Abstract

In this paper, we investigated the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of blood serum to discriminate liver cancer and liver cirrhosis patients from normal people. Serum taken from 44 healthy people, 45 liver cancer patients, 42 post-treatment liver cancer patients and 45 liver cirrhosis patients was measured. SERS peaks from these groups were compared and the assignments and biomedical meanings were analyzed and explained. In addition, support vector machine (SVM), partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and artificial neural networks (ANN) was used on the obtained SERS spectra to identify its diagnostic potential for liver diseases. PLS-SVM, PLS-DA and PLS-ANN indicated 91.5%, 89.2% and 90.3% accuracy, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that serum SERS can be used for liver cancer screening.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

H. T. Ngo, H.-N. Wang, T. Burke, G. S. Ginsburg, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Multiplex detection of disease biomarkers using SERS molecular sentinel-on-chip,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3335–3344 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. T. Monfared, V. S. Tiwari, M. M. Tripathi, and H. Anis, “Raman spectroscopy for clinical-level detection of heparin in serum by partial least-squares analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Uysal, I. H. Boyaci, H. E. Genis, and U. Tamer, “Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 141(4), 4397–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2013,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 63(1), 11–30 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Forner, J. M. Llovet, and J. Bruix, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” Lancet 379(9822), 1245–1255 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (11)

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, G. Du, W. Cai, and X. Shao, “Classification and quantitative analysis of azithromycin tablets by raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2(02), 135–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

K. Raj, A. Kardam, J. K. Arora, and S. Srivastava, “Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design for Hg–Se interactions and their effect on reduction of Hg uptake by radish plant,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283(3), 797–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. de Peinder, M. J. Vredenbregt, T. Visser, and D. de Kaste, “Detection of Lipitor counterfeits: A comparison of NIR and Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 47(4-5), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Tags for Rapid and Homogeneous Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Presence of Human Whole Blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. M. Reyes-Goddard, H. Barr, and N. Stone, “Photodiagnosis using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering of bodily fluids,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 2(3), 223–233 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Moskovits, “Surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(17), 338A–346A (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a Glucose Biosensor Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pérez-Enciso and M. Tenenhaus, “Prediction of clinical outcome with microarray data: a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) approach,” Hum. Genet. 112(5-6), 581–592 (2003).
[PubMed]

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adar, F.

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afseth, N. K.

H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alimardani, R.

H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anis, H.

A. M. T. Monfared, V. S. Tiwari, M. M. Tripathi, and H. Anis, “Raman spectroscopy for clinical-level detection of heparin in serum by partial least-squares analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arora, J. K.

K. Raj, A. Kardam, J. K. Arora, and S. Srivastava, “Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design for Hg–Se interactions and their effect on reduction of Hg uptake by radish plant,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283(3), 797–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barr, H.

J. M. Reyes-Goddard, H. Barr, and N. Stone, “Photodiagnosis using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering of bodily fluids,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 2(3), 223–233 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batra, S. K.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedoni, M.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beitler, J. J.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bou Sleiman, J.

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bousquet, B.

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyaci, I. H.

R. S. Uysal, I. H. Boyaci, H. E. Genis, and U. Tamer, “Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 141(4), 4397–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruix, J.

A. Forner, J. M. Llovet, and J. Bruix, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” Lancet 379(9822), 1245–1255 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burke, T.

H. T. Ngo, H.-N. Wang, T. Burke, G. S. Ginsburg, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Multiplex detection of disease biomarkers using SERS molecular sentinel-on-chip,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3335–3344 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Y. Li, G. Du, W. Cai, and X. Shao, “Classification and quantitative analysis of azithromycin tablets by raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2(02), 135–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Campbell, W. B.

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canioni, L.

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casella, M.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Center, M. M.

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chakraboty, S.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z. G.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cromer, R.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Tags for Rapid and Homogeneous Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Presence of Human Whole Blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Kaste, D.

P. de Peinder, M. J. Vredenbregt, T. Visser, and D. de Kaste, “Detection of Lipitor counterfeits: A comparison of NIR and Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 47(4-5), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Miollis, F.

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Peinder, P.

P. de Peinder, M. J. Vredenbregt, T. Visser, and D. de Kaste, “Detection of Lipitor counterfeits: A comparison of NIR and Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 47(4-5), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, G.

Y. Li, G. Du, W. Cai, and X. Shao, “Classification and quantitative analysis of azithromycin tablets by raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2(02), 135–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duyne, R. P. V.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(17), 338A–346A (2005).
[Crossref]

El Haddad, J.

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forman, D.

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forner, A.

A. Forner, J. M. Llovet, and J. Bruix, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” Lancet 379(9822), 1245–1255 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forvi, E.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genis, H. E.

R. S. Uysal, I. H. Boyaci, H. E. Genis, and U. Tamer, “Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 141(4), 4397–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginsburg, G. S.

H. T. Ngo, H.-N. Wang, T. Burke, G. S. Ginsburg, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Multiplex detection of disease biomarkers using SERS molecular sentinel-on-chip,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3335–3344 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glucksberg, M. R.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a Glucose Biosensor Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramatica, F.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z. Y.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hawi, S. R.

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(17), 338A–346A (2005).
[Crossref]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a Glucose Biosensor Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jain, M.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jemal, A.

R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2013,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 63(1), 11–30 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kardam, A.

K. Raj, A. Kardam, J. K. Arora, and S. Srivastava, “Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design for Hg–Se interactions and their effect on reduction of Hg uptake by radish plant,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283(3), 797–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kaur, S.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khuri, F. R.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lendl, B.

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leopold, N.

N. Leopold and B. Lendl, “A New Method for Fast Preparation of Highly Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Active Silver Colloids at Room Temperature by Reduction of Silver Nitrate with Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(24), 5723–5727 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lewis, M. M.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, B.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, L. F.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. J.

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M. L.

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S. X.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. Du, W. Cai, and X. Shao, “Classification and quantitative analysis of azithromycin tablets by raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2(02), 135–141 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, D.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lipert, R. J.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. H.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z. M.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
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A. Forner, J. M. Llovet, and J. Bruix, “Hepatocellular carcinoma,” Lancet 379(9822), 1245–1255 (2012).
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H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lucotti, A.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
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S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
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Mao, H.

S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
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McFarland, A. D.

C. L. Haynes, A. D. McFarland, and R. P. V. Duyne, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(17), 338A–346A (2005).
[Crossref]

Mohamadi Monavar, H.

H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monfared, A. M. T.

A. M. T. Monfared, V. S. Tiwari, M. M. Tripathi, and H. Anis, “Raman spectroscopy for clinical-level detection of heparin in serum by partial least-squares analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027010 (2013).
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Moskovits, M.

M. Moskovits, “Surface‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mounaix, P.

J. El Haddad, F. de Miollis, J. Bou Sleiman, L. Canioni, P. Mounaix, and B. Bousquet, “Chemometrics Applied to Quantitative Analysis of Ternary Mixtures by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4927–4933 (2014).
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Murphy, R.

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
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Naishadham, D.

R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2013,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 63(1), 11–30 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natan, M. J.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Tags for Rapid and Homogeneous Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Presence of Human Whole Blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ngo, H. T.

H. T. Ngo, H.-N. Wang, T. Burke, G. S. Ginsburg, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Multiplex detection of disease biomarkers using SERS molecular sentinel-on-chip,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3335–3344 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
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Nithipatikom, K.

S. R. Hawi, W. B. Campbell, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, R. Murphy, F. Adar, and K. Nithipatikom, “Characterization of normal and malignant human hepatocytes by Raman microspectroscopy,” Cancer Lett. 110(1-2), 35–40 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omid, M.

H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
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Pérez-Enciso, M.

M. Pérez-Enciso and M. Tenenhaus, “Prediction of clinical outcome with microarray data: a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) approach,” Hum. Genet. 112(5-6), 581–592 (2003).
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G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
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Raj, K.

K. Raj, A. Kardam, J. K. Arora, and S. Srivastava, “Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design for Hg–Se interactions and their effect on reduction of Hg uptake by radish plant,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283(3), 797–801 (2010).
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Reyes-Goddard, J. M.

J. M. Reyes-Goddard, H. Barr, and N. Stone, “Photodiagnosis using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering of bodily fluids,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 2(3), 223–233 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sha, M. Y.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Tags for Rapid and Homogeneous Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Presence of Human Whole Blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a Glucose Biosensor Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
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Shao, X.

Y. Li, G. Du, W. Cai, and X. Shao, “Classification and quantitative analysis of azithromycin tablets by raman spectroscopy and chemometrics,” Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2(02), 135–141 (2011).
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Shin, D. M.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, H. J. C.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Si, M.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

Siegel, R.

R. Siegel, D. Naishadham, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2013,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 63(1), 11–30 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

K. Raj, A. Kardam, J. K. Arora, and S. Srivastava, “Artificial Neural Network (ANN) design for Hg–Se interactions and their effect on reduction of Hg uptake by radish plant,” J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283(3), 797–801 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stone, N.

J. M. Reyes-Goddard, H. Barr, and N. Stone, “Photodiagnosis using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering of bodily fluids,” Photodiagn. Photodyn. Ther. 2(3), 223–233 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamer, U.

R. S. Uysal, I. H. Boyaci, H. E. Genis, and U. Tamer, “Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 141(4), 4397–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tenenhaus, M.

M. Pérez-Enciso and M. Tenenhaus, “Prediction of clinical outcome with microarray data: a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) approach,” Hum. Genet. 112(5-6), 581–592 (2003).
[PubMed]

Tiwari, V. S.

A. M. T. Monfared, V. S. Tiwari, M. M. Tripathi, and H. Anis, “Raman spectroscopy for clinical-level detection of heparin in serum by partial least-squares analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tommasini, M.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, M. P.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathi, M. M.

A. M. T. Monfared, V. S. Tiwari, M. M. Tripathi, and H. Anis, “Raman spectroscopy for clinical-level detection of heparin in serum by partial least-squares analysis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uysal, R. S.

R. S. Uysal, I. H. Boyaci, H. E. Genis, and U. Tamer, “Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 141(4), 4397–4403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a Glucose Biosensor Based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Visser, T.

P. de Peinder, M. J. Vredenbregt, T. Visser, and D. de Kaste, “Detection of Lipitor counterfeits: A comparison of NIR and Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 47(4-5), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vo-Dinh, T.

H. T. Ngo, H.-N. Wang, T. Burke, G. S. Ginsburg, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Multiplex detection of disease biomarkers using SERS molecular sentinel-on-chip,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3335–3344 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vredenbregt, M. J.

P. de Peinder, M. J. Vredenbregt, T. Visser, and D. de Kaste, “Detection of Lipitor counterfeits: A comparison of NIR and Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 47(4-5), 688–694 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, M. M.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, R. J. Lipert, M. Jain, S. Kaur, S. Chakraboty, M. P. Torres, S. K. Batra, R. E. Brand, and M. D. Porter, “Detection of the potential pancreatic cancer marker MUC4 in serum using surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Anal. Chem. 83(7), 2554–2561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-N.

H. T. Ngo, H.-N. Wang, T. Burke, G. S. Ginsburg, and T. Vo-Dinh, “Multiplex detection of disease biomarkers using SERS molecular sentinel-on-chip,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 406(14), 3335–3344 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Qian, J. J. Beitler, Z. G. Chen, F. R. Khuri, M. M. Lewis, H. J. C. Shin, S. Nie, and D. M. Shin, “Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Peripheral Blood Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles,” Cancer Res. 71(5), 1526–1532 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ward, E.

A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 61(2), 69–90 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, Z. N.

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wold, J. P.

H. Mohamadi Monavar, N. K. Afseth, J. Lozano, R. Alimardani, M. Omid, and J. P. Wold, “Determining quality of caviar from Caspian Sea based on Raman spectroscopy and using artificial neural networks,” Talanta 111, 98–104 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, G.

S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Wu, D. Lin, Y. Chen, G. Xi, J. Lin, and R. Chen, “Study on gastric cancer blood plasma based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis,” Sci. China: Life Sci. 54(9), 828–834 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, S.

Xiong, H.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xiong, H. L.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

M. Y. Sha, H. Xu, M. J. Natan, and R. Cromer, “Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Tags for Rapid and Homogeneous Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in the Presence of Human Whole Blood,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(51), 17214–17215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

B. Yan, Y. Li, G. Yang, Z. N. Wen, M. L. Li, and L. J. Li, “Discrimination of parotid neoplasms from the normal parotid gland by use of Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Oral Oncol. 47(5), 430–435 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

J. Wang, D. Lin, J. Lin, Y. Yu, Z. Huang, Y. Chen, J. Lin, S. Feng, B. Li, N. Liu, and R. Chen, “Label-free detection of serum proteins using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 087003 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zeng, H.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
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J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, Y. Wu, Y. Li, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Gastric cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy excited by polarized laser light,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(7), 3167–3174 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lin, R. Chen, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Li, G. Chen, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, Y. Yu, and H. Zeng, “A novel blood plasma analysis technique combining membrane electrophoresis with silver nanoparticle-based SERS spectroscopy for potential applications in noninvasive cancer detection,” Nanomedicine (Lond. Print) 7(5), 655–663 (2011).
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D. Lin, S. Feng, J. Pan, Y. Chen, J. Lin, G. Chen, S. Xie, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Colorectal cancer detection by gold nanoparticle based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of blood serum and statistical analysis,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13565–13577 (2011).
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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Q.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Q. Y.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Y.

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zerbi, G.

M. Casella, A. Lucotti, M. Tommasini, M. Bedoni, E. Forvi, F. Gramatica, and G. Zerbi, “Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 79(5), 915–919 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. J.

S. X. Li, Q. Y. Zeng, L. F. Li, Y. J. Zhang, M. M. Wan, Z. M. Liu, H. L. Xiong, Z. Y. Guo, and S. H. Liu, “Study of support vector machine and serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for noninvasive esophageal cancer detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 027008 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zi, X.

R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
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S. Feng, D. Lin, J. Lin, B. Li, Z. Huang, G. Chen, W. Zhang, L. Wang, J. Pan, R. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(14), 3967–3974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Xu, L. Li, Q. Zeng, L. Lin, Z. Guo, Z. Liu, H. Xiong, and S. Liu, “Noninvasive prostate cancer screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and support vector machine,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(9), 091104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Feng, J. Lin, Y. Zeng, L. Li, Z. Huang, B. Li, H. Zeng, and R. Chen, “Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 204106 (2013).
[Crossref]

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S. Feng, R. Chen, J. Lin, J. Pan, G. Chen, Y. Li, M. Cheng, Z. Huang, J. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Nasopharyngeal cancer detection based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(11), 2414–2419 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. S. Uysal, I. H. Boyaci, H. E. Genis, and U. Tamer, “Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy,” Food Chem. 141(4), 4397–4403 (2013).
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S. Luo, C. Chen, H. Mao, and S. Jin, “Discrimination of premalignant lesions and cancer tissues from normal gastric tissues using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 067004 (2013).
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R. Liu, X. Zi, Y. Kang, M. Si, and Y. Wu, “Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of human serum on PVA-Ag nanofilm prepared by using electrostatic self-assembly,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(2), 137–144 (2011).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 UV absorbance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photograph of silver colloid.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Average SERS spectra of four groups (normal, liver cancer, liver cancer after operation and liver cirrhosis group).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Mean intensities and standard deviations of peaks with the most distinguishable differences between groups.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SVM performance as a function of penalty factor C and parameter γ. Deeper color represents better performance.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Class prediction plot using PLS components: (a) PLS-SVM, and (b) PLS-DA. Solid symbols represent misclassified samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Network plot of ANN.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Demographics of study population

Tables Icon

Table 2 Tentative peak assignments [19, 32-34]

Tables Icon

Table 3 Diagnostic evaluation of the PLS-SVM, PLS-DA and PLS-ANN technique

Metrics