Abstract

With increasing interest in visible light communication, the laser diode (LD) provides an attractive alternative, with higher efficiency, shorter linewidth and larger bandwidth for high-speed visible light communication (VLC). Previously, more than 3 Gbps data rate was demonstrated using LED. By using LDs and spectral-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing encoding scheme, significantly higher data rates has been achieved in this work. Using 16-QAM modulation scheme, in conjunction with red, blue and green LDs, data rates of 4.4 Gbps, 4 Gbps and 4 Gbps, with the corresponding BER/SNR/EVM of 3.3 × 10−3/15.3/17.9, 1.4 × 10−3/16.3/15.4 and 2.8 × 10−3/15.5/16.7were obtained over transmission distance of ~20 cm. We also simultaneously demonstrated white light emission using red, blue and green LDs, after passing through a commercially available diffuser element. Our work highlighted that a tradeoff exists in operating the blue LDs at optimum bias condition while maintaining good color temperature. The best results were obtained when encoding red LDs which gave both the strongest received signal amplitude and white light with CCT value of 5835K.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A982–A990 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bouchet, O.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bouysse, P.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

Chang, C. H.

Chen, C. W.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, Z. Y.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, M.-C.

Chi, Y. C.

Chi, Y.-C.

Choudhury, P.

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corsini, R.

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cossu, G.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davis, W.

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Elgala, H.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Forestier, S.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grobe, L.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grzanka, S.

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gyongyosi, L.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanzo, L.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, D. H.

Huang, H. T.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, P. Y.

Imre, S.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khalid, A. M.

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Lapierre, L.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Le Minh, H.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leszczynski, M.

Li, J.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-C.

Lin, C. T.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, H. C.

Lin, W. Y.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. F.

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, H. H.

Mallet, A.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

Najda, S. P.

Nebus, J.-M.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Neumann, A.

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y. J.

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ohno, Y.

Perlin, P.

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Quere, R.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rupp, M.

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, M.

Targowski, G.

Tsai, C. T.

Tsai, C.-T.

Tsang, H. K.

Tsao, J. Y.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Watson, M. Tan, S. P. Najda, P. Perlin, M. Leszczynski, G. Targowski, S. Grzanka, and A. E. Kelly, “Visible light communications using a directly modulated 422 nm GaN laser diode,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3792–3794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, C. C.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

Wolf, M.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, F. M.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. W.

Yeh, C. H.

Zeng, L.

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, and Y. Liu, “Improved modulation speed of LED visible light communication system integrated to main electricity network,” Electron. Lett. 47(15), 867–868 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Indoor optical wireless communication: potential and state-of-the-art,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 49(9), 56–62 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, and J. Li, “A 1.25-Gb/s indoor cellular optical wireless communications demonstrator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1598–1600 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

A. Neumann, J. J. Wierer, W. Davis, Y. Ohno, S. R. J. Brueck, and J. Y. Tsao, “Four-color laser white illuminant demonstrating high color-rendering quality,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A982–A990 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20, 9919-9924 (2012).

C. H. Yeh, Y. F. Liu, C. W. Chow, Y. Liu, P. Y. Huang, and H. K. Tsang, “Investigation of 4-ASK modulation with digital filtering to increase 20 times of direct modulation speed of white-light LED visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16218–16223 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, Y. L. Liu, and C. W. Chow, “Real-time white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) with compact size,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26192–26197 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-C. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, C.-T. Tsai, and G.-R. Lin, “Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15724–15736 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G.-R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi a-Applications and Materials Science 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. Hanzo, H. Haas, S. Imre, D. O’Brien, M. Rupp, and L. Gyongyosi, “Wireless myths, realities, and futures: From 3G/4G to optical and quantum wireless,” Proc. IEEE 100, 1853–1888 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. O’Brien, H. Le Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. J. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Grubor, S. Randel, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “Bandwidth-efficient indoor optical wireless communications with white light-emitting diodes,” Csndsp 08: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing, 165–169 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs,” in Optical Fiber Communicaiton and Collocated National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2010, paper ThH3.

F. M. Wu, C. T. Lin, C. C. Wei, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Chen, and H. T. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for white light based visible light communication.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Light output power – current – voltage (L-I-V) characteristics and above threshold emission spectra of the (a) red, (b) green and (c) blue LDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Bandwidth response of:(a) red, (b) green and (c) blue LDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Bit error rate vs. DC bias current of (a) red, (b) green and (c) blue LDs, with 1GHz 16-QAM OFDM data.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Diffused light spectra with white light characteristics shown in the inset with 16-QAM OFDM encoding done on: (a) red (b) green and (c) blue LDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Constellation diagram of 16-QAM OFDM for the highest data rates obtained for (a) red, (b) green and (c) blue LDs meeting the FEC criteria.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Results of BER/SNR/EVM for different data rates.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Bit error rate(BER) and correlated color temperature (CCT) measurements when encoding blue LD with 4 Gbps16-QAM OFDM data at different strengths of OD filters.

Equations (2)

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N = f B × F F T s i z e s a m p l i n g r a t e
E V M ( n ) = | S r ( n ) S t ( n ) | 2 P 0 ( n ) 1 S N R ( n )

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