Abstract

Laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS or ripples) were generated on single crystal germanium after irradiation with multiple 3 µm femtosecond laser pulses at a 45° angle of incidence. High and low spatial frequency LIPSS (HSFL and LSFL, respectively) were observed for both s- and p-polarized light. The measured LSFL period for p-polarized light was consistent with the currently established LIPSS origination model of coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and the incident laser pulses. A vector model of SPP coupling is introduced to explain the formation of s-polarized LSFL away from the center of the damage spot. Additionally, a new method is proposed to determine the SPP propagation length from the decay in ripple depth. This is used along with the measured LSFL period to estimate the average electron density and Drude collision time of the laser-excited surface. Finally, full-wave electromagnetic simulations are used to corroborate these results while simultaneously offering insight into the nature of LSFL formation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, H. Pires, and J. Biegert, “Performance of MgO:PPLN, KTA, and KNbO3 for mid-wave infrared broadband parametric amplification at high average power,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5802–5805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Austin, K. Kafka, C. I. Blaga, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “Measurement of femtosecond laser damage thresholds at mid IR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92370V (2014)
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

J. Li, S. Ho, M. Haque, and P. R. Herman, “Nanograting Bragg responses of femtosecond laser written optical waveguides in fused silica glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 2, 1562–1570 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-x Gex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331, 290 (2011)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, “Pulse number dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structures for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Effects of nanostructure-covered femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on optical absorptance of metals,” Appl. Phys. A 86, 321–324 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. Tan and K. Venkatakrishnan, “A femtosecond laser-induced periodical surface structure on crystalline silicon,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 1080–1085 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Csete, O. Marti, and Zs. Bor, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures on different polycarbonate films,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. Csete and Zs. Bor, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on polyethylene-terephthalate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 1335–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B. 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

Agostini, P.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ališauskas, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andriukaitis, G.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331, 290 (2011)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, D.

D. Austin, K. Kafka, C. I. Blaga, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “Measurement of femtosecond laser damage thresholds at mid IR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92370V (2014)
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

Baudisch, M.

Becker, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bian, Q.

Q. Bian, X. Yu, B. Zhao, Z. Chang, and S. Lei, “Femtosecond laser ablation of indium tin-oxide narrow grooves for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 395–401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Baudisch, M. Hemmer, H. Pires, and J. Biegert, “Performance of MgO:PPLN, KTA, and KNbO3 for mid-wave infrared broadband parametric amplification at high average power,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5802–5805 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

D. Austin, K. Kafka, C. I. Blaga, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “Measurement of femtosecond laser damage thresholds at mid IR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92370V (2014)
[Crossref]

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331, 290 (2011)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse and J. Krüger, “Pulse number dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structures for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bor, Zs.

M. Csete, O. Marti, and Zs. Bor, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures on different polycarbonate films,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Csete and Zs. Bor, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure formation on polyethylene-terephthalate,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 1335–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brown, S.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B. 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
[Crossref]

Catoire, F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

Q. Bian, X. Yu, B. Zhao, Z. Chang, and S. Lei, “Femtosecond laser ablation of indium tin-oxide narrow grooves for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Laser Technol. 45, 395–401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chirla, R.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, E.

D. Austin, K. Kafka, C. I. Blaga, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “Measurement of femtosecond laser damage thresholds at mid IR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92370V (2014)
[Crossref]

P. Poole, S. Trendafilov, G. Shvets, D. Smith, and E. Chowdhury, “Femtosecond laser damage threshold of pulse compression gratings for petawatt scale laser systems,” Opt. Express 21, 26341–26351 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciappina, M. F.

S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Colosimo, P.

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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
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D. Austin, K. Kafka, C. I. Blaga, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “Measurement of femtosecond laser damage thresholds at mid IR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92370V (2014)
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
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S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
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R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211905 (2011).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
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M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
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S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
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Gaeta, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
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E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 (2002).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
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M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
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Haque, M.

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R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211905 (2011).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
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Höhm, S.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
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M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
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N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-x Gex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
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Kafka, K.

D. Austin, K. Kafka, C. I. Blaga, L. F. DiMauro, and E. Chowdhury, “Measurement of femtosecond laser damage thresholds at mid IR wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 9237, 92370V (2014)
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
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J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
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J. Bonse and J. Krüger, “Pulse number dependence of laser-induced periodic surface structures for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 034903 (2010).
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B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
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Lei, S.

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Li, X.

Li, Z.

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Lu, Y.

Luther-Davies, B.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 (2002).
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R. Malik, B. Mills, J. H. V. Price, M. Petrovich, Z. Moktadir, Z. Li, and H. N. Rutt, “Determination of the mid-IR femtosecond surface-damage threshold of germanium,” Appl. Phys. A 113, 127–133 (2013).
[Crossref]

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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

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M. Csete, O. Marti, and Zs. Bor, “Laser-induced periodic surface structures on different polycarbonate films,” Appl. Phys. A 73, 521–526 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Mills, B.

R. Malik, B. Mills, J. H. V. Price, M. Petrovich, Z. Moktadir, Z. Li, and H. N. Rutt, “Determination of the mid-IR femtosecond surface-damage threshold of germanium,” Appl. Phys. A 113, 127–133 (2013).
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R. Malik, B. Mills, J. H. V. Price, M. Petrovich, Z. Moktadir, Z. Li, and H. N. Rutt, “Determination of the mid-IR femtosecond surface-damage threshold of germanium,” Appl. Phys. A 113, 127–133 (2013).
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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
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Murnane, M. M.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

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S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
[Crossref]

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M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[Crossref]

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R. Malik, B. Mills, J. H. V. Price, M. Petrovich, Z. Moktadir, Z. Li, and H. N. Rutt, “Determination of the mid-IR femtosecond surface-damage threshold of germanium,” Appl. Phys. A 113, 127–133 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Pires, H.

Plaja, L.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
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Popmintchev, D.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Price, J. H. V.

R. Malik, B. Mills, J. H. V. Price, M. Petrovich, Z. Moktadir, Z. Li, and H. N. Rutt, “Determination of the mid-IR femtosecond surface-damage threshold of germanium,” Appl. Phys. A 113, 127–133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pugzlys, A.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
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S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rode, A. V.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rohloff, M.

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24, 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rohloff, S. K. Das, S. Höhm, R. Grunwald, A. Rosenfeld, J. Krüger, and J. Bonse, “Formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures on fused silica upon multiple cross-polarized double-femtosecond-laser-pulse irradiation sequences,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 014910 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rutt, H. N.

R. Malik, B. Mills, J. H. V. Price, M. Petrovich, Z. Moktadir, Z. Li, and H. N. Rutt, “Determination of the mid-IR femtosecond surface-damage threshold of germanium,” Appl. Phys. A 113, 127–133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sauer, D.

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

Schrauth, S. E.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, K. C. Kulander, and L. F. DiMauro, “Elastic rescattering in the strong field tunneling limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5031–5034 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shim, B.

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, D. Popmintchev, P. Arpin, S. Brown, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiunas, O. D. Mücke, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuška, B. Shim, S. E. Schrauth, A. Gaeta, C. Hernández-García, L. Plaja, A. Becker, A. Jaron-Becker, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Bright coherent ultrahigh harmonics in the keV x-ray regime from mid-infrared femtosecond lasers,” Science 336, 1287 (2012).
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Sistrunk, E.

S. Ghimire, A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, P. Agostini, L. F. DiMauro, and D. A. Reis, “Observation of high-order harmonic generation in a bulk crystal,” Nat. Phys. 7, 138–141 (2011).
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Soref, R.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-x Gex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 011301 (2011).
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R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803 (1999).
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J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, “Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films,” Phys. Rev. B. 33, 5186–5201 (1986).
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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Phys. 4, 386–389 (2008).
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E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics,” Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 (2002).
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S. M. Teichmann, P. Rácz, M. F. Ciappina, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, A. Thai, J. Fekete, A. Y. Elezzabi, L. Veisz, J. Biegert, and P. Dombi, “Strong-field plasmonic photoemission in the mid-IR at < 1 GW/cm2 intensity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7584 (2015).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Laser intensity estimation via photoelectron spectroscopy in xenon irradiated with 3.6 µm wavelength pulses. In the strong field limit, typical photoelectron spectra recorded along the laser polarization exhibit two well-known regions [23]. At first, starting at low energies, the electron yield decreases sharply, followed by an abrupt transition into a long, extended plateau. The physical origins of the two regions are well understood (see text for details). The sharp transition between the two regions (dashed green vertical line) occurs at twice the ponderomotive energy UP. Using the definition U p = 2 e 2 / c ε 0 m e × I / 4 ω 0 2, the intensity is readily estimated to be 7.5 × 1013 W/cm2. (b) Focal spot of the 3.0 µm beam used in the LIPSS generation setup. Imaged with 10.2× magnification using a mid-IR camera, which was mounted sideways. As a result, vertical and horizontal profiles in this image correspond to horizontal and vertical profiles respectively, in actual experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of germanium damage site. 100 pulses, 0.43J/cm2, 3.0 µm wavelength, p-polarized, 45° AOI, ΛLSFL = 1.6 ± 0.1 µm, ΛHSFL = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Image of same damage site with Wyko depth profiler, showing the depth of the ripples. (b) Lineout starting from the right end of the red line in (a) and proceeding to the right, showing periodic structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Wyko depth profiler image of same 100-pulse damage spot near periphery with line-out. The contrast has been adjusted to emphasize the ripples. (b) Lineout starting from the right end of the red line in (a) corresponding to 0 distance and proceeding to the left in (a) as distance increases. Variation in ripple depth exhibits an exponential decay with a 1/e decay length of 4.3 ± 0.3 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM image of germanium damage site. 100 pulses, 0.84J/cm2, 3.0 µm wavelength, s-polarized, 45° AOI, ΛLSFL = 3.2 ± 0.15 µm, ΛHSFL = 1.0 ± 0.15 µm. Though the polarization has been rotated 90 degrees from that of the p-polarized case, the LIPSS orientation with respect to laser polarization is maintained. Inset: diagram showing the SPP wavevectors with respect to the laser wave vector k and the grating vectors. With s-polarized light, SPPs must have a wave vector component along k, ensuring they propagate from the left to the right of the image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Image of same damage site with Wyco profiler, showing the depth of the ripples. (b) Lineout starting from the top end of the red line in (a) and proceeding to the bottom, showing the periodic structure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Inset: simplified diagram of the simulation model. Light is incident on a germanium surface with a 1.0 µm thick, laser-excited layer and a sinusoidal surface. (a) Outset: results from FEM simulations of 3.0 µm wavelength, p-polarized light incident on the laser-excited germanium with a permittivity of ε = 3.75+0.98i (determined from LSFL measurements). The period of the sinusoidal surface was varied to determine resonances in absorptance. The resonance occurs at the observed LSFL period. The groove depth of the sinusoidal surface was also varied to determine its effect on the resonant period. No significant effect is observed, though the peak absorptance shows a continual increase with groove depth until ~ 200 nm at which point it begins to decrease. (b) S-polarized case: resonance occurs near the observed LSFL period, though a shift with groove depth is noticeable. Additionally, as the groove depth increases up to 500 nm, the absorptance increases, suggesting that the energy deposition rate increases as each pulse deepens the grooves further.

Equations (5)

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k = k 0 sin θ = n G ± k s , n = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , ,
λ s = λ ( ε + ε d ε ε d ) 1 / 2 , Λ = λ λ λ s + sin θ ,
L s = 1 2 Im [ k s ] = λ 2 π ( ε + ε d ε ε d ) 3 / 2 ε 2 ε .
| k s | = ( k 2 + G 2 ) 1 / 2 .
Λ s p o l = λ ( λ 2 λ s 2 sin 2 θ ) 1 / 2 .

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