Abstract

Active mode-locking of Raman fiber laser is experimentally investigated for the first time. An all fiber connected and polarization maintaining loop cavity of ~500 m long is pumped by a linearly polarized 1120 nm Yb fiber laser and modulated by an acousto-optic modulator. Stable 2 ns width pulse train at 1178 nm is obtained with modulator opening time of > 50 ns. At higher power, pulses become longer, and second order Raman Stokes could take place, which however can be suppressed by adjusting the open time and modulation frequency. Transient pulse evolution measurement confirms the absence of relaxation oscillation in Raman fiber laser. Tuning of repetition rate from 392 kHz to 31.37 MHz is obtained with harmonic mode locking.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (1996).
  2. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (2007).
  3. C. Aguergaray, D. Méchin, V. Kruglov, and J. D. Harvey, “Experimental realization of a Mode-locked parabolic Raman fiber oscillator,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8680–8687 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Chestnut and J. R. Taylor, “Wavelength-versatile subpicosecond pulsed lasers using Raman gain in figure-of-eight fiber geometries,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 2982–2984 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Schröder, S. Coen, F. Vanholsbeeck, and T. Sylvestre, “Passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser with 100 GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3489–3491 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Randoux and P. Suret, “Toward passive mode locking by nonlinear polarization evolution in a cascaded Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 145–148 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Chamorovskiy, A. Rantamäki, A. Sirbu, A. Mereuta, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “1.38-µm mode-locked Raman fiber laser pumped by semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23872–23877 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Chamorovskiy, J. Rautiainen, J. Lyytikäinen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, A. Sirbu, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Raman fiber laser pumped by a semiconductor disk laser and mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3529–3531 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Flahaut, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Ultrafast Raman laser mode-locked by nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3996–3998 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Luo, M. Zhong, F. Xiong, D. Wu, Y. Huang, Y. Li, L. Le, B. Xu, H. Xu, and Z. Cai, “Intermode beating mode-locking technique for O-band mixed-cascaded Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 502–505 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Q. Luo, C. C. Ye, H. Y. Fu, H. H. Cheng, J. Z. Wang, and Z. P. Cai, “Raman fiber laser harmonically mode-locked by exploiting the intermodal beating of CW multimode pump source,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19905–19911 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Churin, J. Olson, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “High-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2529–2532 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. Cuadrado-Laborde, M. Bello-Jiménez, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Long-cavity all-fiber ring laser actively mode locked with an in-fiber bandpass acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 68–71 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, M. Bello-Jiménez, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Long-cavity all-fiber ring laser actively mode locked with an in-fiber bandpass acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 68–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, C. C. Ye, H. Y. Fu, H. H. Cheng, J. Z. Wang, and Z. P. Cai, “Raman fiber laser harmonically mode-locked by exploiting the intermodal beating of CW multimode pump source,” Opt. Express 20(18), 19905–19911 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2006 (2)

S. Randoux and P. Suret, “Toward passive mode locking by nonlinear polarization evolution in a cascaded Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 145–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Schröder, S. Coen, F. Vanholsbeeck, and T. Sylvestre, “Passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser with 100 GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3489–3491 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (2007).

Aguergaray, C.

Andrés, M. V.

Apolonski, A.

D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babin, S. A.

D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednyakova, A. E.

D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bello-Jiménez, M.

Cai, Z.

Cai, Z. P.

Castellani, C. E. S.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Flahaut, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Ultrafast Raman laser mode-locked by nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3996–3998 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chamorovskiy, A.

Cheng, H. H.

Chestnut, D. A.

Churin, D.

Coen, S.

Cruz, J. L.

Cuadrado-Laborde, C.

Diels, J. C.

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (1996).

Díez, A.

Fan, J.

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedoruk, M. P.

D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Flahaut, E.

Fu, H. Y.

Harvey, J. D.

Hasan, T.

Hu, J.

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Kalashnikov, V. L.

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapon, E.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Flahaut, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Ultrafast Raman laser mode-locked by nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3996–3998 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kharenko, D. S.

D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kieu, K.

Kruglov, V.

Le, L.

Li, Y.

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, M. Zhong, F. Xiong, D. Wu, Y. Huang, Y. Li, L. Le, B. Xu, H. Xu, and Z. Cai, “Intermode beating mode-locking technique for O-band mixed-cascaded Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. Q.

Lyytikäinen, J.

Méchin, D.

Mereuta, A.

Norwood, R. A.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Olson, J.

Ouyang, C.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Podivilov, E. V.

D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, E. V. Podivilov, M. P. Fedoruk, A. Apolonski, and S. A. Babin, “Feedback-controlled Raman dissipative solitons in a fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1857–1862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popa, D.

Popov, S. V.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Flahaut, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Ultrafast Raman laser mode-locked by nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3996–3998 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randoux, S.

S. Randoux and P. Suret, “Toward passive mode locking by nonlinear polarization evolution in a cascaded Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 145–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ranta, S.

Rantamäki, A.

Rautiainen, J.

Rudolph, W.

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (1996).

Schröder, J.

Shen, Z.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shum, P. P.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sirbu, A.

Sun, Z.

Suret, P.

S. Randoux and P. Suret, “Toward passive mode locking by nonlinear polarization evolution in a cascaded Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 145–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sylvestre, T.

Tavast, M.

Taylor, J. R.

Travers, J. C.

Vanholsbeeck, F.

Wang, G.

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Z.

Wu, D.

Wu, K.

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xiong, F.

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Ye, C. C.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhong, M.

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Zhang, G. Wang, J. Hu, J. Wang, J. Fan, J. Wang, and Y. Feng, “Linearly Polarized 1180-nm Raman Fiber Laser Mode Locked by Graphene,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1809–1815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, Z. Luo, K. Wu, C. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, Z. Shen, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Harmonic and single pulse operation of a Raman laser using graphene,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(3), 223–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

S. A. Babin, E. V. Podivilov, D. S. Kharenko, A. E. Bednyakova, M. P. Fedoruk, V. L. Kalashnikov, and A. Apolonski, “Multicolour nonlinearly bound chirped dissipative solitons,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4653 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Randoux and P. Suret, “Toward passive mode locking by nonlinear polarization evolution in a cascaded Raman fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 267(1), 145–148 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

A. Chamorovskiy, J. Rautiainen, J. Lyytikäinen, S. Ranta, M. Tavast, A. Sirbu, E. Kapon, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Raman fiber laser pumped by a semiconductor disk laser and mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3529–3531 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Chestnut and J. R. Taylor, “Wavelength-versatile subpicosecond pulsed lasers using Raman gain in figure-of-eight fiber geometries,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 2982–2984 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Schröder, S. Coen, F. Vanholsbeeck, and T. Sylvestre, “Passively mode-locked Raman fiber laser with 100 GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3489–3491 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cuadrado-Laborde, M. Bello-Jiménez, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, “Long-cavity all-fiber ring laser actively mode locked with an in-fiber bandpass acousto-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 68–71 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. S. Castellani, E. J. R. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Flahaut, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Ultrafast Raman laser mode-locked by nanotubes,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3996–3998 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Luo, M. Zhong, F. Xiong, D. Wu, Y. Huang, Y. Li, L. Le, B. Xu, H. Xu, and Z. Cai, “Intermode beating mode-locking technique for O-band mixed-cascaded Raman fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(4), 502–505 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Churin, J. Olson, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “High-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(11), 2529–2532 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena (1996).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (2007).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of the actively mode-locked Raman fiber laser

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser output characteristics at a pump power of 2.8 W: (a) typical pulse profile and pulse train (inset). (b) RF spectrum around the fundamental repetition frequency and 0-20 MHz RF trace (inset). (c) output spectrum. (d) pulse profiles with AOM open time of 80 ns and 150 ns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The repetition frequency and average output power, respectively, as functions of pump power. (b) Pulse duration and pulse peak power versus the pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser output characteristics at a pump power of 3.4 W: (a) typical pulse profile with a AOM repetition frequency of 391.925 kHz and open time of 50 ns, 80 ns and 150 ns; (b) pulse train of the mode-locked laser; (c) the RF spectrum at the fundamental repetition frequency; (d) the output optical spectrum with AOM open time 50 ns and 150 ns, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transient pulse evolution of the mode locked Raman fiber laser from establishment to steady state.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

80th order harmonic mode locking at a pump power of 3.2 W. (a) pulse train; (b) RF spectrum.

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