Abstract

Tuning the chiroptical response of a molecule is crucial for detecting the material’s chirality. Here, we demonstrate a pronounced circular conversion dichroism (CCD) by using an achiral metasurface (AMS) which is composed of a rectangular reflectarray of Au squares separated from a continuous Au film by a dielectric interlayer. This extrinsically 2D chirality originates from the mutual orientation between the AMS and oblique incident wave. The AMS is further incorporated with graphene to tune the CCD spectra in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by electrically modulating the graphene’s Fermi level. This approach offers a high fabrication tolerance and will be a promising candidate for controlling electromagnetic (EM) waves in the MIR region from 1500 to 3000 nm.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (13)

Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Jia, Y.-L. Zhang, X.-Z. Dong, M.-L. Zheng, J. Li, J. Liu, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Complementary chiral metasurface with strong broadband optical activity and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011108 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4426–4431 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Shi, “Theoretical study of high-Q Fano resonance and extrinsic chirality in an ultrathin Babinet-inverted metasurface,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(15), 153506 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kenanakis, R. Zhao, N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. N. Economou, “Optically controllable THz chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12149–12159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Lv, Z. Zhu, J. H. Shi, C. Y. Guan, Z. P. Wang, and T. J. Cui, “Optically controlled background-free terahertz switching in chiral metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 3066–3069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kanda, K. Konishi, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “All-photoinduced terahertz optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3274–3277 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, Y. Xu, Z. Zhu, S. Yu, C. Guan, and J. Shi, “Manipulating wave polarization by twisted plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1003–1110 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Chen and S. He, “Frequency-tunable circular polarization beam splitter using a graphene-dielectric sub-wavelength film,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19748–19757 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Schultz, R. V. Dennis, V. Lee, and S. Banerjee, “An electronic structure perspective of graphene interfaces,” Nanoscale 6(7), 3444–3466 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. Wei, L. Mao, and Y. Li, “Extrinsic 2D chirality: giant circular conversion dichroism from a metal-dielectric-metal square array,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7442 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene metamaterial for optical reflection modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241914 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene induced spectral tuning of metamaterial absorbers at mid-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, and K. Y. Zhu, “Ultrafast modulation of near-field heat transfer with tunable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053106 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, “Chirality and chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanostructures: fundamentals, recent progress, and outlook,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2517–2534 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, L. Zhang, R. E. Simpson, C. Wei, and M. J. Cryan, “Strongly tunable circular dichroism in gammadion chiral phase-change metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(23), 27841–27851 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. García-Etxarri and J. A. Dionne, “Surface-enhanced circular dichroism spectroscopy mediated by nonchiral nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235409 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Gibbs, A. G. Mark, S. Eslami, and P. Fischer, “Plasmonic nanohelix metamaterials with tailorable giant circular dichroism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 213101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, M. Höh, B. Reinhard, A. Brodyanski, and M. Rahm, “Spectrally wide-band terahertz wave modulator based on optically tuned graphene,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9118–9124 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Zhukovsky, C. Kremers, and D. N. Chigrin, “Plasmonic rod dimers as elementary planar chiral meta-atoms,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2278–2280 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tang and A. E. Cohen, “Enhanced enantioselectivity in excitation of chiral molecules by superchiral light,” Science 332(6027), 333–336 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, and F. Lederer, “Simple and versatile analytical approach for planar metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075102 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. V. Zhukovsky, A. V. Novitsky, and V. M. Galynsky, “Elliptical dichroism: operating principle of planar chiral metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1988–1990 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X.-X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Ranjbar and P. Gill, “Circular dichroism techniques: biomolecular and nanostructural analyses- a review,” Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 74(2), 101–120 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2940–2943 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lapine and S. Tretyakov, “Contemporary notes on metamaterials,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1(1), 3-11 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-Infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

R. L. Fullman and D. L. Wood, “Origin of spiral eutectic structures,” Acta Metall. 2(2), 188–189 (1954).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, S.

B. J. Schultz, R. V. Dennis, V. Lee, and S. Banerjee, “An electronic structure perspective of graphene interfaces,” Nanoscale 6(7), 3444–3466 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, “Chirality and chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanostructures: fundamentals, recent progress, and outlook,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2517–2534 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becouarn, L.

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brodyanski, A.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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L. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, and K. Y. Zhu, “Ultrafast modulation of near-field heat transfer with tunable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053106 (2013).
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W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Zhukovsky, S. V.

ACS Nano (1)

P. Weis, J. L. Garcia-Pomar, M. Höh, B. Reinhard, A. Brodyanski, and M. Rahm, “Spectrally wide-band terahertz wave modulator based on optically tuned graphene,” ACS Nano 6(10), 9118–9124 (2012).
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Acta Metall. (1)

R. L. Fullman and D. L. Wood, “Origin of spiral eutectic structures,” Acta Metall. 2(2), 188–189 (1954).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

V. K. Valev, J. J. Baumberg, C. Sibilia, and T. Verbiest, “Chirality and chiroptical effects in plasmonic nanostructures: fundamentals, recent progress, and outlook,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2517–2534 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

Y.-P. Jia, Y.-L. Zhang, X.-Z. Dong, M.-L. Zheng, J. Li, J. Liu, Z.-S. Zhao, and X.-M. Duan, “Complementary chiral metasurface with strong broadband optical activity and enhanced transmission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 011108 (2014).
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T. Kan, A. Isozaki, N. Kanda, N. Nemoto, K. Konishi, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, “Spiral metamaterial for active tuning of optical activity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221906 (2013).
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L. Cui, Y. Huang, J. Wang, and K. Y. Zhu, “Ultrafast modulation of near-field heat transfer with tunable metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053106 (2013).
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W. Zhu, F. Xiao, M. Kang, D. Sikdar, and M. Premaratne, “Tunable terahertz left-handed metamaterial based on multi-layer graphene-dielectric composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(5), 051902 (2014).
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W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
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W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene metamaterial for optical reflection modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241914 (2013).
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B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene induced spectral tuning of metamaterial absorbers at mid-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
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E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Planar metamaterial with transmission and reflection that depend on the direction of incidence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131901 (2009).
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J. G. Gibbs, A. G. Mark, S. Eslami, and P. Fischer, “Plasmonic nanohelix metamaterials with tailorable giant circular dichroism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(21), 213101 (2013).
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Chem. Biol. Drug Des. (1)

B. Ranjbar and P. Gill, “Circular dichroism techniques: biomolecular and nanostructural analyses- a review,” Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 74(2), 101–120 (2009).
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Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

Y. Liu and X. Zhang, “Metamaterials: a new frontier of science and technology,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2494–2507 (2011).
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IET Microw. Antennas Propag. (1)

M. Lapine and S. Tretyakov, “Contemporary notes on metamaterials,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 1(1), 3-11 (2007).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. Skauli, P. S. Kuo, K. L. Vodopyanov, T. J. Pinguet, O. Levi, L. A. Eyres, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, B. Gerard, L. Becouarn, and E. Lallier, “Improved dispersion relations for GaAs and applications to nonlinear optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6447–6455 (2003).
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G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
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F. Wang, Z. Wang, and J. Shi, “Theoretical study of high-Q Fano resonance and extrinsic chirality in an ultrathin Babinet-inverted metasurface,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(15), 153506 (2014).
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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(2), 026222 (2007).
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Nano Lett. (3)

A. S. Schwanecke, V. A. Fedotov, V. V. Khardikov, S. L. Prosvirnin, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Nanostructured metal film with asymmetric optical transmission,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2940–2943 (2008).
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Y. Cui, L. Kang, S. Lan, S. Rodrigues, and W. Cai, “Giant chiral optical response from a twisted-arc metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 1021–1025 (2014).
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A. Shaltout, J. Liu, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Optically active metasurface with non-chiral plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4426–4431 (2014).
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Nanoscale (1)

B. J. Schultz, R. V. Dennis, V. Lee, and S. Banerjee, “An electronic structure perspective of graphene interfaces,” Nanoscale 6(7), 3444–3466 (2014).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
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C. Wu, N. Arju, G. Kelp, J. A. Fan, J. Dominguez, E. Gonzales, E. Tutuc, I. Brener, and G. Shvets, “Spectrally selective chiral silicon metasurfaces based on infrared Fano resonances,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3892 (2014).
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S. Zhang, J. Zhou, Y.-S. Park, J. Rho, R. Singh, S. Nam, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, X. Yin, A. J. Taylor, and X. Zhang, “Photoinduced handedness switching in terahertz chiral metamolecules,” Nat. Commun. 3, 942 (2012).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. García-Etxarri and J. A. Dionne, “Surface-enhanced circular dichroism spectroscopy mediated by nonchiral nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 87(23), 235409 (2013).
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J. Zhou, D. R. Chowdhury, R. Zhao, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, C. M. Soukoulis, A. J. Taylor, and J. F. O’Hara, “Terahertz chiral metamaterials with giant and dynamically tunable optical activity,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035448 (2012).
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J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, A. Tünnermann, T. Pertsch, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, T. Paul, and F. Lederer, “Simple and versatile analytical approach for planar metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 82(7), 075102 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

E. Plum, X.-X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-Infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Cao, C. Wei, L. Mao, and Y. Li, “Extrinsic 2D chirality: giant circular conversion dichroism from a metal-dielectric-metal square array,” Sci. Rep. 4, 7442 (2014).
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Science (1)

Y. Tang and A. E. Cohen, “Enhanced enantioselectivity in excitation of chiral molecules by superchiral light,” Science 332(6027), 333–336 (2011).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of graphene-integrated AMS. The thicknesses of the Au squares, GaAs spacer, graphene and Au mirror is 40, 40, 0.5 and 80 nm, respectively. (b) Illustration of AMS's rectangular lattice pattern, where Lx = 400nm, Ly = 800nm and d = 200nm. (c) Demonstration of k, n, a, b, θ and φ, marked in red. (d) Effective permittivity of graphene ( ε eff ) for Fermi energies of graphene (EF) of 0.26, 0.30, and 0.42 eV.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The spectra of (a) R ++  and R    ; (b) R  +  and R + with Lx = 400 nm and Ly = 800 nm at θ = φ = 45°, EF = 0 eV; (c) CCD for φ = θ = 45° at different Ly/Lx with Lx = 400 nm and EF = 0 eV ; (d) CCD for θ = 45° with different φ at Lx = 400 nm, Ly = 800 nm and EF = 0 eV; (e) CCD for φ = 45° with different θ at Lx = 400 nm, Ly = 800 nm and EF = 0 eV; (f) CCD for EF = 0,0.26, 0.3 and 0.42 eV.(g) Peak positions vs EF .(h) CCD spectra of the AMS without and with graphene sheet (EF = 0 eV) for θ = φ = 45°.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated CCD spectra at normal (θ = φ = 0°) and oblique (θ = φ = 45°) incidences with EF = 0 eV. (b-c) Snapshots of total E field distribution at the Au squares array-air interface during light propagation through the metasurface at λ = 2152 nm and EF = 0 eV. The response to RCP light is displayed on the left and the response to the LCP light is displayed on the right. The incident total electric field E j 0 has the amplitude of 1 V/m. The E field distributions on the Au squares array-air interface are normalized to the maximum intensity of E field at θ = φ = 0°. (b) Total E field distributions on perpendicular incidence (θ = φ = 0°), showing patterns with mirror symmetry for the two circular polarizations.(c) The asymmetric field distributions in the case of oblique incidence (θ = φ = 45°).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated CCD spectra at oblique (θ = φ = 45°) incidences with EF = 0.26, 0.30 and 0.42 eV. (b-d) Snapshots of total E field distribution at the Au squares array-air interface during light propagation through the metasurface at oblique incidence (θ = φ = 45°). The response to RCP light is displayed on the left and the response to the LCP light is displayed on the right. The incident total electric field E j 0 has the amplitude of 1 V/m. The E field distributions on the Au squares array-air interface are normalized to the maximum intensity of E field at θ = φ = 0°. (b) Total E field distributions at EF = 0.26 eV and �� = 2170 nm. (c) Total E field distributions at EF = 0.30 eV and �� = 2180 nm. (d) Total E field distributions at EF = 0.42 eV and �� = 2214 nm.

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