Abstract

We present tailoring of the performances of thin multiplication layer InAlAs/InGaAs avalanche photodetectors (APDs) with operating voltages lower than 20 V. Their operating voltages, gain-voltage slopes and dark currents were successfully tailored by changing the electric field distributions in avalanche region. The thin multiplication layer APDs show small activation energies of the dark current ranging from 0.12 to 0.19 eV at temperatures above 220 K, suggesting a band-trap-band tunneling dominant dark current mechanism over this temperature range. The dark currents show very weak temperature dependences at temperatures lower than 175 K, which mainly originate from the band-to-band tunneling and the surface leakage currents. The spectral responsivity of those APDs show anomalous negative temperature coefficients at gain factors larger than 1, which is attributed to the enhanced phonon scattering effect of carriers in the avalanche region at higher temperatures. Good gain factor uniformity at a given bias is observed for those APDs, and the charge layer is found to help improve the gain uniformity.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. of SPIE 6796, 67962H (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, “A 32 × 32 Pixel FLASH Laser Radar System Incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD Detectors,” Proc. of SPIE 5412, 250–256 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization - Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. J. Massey, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature Dependence of Impact Ionization in Submicrometer Silicon Devices,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 2328–2334 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material Considerations for Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Maimona and G. W. Wicks, “nBn detector, an infrared detector with reduced dark current and higher operating temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151109 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. W. Hoogeveen, R. J. van der A, and A. P. Goede, “Extended wavelength InGaAs infrared (1.0–2.4μ m) detector arrays on SCIAMACHY for space-based spectrometry of the Earth atmosphere,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 42, 1–16 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  22. X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Rogalski, K. Adamiec, and J. Rutkowski, Narrow-Gap Semiconductor Photodiodes (SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2000), chap. 1–7.
  25. W. W. Anderson, “Tunnel contribution to Hg1−x Cdx Te and Pb1−x Snx Te p-n junction diode characteristics,” Infrared Phys. 20, 353 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. L. Tansley, “Temperature dependence of hole diffusion length from spectral response of Au-n+ GaAs photodiodes,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 1146–1152 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).
  31. M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2015 (4)

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

2014 (2)

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material Considerations for Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. of SPIE 6796, 67962H (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. J. Massey, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature Dependence of Impact Ionization in Submicrometer Silicon Devices,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 2328–2334 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Maimona and G. W. Wicks, “nBn detector, an infrared detector with reduced dark current and higher operating temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, “A 32 × 32 Pixel FLASH Laser Radar System Incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD Detectors,” Proc. of SPIE 5412, 250–256 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. W. Hoogeveen, R. J. van der A, and A. P. Goede, “Extended wavelength InGaAs infrared (1.0–2.4μ m) detector arrays on SCIAMACHY for space-based spectrometry of the Earth atmosphere,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 42, 1–16 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
[Crossref]

I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization - Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
[Crossref]

W. W. Anderson, “Tunnel contribution to Hg1−x Cdx Te and Pb1−x Snx Te p-n junction diode characteristics,” Infrared Phys. 20, 353 (1980).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

T. L. Tansley, “Temperature dependence of hole diffusion length from spectral response of Au-n+ GaAs photodiodes,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 1146–1152 (1972).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adamiec, K.

A. Rogalski, K. Adamiec, and J. Rutkowski, Narrow-Gap Semiconductor Photodiodes (SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2000), chap. 1–7.

Anderson, W. W.

W. W. Anderson, “Tunnel contribution to Hg1−x Cdx Te and Pb1−x Snx Te p-n junction diode characteristics,” Infrared Phys. 20, 353 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ang, K.-W.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Antoszewski, J.

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

Button, C. C.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Carpentier, D.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. Q.

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Y.

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Clark, W. R.

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. of SPIE 6796, 67962H (2007).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coldre, L. A.

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

David, J. P. R.

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material Considerations for Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. J. Massey, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature Dependence of Impact Ionization in Submicrometer Silicon Devices,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 2328–2334 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

Davis, A.

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Decobert, J.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Derouin, E.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

DiDomenico, M.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ding, R. J.

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dries, J. C.

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, “A 32 × 32 Pixel FLASH Laser Radar System Incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD Detectors,” Proc. of SPIE 5412, 250–256 (2004).
[Crossref]

Duan, N.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

Entwistle, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Faraone, L.

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
[Crossref]

Fortune, T. R.

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Glastre, G.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goede, A. P.

R. W. Hoogeveen, R. J. van der A, and A. P. Goede, “Extended wavelength InGaAs infrared (1.0–2.4μ m) detector arrays on SCIAMACHY for space-based spectrometry of the Earth atmosphere,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 42, 1–16 (2001).
[Crossref]

Goh, Y. L.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gong, H.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, P.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Harrison, C. N.

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, S. D.

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hayat, M. M.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. L.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hoogeveen, R. W.

R. W. Hoogeveen, R. J. van der A, and A. P. Goede, “Extended wavelength InGaAs infrared (1.0–2.4μ m) detector arrays on SCIAMACHY for space-based spectrometry of the Earth atmosphere,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 42, 1–16 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hopkinson, M.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hsu, J. S.

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huntington, A. S.

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hurst, J. B.

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ishibashi, T.

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Itzler, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Ji, X.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Jones, S. K.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jr, A. L. H.

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keeler, G. A.

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Klem, J. F.

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kodama, S.

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lagay, N.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lahrichi, M.

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, K. F.

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. J.

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z. H.

I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maimona, S.

S. Maimona and G. W. Wicks, “nBn detector, an infrared detector with reduced dark current and higher operating temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Makita, K.

T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marshall, A. R. J.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Martyniuk, M.

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martyniuk, P.

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

Massey, D. J.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. J. Massey, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature Dependence of Impact Ionization in Submicrometer Silicon Devices,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 2328–2334 (2006).
[Crossref]

McIntyre, R. J.

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization - Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miles, B.

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, “A 32 × 32 Pixel FLASH Laser Radar System Incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD Detectors,” Proc. of SPIE 5412, 250–256 (2004).
[Crossref]

Muramoto, Y.

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nada, M.

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakata, T.

T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ng, J. S.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ng, J. W.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Donnell, K.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Ong, S.

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

Owens, M.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Pinches, S. M.

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rangwala, S.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Rees, G. J.

D. J. Massey, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature Dependence of Impact Ionization in Submicrometer Silicon Devices,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 2328–2334 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

Robson, P. N.

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rogalski, A.

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rogalski, K. Adamiec, and J. Rutkowski, Narrow-Gap Semiconductor Photodiodes (SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2000), chap. 1–7.

Roland, M.

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rutkowski, J.

A. Rogalski, K. Adamiec, and J. Rutkowski, Narrow-Gap Semiconductor Photodiodes (SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2000), chap. 1–7.

Saleh, B. E. A.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Saleh, M. A.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shigekawa, N.

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sith, J. R. G.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
[Crossref]

Slomkowski, K.

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

Sotirelis, P. P.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sou, I. K.

I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stettner, R.

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, “A 32 × 32 Pixel FLASH Laser Radar System Incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD Detectors,” Proc. of SPIE 5412, 250–256 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stocker, H. J.

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. H.

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material Considerations for Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tansley, T. L.

T. L. Tansley, “Temperature dependence of hole diffusion length from spectral response of Au-n+ GaAs photodiodes,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 1146–1152 (1972).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

Torikai, T.

T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vaccaro, K.

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. of SPIE 6796, 67962H (2007).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

van der A, R. J.

R. W. Hoogeveen, R. J. van der A, and A. P. Goede, “Extended wavelength InGaAs infrared (1.0–2.4μ m) detector arrays on SCIAMACHY for space-based spectrometry of the Earth atmosphere,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 42, 1–16 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, I.

T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Waters, W. D.

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. of SPIE 6796, 67962H (2007).
[Crossref]

Wicks, G. W.

S. Maimona and G. W. Wicks, “nBn detector, an infrared detector with reduced dark current and higher operating temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, G. K. L.

I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xi, S.

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, F.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, H.

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. L.

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. Q.

I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zheng, X. G.

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

X. Ji, B. Liu, H. Tang, X. Yang, X. Li, H. Gong, B. Shen, P. Han, and F. Yan, “2.6 μ m MBE grown InGaAs detectors with dark current of SRH and TAT,” AIP Adv. 4, 087135 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Gu, L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Ma, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Dark current suppression in metamorphic In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors with In0.66Ga0.34As/InAs superlattice electron barrier,” Appl. Phys. Express 8, 022202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

J. F. Klem, J. K. Kim, M. J. Cich, G. A. Keeler, S. D. Hawkins, and T. R. Fortune, “Mesa-isolated InGaAs photodetectors with low dark current,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 031112 (2009).
[Crossref]

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Impact of field-enhanced band-traps-band tunneling on the dark current generation in germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 223515 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Maimona and G. W. Wicks, “nBn detector, an infrared detector with reduced dark current and higher operating temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 151109 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. R. Forrest, M. DiDomenico, J. R. G. Sith, and H. J. Stocker, “Evidence for tunneling in reverse-biased III-V photodetector diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 580–582 (1980).
[Crossref]

I. K. Sou, Z. H. Ma, Z. Q. Zhang, and G. K. L. Wong, “Temperature dependence of the responsivity of II-VI ultraviolet photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1098–1100 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Rev. (1)

P. Martyniuk, J. Antoszewski, M. Martyniuk, L. Faraone, and A. Rogalski, “New concepts in infrared photodetector designs,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 7671–7678 (2014).
[Crossref]

Electron Lett. (1)

T. Nakata, I. Watanabe, K. Makita, and T. Torikai, “InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with very thin multiplication layer of 0.1 μ m for high speed and low-voltage-operation optical receiver,” Electron Lett. 36, 1807–1809 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (2)

N. Duan, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “Detrimental Effect of Impact Ionization in the Absorption Region on the Frequency Response and Excess Noise Performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 41, 568–572 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. G. Zheng, J. S. Hsu, J. B. Hurst, X. Li, S. Wang, X. Sun, A. L. H. Jr, J. C. Campbell, A. S. Huntington, and L. A. Coldre, “Long-Wavelength In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Large-Area Avalanche Photodiodes and Arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 40, 1068–1073 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. (1)

Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, D. J. Massey, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, C. C. Button, and S. M. Pinches, “Excess Avalanche Noise in In0.52Al0.48As,” IEEE J. Quantum. Elect. 43, 503–507 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (2)

J. P. R. David and C. H. Tan, “Material Considerations for Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 14, 998–1009 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, M. Itzler, K. O’Donnell, M. Entwistle, M. Owens, K. Slomkowski, and S. Rangwala, “InP-Based Single-Photon Detectors and Geiger-Mode APD Arrays for Quantum Communications Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 21, 3800112 (2015).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Lahrichi, G. Glastre, E. Derouin, D. Carpentier, N. Lagay, J. Decobert, and M. Achouche, “240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 1373–1375 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Ma, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, L. Zhou, X. Y. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Low Operating Voltage and Small Gain Slope of InGaAs APDs With p-Type Multiplication Layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27, 661–664 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, “A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As Avalanche Photodiode Array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 19–21 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. Electron Dev. (3)

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Impact-Ionization and Noise Characteristics of Thin III-V Avalanche Photodiodes,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 48, 2722–2731 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. J. Massey, J. P. R. David, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature Dependence of Impact Ionization in Submicrometer Silicon Devices,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 2328–2334 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization - Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 46, 1623–1631 (1999).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. (1)

W. W. Anderson, “Tunnel contribution to Hg1−x Cdx Te and Pb1−x Snx Te p-n junction diode characteristics,” Infrared Phys. 20, 353 (1980).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Techn. (1)

R. W. Hoogeveen, R. J. van der A, and A. P. Goede, “Extended wavelength InGaAs infrared (1.0–2.4μ m) detector arrays on SCIAMACHY for space-based spectrometry of the Earth atmosphere,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 42, 1–16 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy. Compd. (1)

L. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Gu, Y. Ma, X. Chen, S. Xi, and H. Li, “Effects of material parameters on the temperature dependent spectral response of In0.83Ga0.17As photodetectors,” J. Alloy. Compd. 619, 52–57 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. N. Harrison, J. P. R. David, M. Hopkinson, and G. J. Rees, “Temperature dependence of avalanche multiplication in submicron Al0.6Ga0.4As diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7684–7686 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Ong, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, J. P. R. David, and P. N. Robson, “A simple model to determine multiplication and noise in avalanche photodiodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3426–3428 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

T. L. Tansley, “Temperature dependence of hole diffusion length from spectral response of Au-n+ GaAs photodiodes,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 5, 1146–1152 (1972).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Nada, Y. Muramoto, H. Yokoyama, N. Shigekawa, T. Ishibashi, and S. Kodama, “Inverted InAlAs/InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode with Low-High-Low Electric Field Profile,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51, 02BG03 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. of SPIE (2)

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. of SPIE 6796, 67962H (2007).
[Crossref]

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, “A 32 × 32 Pixel FLASH Laser Radar System Incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD Detectors,” Proc. of SPIE 5412, 250–256 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Q. Chen, J. L. Zhang, P. Wang, J. Zhou, L. Gao, and R. J. Ding, “A new ROIC with high-voltage protection circuit of HgCdTe e-APD FPA for passive active imaging,” Proc. SPIE 8562, 856226 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Rogalski, K. Adamiec, and J. Rutkowski, Narrow-Gap Semiconductor Photodiodes (SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2000), chap. 1–7.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic epitaxial layer structure of APDs 1, 2 and 3. (b) Simulated E field distributions along the growth direction for the three APDs at a same M of 2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Solid and dash lines are the RT photo and dark I-V curves, respectively, for APD-1 (black), APD-2 (blue) and APD-3 (red). Mesa size: 20 × 20 μm2. The black open circle, the blue open square and the red open uptriangle indicate the gain-voltage curves for APD-1, APD-2 and APD-3, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Arrhenius plot of Id for APDs 1, 2 and 3 biased at fixed voltages of −16.5, −14.2 and −15.8 V, respectively. Mesa size: 20×20 μm2. The fitted activation energies at temperatures above 250, 275 and 225 K for APD-1, APD-2 and APD-3, respectively, are indicated. Inset: temperature dependent Id-V curves for APD-1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temperature dependent spectral responsivity of the three APDs with a mesa size of 20×20 μm2. (a) APD-1 biased at −13.5 V (M<1). (b) APD-1, (c) APD-2 and (d) APD-3 biased at −16.5 V, −14.2 V and −15.8 V, respectively, which corresponds to M=2 for each device at RT.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic layer structure of a reference InGaAs p-i-n planner photodiode. (b) Measured temperature dependent spectral response of this detector with a mesa size of 20×20 μm2 at zero bias.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Statistical M distributions of (a) APD-1, (b) APD-2 and (c) APD-3, biased at fixed voltages of −18.2, 15.2 and −20.2 V, respectively. The fitted Gaussian curves, <M> and M dispersions (δ) are also indicated.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 A list on the material parameters and the measured device performances of the three APDs. ’M-layer’ denotes ’multiplication layer’.

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