
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Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers–reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (10)

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 868–874 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez and Z. Sun, “Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fibre lasers,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 842–845 (2013).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, P. Debnath, Y.-W. Song, and J. H. Lee, “A Q-switched, mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene oxide-based polarization sensitive saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
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Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L.-J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
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H. Zeng, G.-B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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2012 (10)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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A. Ramasubramaniam, “Large excitonic effects in monolayers of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. B 86(11), 115409 (2012).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
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W. Zhou, D. Y. Shen, Y. S. Wang, J. Y. Long, and Y. An, “Mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser with a narrow bandwidth and high pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 587–590 (2012).
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S. Yamashita, “A tutorial on nonlinear photonic applications of carbon nanotube and graphene,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 427–447 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Q. Wang, and P. Wang, “High average power picosecond pulse generation from a thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA system,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22442–22447 (2012).
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A. Wienke, F. Haxsen, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “Ultrafast, stretched-pulse thulium-doped fiber laser with a fiber-based dispersion management,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2466–2468 (2012).
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K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: A pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(2), 199–206 (2012).
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2011 (3)

Q. Wang, J. Geng, Z. Jiang, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked Tm-Ho–codoped fiber laser at 2.06 μm,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(11), 682–684 (2011).
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G. D. Spiers, R. T. Menzies, J. Jacob, L. E. Christensen, M. W. Phillips, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “Atmospheric CO2 measurements with a 2 μm airborne laser absorption spectrometer employing coherent detection,” Appl. Opt. 50(14), 2098–2111 (2011).
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J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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2010 (7)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS₂: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
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A. Tüennermann, S. Nolte, and J. Limpert, “Femtosecond vs. picosecond laser material processing,” Laser Tech. J. 7(1), 34–38 (2010).
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J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
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Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
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2009 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 µm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
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2008 (2)

Y.-W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and N. Xiang, “Coherent energy exchange between components of a vector soliton in fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12618–12623 (2008).
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2007 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998).
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1997 (1)

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon gas sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(4), 1103–1111 (1997).
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1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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1995 (1)

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500 fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(1), 19 (1995).
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1993 (1)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
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1992 (1)

S. M. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28(8), 806–808 (1992).
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1987 (1)

C. B. Roxlo, R. R. Chianelli, H. W. Deckman, A. F. Ruppert, and P. P. Wong, “Bulk and surface optical absorption in molybdenum disulfide,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 5(4), 555–557 (1987).
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1986 (1)

C. B. Roxlo, M. Daage, A. F. Ruppert, and R. R. Chianelli, “Optical absorption and catalytic activity of molybdenum sulfide edge surfaces,” J. Catal. 100(1), 176–184 (1986).
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Abramski, K. M.

An, Y.

W. Zhou, D. Y. Shen, Y. S. Wang, J. Y. Long, and Y. An, “Mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser with a narrow bandwidth and high pulse energy,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(8), 587–590 (2012).
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Arora, S. K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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Bae, M.-K.

Y.-W. Song, S.-Y. Jang, W.-S. Han, and M.-K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
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Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Bennetts, S.

Bergin, S. D.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Berkelbach, T. C.

H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of excitonic Rydberg stages in monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
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Boland, J. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H.-Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998).
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Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
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B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55 μm and 1.81 μm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 76–79 (1998).
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Browell, E. V.

Bruce, S.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser: A pilot study,” Dermatol. Surg. 38(2), 199–206 (2012).
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Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. M. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
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H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of excitonic Rydberg stages in monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
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Bucher, E.

V. Podzorov, M. E. Gershenson, C. Kloc, R. Zeis, and E. Bucher, “High-mobility field-effect transistors based on transition metal dichalcogenides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3301 (2004).
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Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, M. Zhong, Y. Li, J. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “1-, 1.5-, and 2-μm fiber lasers Q-switched by a broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4079–4084 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Huang, D. Wu, J. Wu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, Z. Lin, L. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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Cao, G.

Cao, T.

Z. Ye, T. Cao, K. O’Brien, H. Zhu, X. Yin, Y. Wang, S. G. Louie, and X. Zhang, “Probing excitonic dark states in single-layer tungsten disulphide,” Nature 513(7517), 214–218 (2014).
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Chen, H.

Chen, K. P.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
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Chen, R.

Z. Tian, K. Wu, L. Kong, N. Yang, Y. Wang, R. Chen, W. Hu, J. Xu, and Y. Tang, “Mode-locked thulium fiber laser with MoS2,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(6), 065104 (2015).
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Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
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Chen, X.

H. Zeng, G.-B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express http://arxiv.org/abs/1503.08003 .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the ultrasonication used to prepare the nanostructured WS2 particles in a solvent consisting of distilled water. (b) Photograph of the WS2 water solution that was prepared.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured (a) SEM image and (b) AFM image of the prepared WS2 solution, which was dropped on top of a slide glass and was dried for 5 hours.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured (a) absorbance and (b) Raman spectrum of the prepared WS2 particles.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic and (b) photograph of the WS2-deposited side-polished fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measurement setup for nonlinear transmission of the WS2-based SA. Measured nonlinear transmission curves (b) at a wavelength of 1925 nm and (c) at 1560 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Tm-Ho co-doped fiber-based mode-locked laser configuration.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Optical spectrum and (b) oscilloscope trace of the output pulses. Inset: Oscilloscope trace for a narrow span.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Autocorrelation of the output pulses. (b) Electrical spectrum of the output pulses. Inset: Electrical spectrum for a span of 1.5 GHz.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Output performance of our mode-locked Tm-doped fiber laser incorporating a WS2-based SA in comparison with that of the Tm-doped fiber laser incorporating compound semiconductor- or graphene-based SAs

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Table 2 Performance comparison at 2 μm wavelengths between our laser incorporating a WS2-based SA and a fiber laser using a MoS2-based one

Equations (1)

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T(I)=1ΔTexp( I I sat ) T ns

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