Abstract

We have investigated coherent LO phonon properties in zinc-based II–VI widegap semiconductors, focusing on phonon-plasma coupled modes. By a careful treatment of the time evolution of the signals in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe, we found a frequency upshift as the pump intensity increases. Using a classical coupled oscillator model, we have explained the pump intensity dependence of both the shift and the decay rates by a mixing of highly damped two-photon generated plasma. From the linear dependence between them we can estimate the photo-excited carrier mobilities, leading to a new powerful estimation method to measure the mobility.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  7. M. Hase, “Carrier mobility in a polar semiconductor measured by an optical pump-probe technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 112111 (2009).
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  8. O. V. Misochko and T. N. Fursova, “Coupled phonon-plasmon modes in indium phosphide observed by an ultrafast pump-probe technique,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 5577–5585 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y.-M. Chang, H. W. Chu, C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Determination of the electron effective mass of wurtzite InN by coherent upper-branch A1(LO) phonon-plasmon coupling mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 072111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Bakker, R. Hövel, and H. Kurz, “Generation and Relaxation of Coherent Majority Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4062–4065 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  21. C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Menéndez, and M. Cardona, “Long-lived optical phonons in ZnO studied with impulsive stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205211 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. Smith, T. Juhasz, W. Bron, and Y. Levinson, “Interaction of an electron-hole plasma with optical phonons in GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2366–2369 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. F. Vallée, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Bogani, “Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13141–13146 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. Bron, S. Mehta, J. Kuhl, and M. Klingenstein, “Interaction of optical phonons with a one-component plasma,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 12642–12648 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  27. G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, B. H. Bairamov, and J. Monecke, “Determination of the charge carrier concentration and mobility in n-gap by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi B 119, 595–603 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  28. S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Ramsteiner, J. Wagner, P. Hiesinger, K. Köhler, and U. Rössler, “Raman spectroscopic and Hall effect analysis of the free electron concentration in GaAs with ultrahigh silicon doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 5023 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Artús, R. Cuscó, J. Ibáñez, N. Blanco, and G. González-Díaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5456–5463 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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  32. G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9524–9538 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y.-M. Chang, “Interaction of electron and hole plasma with coherent longitudinal optical phonons in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2487 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Yin, H. Li, S. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  37. J. Kardontchik and E. Cohen, “Raman Scattering from Plasmons in Photoexcited GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 669–672 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  38. S. Adachi, Properties of Group-IV, III–V and II–VI Semiconductors, (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 7.
  39. S. Adachi, Properties of Group-IV, III–V and II–VI Semiconductors, (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 12, p. 406.
  40. M. Aven, “High Electron Mobility in Zinc Selenide Through Low-Temperature Annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1204 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  41. D. Rode, “Electron Mobility in II–VI Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4036–4044 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Fujita, H. Mimoto, H. Takebe, and T. Noguchi, “Growth of cubic ZnS, ZnSe and ZnSxSe1−x single crystals by iodine transport,” J. Cryst. Growth 47, 326–334 (1979).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Mizoguchi, R. Morishita, and G. Oohata, “Generation of Coherent Phonons in a CdTe Single Crystal Using an Ultrafast Two-Phonon Laser-Excitation Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 077402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. Hase, D. Hayashi, and J. D. Lee, “Control of carrier transport in GaAs by longitudinal-optical phonon-carrier scattering using a pair of laser pump pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073715 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ishioka, A. Basak, and H. Petek, “Allowed and forbidden Raman scattering mechanisms for detection of coherent LO phonon and plasmon-coupled modes in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235202 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Hase, “Carrier mobility in a polar semiconductor measured by an optical pump-probe technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 112111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Kasai, D. Suzuki, H. Kunugita, and K. Ema, “Resonantly excited coherent optical phonons in wide-gap semiconductor ZnTe,” J. Lumin. 129, 1820–1823 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. Chang, H. W. Chu, C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Determination of the electron effective mass of wurtzite InN by coherent upper-branch A1(LO) phonon-plasmon coupling mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 072111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Menéndez, and M. Cardona, “Long-lived optical phonons in ZnO studied with impulsive stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205211 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. V. Misochko and T. N. Fursova, “Coupled phonon-plasmon modes in indium phosphide observed by an ultrafast pump-probe technique,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 5577–5585 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Lee, D. Kim, and D. Lee, “Coherent phonon oscillations excited by second-order Raman scattering in CdZnTe multiple quantum wells and cubic ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 153308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, Y.-H. Ahn, E. Oh, and J.-H. Lee, “Coherent optical phonon oscillations in cubic ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2446 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

K. Yee, K. Lee, E. Oh, D. Kim, and Y. Lim, “Coherent Optical Phonon Oscillations in Bulk GaN Excited by Far below the Band Gap Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105501 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-M. Chang, “Interaction of electron and hole plasma with coherent longitudinal optical phonons in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2487 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Yin, H. Li, S. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. Artús, R. Cuscó, J. Ibáñez, N. Blanco, and G. González-Díaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (3)

R. Merlin, “Generating coherent THz phonons with light pulses,” Solid State Commun. 102, 207–220 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9524–9538 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Vallée, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Bogani, “Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13141–13146 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Bakker, R. Hövel, and H. Kurz, “Generation and Relaxation of Coherent Majority Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4062–4065 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Ramsteiner, J. Wagner, P. Hiesinger, K. Köhler, and U. Rössler, “Raman spectroscopic and Hall effect analysis of the free electron concentration in GaAs with ultrahigh silicon doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 5023 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

G. Smith, T. Juhasz, W. Bron, and Y. Levinson, “Interaction of an electron-hole plasma with optical phonons in GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2366–2369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

G. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

W. Bron, S. Mehta, J. Kuhl, and M. Klingenstein, “Interaction of optical phonons with a one-component plasma,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 12642–12648 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: General importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5391 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, B. H. Bairamov, and J. Monecke, “Determination of the charge carrier concentration and mobility in n-gap by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi B 119, 595–603 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. H. Bairamov, a. Heinrich, G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, and E. Ziegler, “Raman study of the phonon halfwidths and the phonon-plasmon coupling in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) 119, 227–234 (1983).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. Kardontchik and E. Cohen, “Raman Scattering from Plasmons in Photoexcited GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 669–672 (1979).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, H. Mimoto, H. Takebe, and T. Noguchi, “Growth of cubic ZnS, ZnSe and ZnSxSe1−x single crystals by iodine transport,” J. Cryst. Growth 47, 326–334 (1979).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

M. Aven, “High Electron Mobility in Zinc Selenide Through Low-Temperature Annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1204 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

D. Rode, “Electron Mobility in II–VI Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4036–4044 (1970).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, Properties of Group-IV, III–V and II–VI Semiconductors, (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 7.

S. Adachi, Properties of Group-IV, III–V and II–VI Semiconductors, (Wiley, 2005), Chap. 12, p. 406.

Ahn, Y.-H.

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, Y.-H. Ahn, E. Oh, and J.-H. Lee, “Coherent optical phonon oscillations in cubic ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2446 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aku-Leh, C.

C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Menéndez, and M. Cardona, “Long-lived optical phonons in ZnO studied with impulsive stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205211 (2005).
[Crossref]

Artús, L.

L. Artús, R. Cuscó, J. Ibáñez, N. Blanco, and G. González-Díaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Aven, M.

M. Aven, “High Electron Mobility in Zinc Selenide Through Low-Temperature Annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1204 (1971).
[Crossref]

Bairamov, B. H.

B. H. Bairamov, a. Heinrich, G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, and E. Ziegler, “Raman study of the phonon halfwidths and the phonon-plasmon coupling in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) 119, 227–234 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, B. H. Bairamov, and J. Monecke, “Determination of the charge carrier concentration and mobility in n-gap by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi B 119, 595–603 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bakker, H.

G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Bakker, R. Hövel, and H. Kurz, “Generation and Relaxation of Coherent Majority Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4062–4065 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balu, M.

Barlow, S.

Basak, A.

K. Ishioka, A. Basak, and H. Petek, “Allowed and forbidden Raman scattering mechanisms for detection of coherent LO phonon and plasmon-coupled modes in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belfield, K.

Blanco, N.

L. Artús, R. Cuscó, J. Ibáñez, N. Blanco, and G. González-Díaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bogani, F.

F. Vallée, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Bogani, “Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13141–13146 (1997).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and K. Huang, Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1998).

Bron, W.

G. Smith, T. Juhasz, W. Bron, and Y. Levinson, “Interaction of an electron-hole plasma with optical phonons in GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2366–2369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bron, S. Mehta, J. Kuhl, and M. Klingenstein, “Interaction of optical phonons with a one-component plasma,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 12642–12648 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cantarero, A.

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Menéndez, and M. Cardona, “Long-lived optical phonons in ZnO studied with impulsive stimulated Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 205211 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-M.

Y.-M. Chang, H. W. Chu, C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Determination of the electron effective mass of wurtzite InN by coherent upper-branch A1(LO) phonon-plasmon coupling mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 072111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. Chang, “Interaction of electron and hole plasma with coherent longitudinal optical phonons in GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2487 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-Y.

Y.-M. Chang, H. W. Chu, C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Determination of the electron effective mass of wurtzite InN by coherent upper-branch A1(LO) phonon-plasmon coupling mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 072111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, G.

G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Bakker, R. Hövel, and H. Kurz, “Generation and Relaxation of Coherent Majority Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4062–4065 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cho, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond time-resolved coherent-phonon oscillations in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 764–766 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dekorsy, G. Cho, and H. Kurz, “Coherent phonons in condensed media,” in “Light Scattering in Solids VIII,” vol. 76 of Topics in Applied Physics, M. Cardona and G. Gntherodt, eds. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2000), pp. 169–209.
[Crossref]

Chu, H. W.

Y.-M. Chang, H. W. Chu, C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Determination of the electron effective mass of wurtzite InN by coherent upper-branch A1(LO) phonon-plasmon coupling mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 072111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E.

J. Kardontchik and E. Cohen, “Raman Scattering from Plasmons in Photoexcited GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 669–672 (1979).
[Crossref]

Cuscó, R.

L. Artús, R. Cuscó, J. Ibáñez, N. Blanco, and G. González-Díaz, “Raman scattering by LO phonon-plasmon coupled modes in n-type InP,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 5456–5463 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dekorsy, T.

G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Bakker, R. Hövel, and H. Kurz, “Generation and Relaxation of Coherent Majority Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4062–4065 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dekorsy, G. Cho, and H. Kurz, “Coherent phonons in condensed media,” in “Light Scattering in Solids VIII,” vol. 76 of Topics in Applied Physics, M. Cardona and G. Gntherodt, eds. (Springer BerlinHeidelberg, 2000), pp. 169–209.
[Crossref]

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ema, K.

Y. Kasai, D. Suzuki, H. Kunugita, and K. Ema, “Resonantly excited coherent optical phonons in wide-gap semiconductor ZnTe,” J. Lumin. 129, 1820–1823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fatti, N. D.

N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

S. Fujita, H. Mimoto, H. Takebe, and T. Noguchi, “Growth of cubic ZnS, ZnSe and ZnSxSe1−x single crystals by iodine transport,” J. Cryst. Growth 47, 326–334 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fursova, T. N.

O. V. Misochko and T. N. Fursova, “Coupled phonon-plasmon modes in indium phosphide observed by an ultrafast pump-probe technique,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 5577–5585 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gamble, E. B.

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: General importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5391 (1985).
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N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
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J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
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H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
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G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9524–9538 (1997).
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B. H. Bairamov, a. Heinrich, G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, and E. Ziegler, “Raman study of the phonon halfwidths and the phonon-plasmon coupling in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) 119, 227–234 (1983).
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G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, B. H. Bairamov, and J. Monecke, “Determination of the charge carrier concentration and mobility in n-gap by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi B 119, 595–603 (1983).
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S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
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Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Lee, D. Kim, and D. Lee, “Coherent phonon oscillations excited by second-order Raman scattering in CdZnTe multiple quantum wells and cubic ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 153308 (2003).
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K. Yee, K. Lee, E. Oh, D. Kim, and Y. Lim, “Coherent Optical Phonon Oscillations in Bulk GaN Excited by Far below the Band Gap Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105501 (2002).
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I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
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S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
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M. Ramsteiner, J. Wagner, P. Hiesinger, K. Köhler, and U. Rössler, “Raman spectroscopic and Hall effect analysis of the free electron concentration in GaAs with ultrahigh silicon doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 5023 (1993).
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H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
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G. Cho, T. Dekorsy, H. Bakker, R. Hövel, and H. Kurz, “Generation and Relaxation of Coherent Majority Plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4062–4065 (1996).
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Langot, P.

N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
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J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
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Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Lee, D. Kim, and D. Lee, “Coherent phonon oscillations excited by second-order Raman scattering in CdZnTe multiple quantum wells and cubic ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 153308 (2003).
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Lee, I. H.

I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
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Lee, J. D.

M. Hase, D. Hayashi, and J. D. Lee, “Control of carrier transport in GaAs by longitudinal-optical phonon-carrier scattering using a pair of laser pump pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, Y.-H. Ahn, E. Oh, and J.-H. Lee, “Coherent optical phonon oscillations in cubic ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2446 (2003).
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Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Lee, D. Kim, and D. Lee, “Coherent phonon oscillations excited by second-order Raman scattering in CdZnTe multiple quantum wells and cubic ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 153308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

K. Yee, K. Lee, E. Oh, D. Kim, and Y. Lim, “Coherent Optical Phonon Oscillations in Bulk GaN Excited by Far below the Band Gap Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105501 (2002).
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Lee, K. G.

I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
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G. Smith, T. Juhasz, W. Bron, and Y. Levinson, “Interaction of an electron-hole plasma with optical phonons in GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2366–2369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Yin, H. Li, S. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y.

K. Yee, K. Lee, E. Oh, D. Kim, and Y. Lim, “Coherent Optical Phonon Oscillations in Bulk GaN Excited by Far below the Band Gap Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105501 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, Y. S.

I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Lee, D. Kim, and D. Lee, “Coherent phonon oscillations excited by second-order Raman scattering in CdZnTe multiple quantum wells and cubic ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 153308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, Y.-H. Ahn, E. Oh, and J.-H. Lee, “Coherent optical phonon oscillations in cubic ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2446 (2003).
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Marder, S.

Mehta, S.

W. Bron, S. Mehta, J. Kuhl, and M. Klingenstein, “Interaction of optical phonons with a one-component plasma,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 12642–12648 (1989).
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S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mitsuishi, A.

H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
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K. Mizoguchi, R. Morishita, and G. Oohata, “Generation of Coherent Phonons in a CdTe Single Crystal Using an Ultrafast Two-Phonon Laser-Excitation Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 077402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9524–9538 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, B. H. Bairamov, and J. Monecke, “Determination of the charge carrier concentration and mobility in n-gap by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi B 119, 595–603 (1983).
[Crossref]

Morishita, R.

K. Mizoguchi, R. Morishita, and G. Oohata, “Generation of Coherent Phonons in a CdTe Single Crystal Using an Ultrafast Two-Phonon Laser-Excitation Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 077402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakashima, S.

S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Nelson, K. A.

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: General importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5391 (1985).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, T.

S. Fujita, H. Mimoto, H. Takebe, and T. Noguchi, “Growth of cubic ZnS, ZnSe and ZnSxSe1−x single crystals by iodine transport,” J. Cryst. Growth 47, 326–334 (1979).
[Crossref]

Oh, E.

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, Y.-H. Ahn, E. Oh, and J.-H. Lee, “Coherent optical phonon oscillations in cubic ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2446 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Yee, K. Lee, E. Oh, D. Kim, and Y. Lim, “Coherent Optical Phonon Oscillations in Bulk GaN Excited by Far below the Band Gap Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105501 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtani, N.

S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
[Crossref]

Okumura, H.

S. Nakashima, T. Kitamura, T. Mitani, H. Okumura, M. Katsuno, and N. Ohtani, “Raman scattering study of carrier-transport and phonon properties of 4H-SiC crystals with graded doping,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 245208 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oohata, G.

K. Mizoguchi, R. Morishita, and G. Oohata, “Generation of Coherent Phonons in a CdTe Single Crystal Using an Ultrafast Two-Phonon Laser-Excitation Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 077402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilha, L. a.

Petek, H.

K. Ishioka, A. Basak, and H. Petek, “Allowed and forbidden Raman scattering mechanisms for detection of coherent LO phonon and plasmon-coupled modes in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235202 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ramsteiner, M.

M. Ramsteiner, J. Wagner, P. Hiesinger, K. Köhler, and U. Rössler, “Raman spectroscopic and Hall effect analysis of the free electron concentration in GaAs with ultrahigh silicon doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 5023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ritter, T.

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
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D. Rode, “Electron Mobility in II–VI Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4036–4044 (1970).
[Crossref]

Rogers, J. A.

L. Dhar, J. A. Rogers, and K. A. Nelson, “Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy in the impulsive limit,” Chem. Rev. 94, 157–193 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rössler, U.

M. Ramsteiner, J. Wagner, P. Hiesinger, K. Köhler, and U. Rössler, “Raman spectroscopic and Hall effect analysis of the free electron concentration in GaAs with ultrahigh silicon doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 5023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sarai, K.

H. Yugami, S. Nakashima, K. Sarai, H. Kojima, M. Hangyo, and A. Mitsuishi, “Raman scattering from plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes in n-ZnSe,” J. Phys. Soc. Japan 56, 1881–1889 (1987).
[Crossref]

Serrano, J.

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, C.-H.

Y.-M. Chang, H. W. Chu, C.-H. Shen, H.-Y. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Determination of the electron effective mass of wurtzite InN by coherent upper-branch A1(LO) phonon-plasmon coupling mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 072111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, T. Juhasz, W. Bron, and Y. Levinson, “Interaction of an electron-hole plasma with optical phonons in GaP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2366–2369 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanton, C.

A. Kuznetsov and C. Stanton, “Theory of coherent phonon oscillations in bulk GaAs,” in Ultrafast Phenomena in Semiconductors, K.-T. Tsen, ed. (SpringerNew York, 2001), pp. 353–403.
[Crossref]

Suzuki, D.

Y. Kasai, D. Suzuki, H. Kunugita, and K. Ema, “Resonantly excited coherent optical phonons in wide-gap semiconductor ZnTe,” J. Lumin. 129, 1820–1823 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takebe, H.

S. Fujita, H. Mimoto, H. Takebe, and T. Noguchi, “Growth of cubic ZnS, ZnSe and ZnSxSe1−x single crystals by iodine transport,” J. Cryst. Growth 47, 326–334 (1979).
[Crossref]

Tallman, R.

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

M. Yin, H. Li, S. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tommasi, R.

N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
[Crossref]

Toporov, V. V.

B. H. Bairamov, a. Heinrich, G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, and E. Ziegler, “Raman study of the phonon halfwidths and the phonon-plasmon coupling in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi (B) 119, 227–234 (1983).
[Crossref]

G. Irmer, V. V. Toporov, B. H. Bairamov, and J. Monecke, “Determination of the charge carrier concentration and mobility in n-gap by Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi B 119, 595–603 (1983).
[Crossref]

Vallée, F.

N. D. Fatti, F. Ganikhanov, P. Langot, R. Tommasi, and F. Vallée, “Optical Phonon Coherence and Population Decays in III–V Semiconductors,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 07, 271–289 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Vallée, F. Ganikhanov, and F. Bogani, “Dephasing of LO-phonon-plasmon hybrid modes in n-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 13141–13146 (1997).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Wagner, J.

M. Ramsteiner, J. Wagner, P. Hiesinger, K. Köhler, and U. Rössler, “Raman spectroscopic and Hall effect analysis of the free electron concentration in GaAs with ultrahigh silicon doping,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 5023 (1993).
[Crossref]

Weinstein, B.

J. Serrano, A. Cantarero, M. Cardona, N. Garro, R. Lauck, R. Tallman, T. Ritter, and B. Weinstein, “Raman scattering in β-ZnS,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 014301 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, M.

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 9524–9538 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.-X.

Y.-X. Yan, E. B. Gamble, and K. A. Nelson, “Impulsive stimulated scattering: General importance in femtosecond laser pulse interactions with matter, and spectroscopic applications,” J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5391 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yao, S.

Yee, K.

K. Yee, K. Lee, E. Oh, D. Kim, and Y. Lim, “Coherent Optical Phonon Oscillations in Bulk GaN Excited by Far below the Band Gap Photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 105501 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yee, K. J.

I. H. Lee, K. J. Yee, K. G. Lee, E. Oh, D. S. Kim, and Y. S. Lim, “Coherent optical phonon mode oscillations in wurtzite ZnO excited by femtosecond pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4939 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yee, K.-J.

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, J.-H. Lee, D. Kim, and D. Lee, “Coherent phonon oscillations excited by second-order Raman scattering in CdZnTe multiple quantum wells and cubic ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 153308 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Lim, S.-C. Yoon, K.-J. Yee, Y.-H. Ahn, E. Oh, and J.-H. Lee, “Coherent optical phonon oscillations in cubic ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2446 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yin, M.

M. Yin, H. Li, S. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70, 587–591 (2000).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Excitation and detection of photo-generated coherent LO phonon-plasma coupled modes by a transmission pump-probe measurement. While passing through the transparent medium, the pump pulse generates the coherent LO phonon and the two-photon excited carriers. The delayed probe pulse rides the coupled wave [17] and feels the delay-dependent change of the refractive index since the phase velocity of the coupled mode is equal to the group velocity of the pump and probe pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical results for the coherent phonon signal in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe measured at 77K. (ΔT − ΔT)/T is plotted as a function of delay time. In the case of the ZnS and ZnSe measurements the center wavelength of the pump and probe pulses were 570nm and 530nm, respectively while to avoid a resonant band transition by the spectral tail of the pulse, the center wavelength was set to 600nm in the ZnTe measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decay time and frequency of the observed coherent LO phonon signal in ZnS as a function of pump pulse intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical frequency (a) and decay rate (b) of the coupled modes as functions of plasma frequency for different carrier damping rate using phonon parameters for ZnS in Ref. [20]. (c) Decay rate versus frequency of the coupled mode for low plasma frequency limit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay rates versus frequencies of the coherent phonon signal in Zn-based semiconductors measured for various pump intensities.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Damping rates for longitudinal lattice and carrier motion at 77K.

Equations (9)

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x ¨ + ω p 2 x + γ x ˙ = e m * N e * W ( t ) ε 0 ε ( ) ,
W ¨ + ω LO 2 W + Γ LO W ˙ = e * M nex ( t ) ε 0 ε ( ) .
x ( t ) = e m * 1 ε 0 ε ( ) N e * ω LO 2 ω p 2 + i ω LO γ W ( t ) .
ω LO 2 ω TO 2 = N e * 2 ε 0 ε ( ) M ,
W ¨ + [ ω LO 2 + ω p 2 ( ω LO 2 ω TO 2 ) ω LO 2 ω p 2 + i ω LO γ ] W + Γ LO W ˙ = 0 ,
ω + = ( ω LO 4 ω TO 2 ω p 2 ) ( ω LO 2 ω p 2 ) + ω LO 4 γ 2 ( ω LO 2 ω p 2 ) 2 + ω LO 2 γ 2 ,
Γ total = 1 2 ( 1 ω + ω p 2 ω LO γ ( ω LO 2 ω TO 2 ) ( ω LO 2 ω p 2 ) 2 + ω LO 2 γ 2 + Γ LO ) .
Γ total = γ ( ω + ω LO ) γ + Γ LO 2 .
1 m * = 1 m e + 1 m lh 1 1 + ( m hh / m hh ) 3 2 + 1 m hh 1 1 + ( m lh / m hh ) 3 2 ,

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