Abstract

We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (5)

2013 (3)

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Y. Sung and R. R. Dasari, “Deterministic regularization of three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(8), 1554–1561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, K. Kulangara, A. Wax, and K. W. Leong, “Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture,” Integr Biol (Camb) 3(8), 863–867 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Opt. 26, 349–393 (1988).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1970 (1)

R. Dändliker and K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1(7), 323–328 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153–156 (1969).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

Aknoun, S.

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, S. Monneret, and B. Wattellier, “Enhanced 3D spatial resolution in quantitative phase microscopy using spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8654–8671 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barer, R.

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergstrom, D. E.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bishara, W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bon, P.

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, S. Monneret, and B. Wattellier, “Enhanced 3D spatial resolution in quantitative phase microscopy using spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8654–8671 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brady, D. J.

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chalut, K. J.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, K. Kulangara, A. Wax, and K. W. Leong, “Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture,” Integr Biol (Camb) 3(8), 863–867 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charrière, F.

Cheng, J.-X.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, K.

Choi, W.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.

Clegg, W. L.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cooper, K. L.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Opt. 26, 349–393 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cuche, E.

Dändliker, R.

R. Dändliker and K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1(7), 323–328 (1970).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung and R. R. Dasari, “Deterministic regularization of three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(8), 1554–1561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Devaney, A. J.

Dolash, B. D.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekpenyong, A. E.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Feng, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiolka, R.

Freudiger, C.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friebel, M.

Fu, D.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guck, J.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamza, B.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heintzmann, R.

Holbrow, C. J.

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horisaki, R.

Hosseini, P.

Hsu, W.-C.

Ikeda, T.

Irimia, D.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isikman, S. O.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, Y.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. W.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Kim, T.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kirschner, M. W.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuehn, J.

Kulangara, K.

K. J. Chalut, K. Kulangara, A. Wax, and K. W. Leong, “Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture,” Integr Biol (Camb) 3(8), 863–867 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, R.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauer, V.

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Leong, K. W.

K. J. Chalut, K. Kulangara, A. Wax, and K. W. Leong, “Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture,” Integr Biol (Camb) 3(8), 863–867 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, V.

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

Liu, Y.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F.-K.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marian, A.

Marks, D. L.

Marquet, P.

Martel, J.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mavandadi, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meinke, M.

Melhuish, I. C.

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monneret, S.

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, S. Monneret, and B. Wattellier, “Enhanced 3D spatial resolution in quantitative phase microscopy using spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8654–8671 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Montfort, F.

Oh, S.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozcan, A.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

K. Kim, Z. Yaqoob, K. Lee, J. W. Kang, Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, P. T. So, and Y. Park, “Diffraction optical tomography using a quantitative phase imaging unit,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6935–6938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernik, D. R.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed Teague, M.

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savatier, J.

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, P. T.

Stemmer, A.

Su, J.-W.

Sung, K.-B.

Sung, Y.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung and R. R. Dasari, “Deterministic regularization of three-dimensional optical diffraction tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(8), 1554–1561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabin, C. J.

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, T.-Y.

Tzur, A.

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wattellier, B.

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, S. Monneret, and B. Wattellier, “Enhanced 3D spatial resolution in quantitative phase microscopy using spatially incoherent illumination,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8654–8671 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wax, A.

K. J. Chalut, K. Kulangara, A. Wax, and K. W. Leong, “Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture,” Integr Biol (Camb) 3(8), 863–867 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Dändliker and K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1(7), 323–328 (1970).
[Crossref]

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Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153–156 (1969).
[Crossref]

Xie, X. S.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaqoob, Z.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, Z. Yaqoob, K. Lee, J. W. Kang, Y. Choi, P. Hosseini, P. T. So, and Y. Park, “Diffraction optical tomography using a quantitative phase imaging unit,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6935–6938 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F. W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, R.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Integr Biol (Camb) (2)

K. J. Chalut, K. Kulangara, A. Wax, and K. W. Leong, “Stem cell differentiation indicated by noninvasive photonic characterization and fractal analysis of subcellular architecture,” Integr Biol (Camb) 3(8), 863–867 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Chalut, A. E. Ekpenyong, W. L. Clegg, I. C. Melhuish, and J. Guck, “Quantifying cellular differentiation by physical phenotype using digital holographic microscopy,” Integr Biol (Camb) 4(3), 280–284 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Fang-Yen, W. Choi, Y. Sung, C. J. Holbrow, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Video-rate tomographic phase microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(1), 011005 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(2), 165–176 (2002).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Methods (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Tong, Y. Liu, B. D. Dolash, Y. Jung, M. N. Slipchenko, D. E. Bergstrom, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free imaging of semiconducting and metallic carbon nanotubes in cells and mice using transient absorption microscopy,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 56–61 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. L. Cooper, S. Oh, Y. Sung, R. R. Dasari, M. W. Kirschner, and C. J. Tabin, “Multiple phases of chondrocyte enlargement underlie differences in skeletal proportions,” Nature 495(7441), 375–378 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

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[Crossref]

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1(4), 153–156 (1969).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

S. Zhang, “Recent progresses on real-time 3D shape measurement using digital fringe projection techniques,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48(2), 149–158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1(1), 014002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (1)

Y. Sung, W. Choi, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and Z. Yaqoob, “Stain-free quantification of chromosomes in live cells using regularized tomographic phase microscopy,” PLoS One 7(11), e49502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

Y. Sung, A. Tzur, S. Oh, W. Choi, V. Li, R. R. Dasari, Z. Yaqoob, and M. W. Kirschner, “Size homeostasis in adherent cells studied by synthetic phase microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(41), 16687–16692 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Bon, S. Aknoun, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, “Tomographic incoherent phase imaging, a diffraction tomography alternative for any white-light microscope,” Proc. SPIE 8589, 858918 (2013).
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[Crossref]

Science (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (Siam, 1988), Vol. 33.

J. Hadamard, Lectures on Cauchy’s Problem in Linear Partial Differential Equations (Courier Corporation, 2014).

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw Hill Professional, 2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tomographic optical microscopy in various configurations for three-dimensional refractive index mapping of a specimen: (a) Rotating-sample geometry [13]. (b) Rotating-beam geometry [5,14,15]. (c) Objective-lens-scan geometry [18–21]. (d) Scanning-sample geometry [22,23], and (e) color-scan geometry proposed in this study. The figure (e) also shows the spatial (X,Y,Z) coordinates used for derivation of the formula.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mapping of the two-dimensional scattered fields in the spatial frequency space for different wavelengths and illumination angles: (a) Single-beam illumination. (b) Three-beam illumination (0, + θ and -θ), and (c) continuous scanning of the illumination angle from –θ to + θ. For this simulation, θ = 32° was used. Figures (d)-(f) are X-Z cross-sections of the refractive index map reconstructed from (a)-(c), respectively. The wavelength is varied from 430 to 630 nm. Imaging objective (60X, NA = 1.2). Scale bar is 10 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: SP (Sample plane); IP (Image plane); FP (Fourier Plane); Condenser lens (Olympus 60 X, NA = 0.8), Objective lens (Nikon 60 X, NA = 1.2). f1 = 30 mm, f2 = 50 mm, f3 = 200 mm, f4 = 200 mm, f5 = 100 mm, and f6 = 300 mm. Non-diffracted order is shown in red while yellow refers to the oblique illumination. Interferograms I, II, and III are decomposition of the raw interferogram (bottom right) into its three components. The physical mask placed at FP2, creates a reference by spatially cleaning the non-diffracted order while passing the 1st order sample beams that correspond to the three incident angles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data processing. (a) Two-dimensional Fourier transform of the raw interferogram, whose magnitude is shown in a logarithmic scale of base 10. (b) Cropping the spatial frequencies using masks defined by the physical numerical aperture. The circles are centered at the object zero frequency location corresponding to the illumination angle. Blue dots show the center points. (c)-(e) Phase maps after unwrapping, which correspond to + θ, normal, -θ beams, respectively. Scale bar is10 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial-frequency mapping and reconstructed tomogram of a 10 μm Polystyrene bead before/after regularization. (a) Vertical cross-section of the spatial-frequency spectrum before regularization. (b), (c) Reconstructed images in X-Z and X-Y planes, respectively, before regularization. (d) Vertical cross-section of the spatial-frequency spectrum after regularization. (e), (f) Reconstructed images of the bead in X-Z and X-Y planes after regularization. Scale bar is 10 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-dimensional refractive index map of a hematopoietic stem cell: (a)-(c) Horizontal cross-sections of the tomogram at 2 μm intervals. d) Cumulative phase map of the whole cell. (e)-(f) Three-dimensional rendering of the cell using the measured refractive index map, which shows various internal structures. Scale bar is 10 μm.

Equations (6)

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f( r )= k 0 2 ( n ( r ) 2 n m 2 ),
[ 2 + k 2 2 ] u s ( r )=f( r )u( r ),k= n m k 0
F( k X , k Y , k Z )=( i k z /π )exp( i k z z ) U s ( k x , k y ;z ), k z = k 2 k x 2 k y 2
k X = k x k m x k Y = k y k m y k Z = k z k 1 m x 2 m y 2
u s ( r )= u 0 ( r ) φ s , φ s ( r )=ln[ u( r ) / u 0 ( r ) ].
n δ >> [ k φ s ] 2 .

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