Abstract

The room temperature photoluminescence from Ge nanopillars has been extended from 1.6 μm to above 2.25 μm wavelength through the application of tensile stress from silicon nitride stressors deposited by inductively-coupled-plasma plasma-enhanced chemical-vapour-deposition. Photoluminescence measurements demonstrate biaxial equivalent tensile strains of up to ∼ 1.35% in square topped nanopillars with side lengths of 200 nm. Biaxial equivalent strains of 0.9% are observed in 300 nm square top pillars, confirmed by confocal Raman spectroscopy. Finite element modelling demonstrates that an all-around stressor layer is preferable to a top only stressor, as it increases the hydrostatic component of the strain, leading to an increased shift in the band-edge and improved uniformity over top-surface only stressors layers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. E. Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nature Photon. 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. C. S. Dumas, K. Gallacher, S. Rhead, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Ge/SiGe quantum confined Stark effect electro-absorption modulation with low voltage swing at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 22, 19284–19292 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Pezzoli, F. Isa, G. Isella, V. Falub, C. T. Kreiliger, M. Salvalaglio, R. Bergamaschini, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, H. von Känel, and L. Miglio, “Ge crystals on si show their light,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 044005 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 201500107 (2014).

2013 (4)

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon. 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 610–632 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. J. Paul, “8-band k.p modeling of the quantum confined Stark effect in Ge quantum wells on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 155323 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48, 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

I. De Wolf, H. E. Maes, and S. K. Jones, “Stress measurements in silicon devices through Raman spectroscopy: Bridging the gap between theory and experiment,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 7148–7156 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Allred, P.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon. 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bain, M.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschini, R.

F. Pezzoli, F. Isa, G. Isella, V. Falub, C. T. Kreiliger, M. Salvalaglio, R. Bergamaschini, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, H. von Känel, and L. Miglio, “Ge crystals on si show their light,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 044005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

Boucaud, P.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. E. Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22, 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boztug, C.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nature Photon. 6, 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buller, G.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

R. Camacho-Aguilera, Z. Han, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct band gap narrowing in highly doped Ge,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Capellini, G.

Cecchi, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nature Photon. 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nature Photon. 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-T.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

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Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
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M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
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S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
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J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nature Photon. 4, 527–534 (2010).
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J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35, 679–681 (2010).
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F. Pezzoli, F. Isa, G. Isella, V. Falub, C. T. Kreiliger, M. Salvalaglio, R. Bergamaschini, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, H. von Känel, and L. Miglio, “Ge crystals on si show their light,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 044005 (2014).
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Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
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M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
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M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
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S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
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S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
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D. C. S. Dumas, K. Gallacher, S. Rhead, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Ge/SiGe quantum confined Stark effect electro-absorption modulation with low voltage swing at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 22, 19284–19292 (2014).
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D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 201500107 (2014).

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A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
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S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
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S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
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Ossikovski, R.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
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A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
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Paiella, R.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
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J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
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Patel, N.

Paul, D.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paul, D. J.

D. C. S. Dumas, K. Gallacher, S. Rhead, M. Myronov, D. R. Leadley, and D. J. Paul, “Ge/SiGe quantum confined Stark effect electro-absorption modulation with low voltage swing at λ = 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 22, 19284–19292 (2014).
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K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211101 (2012).
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M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
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D. J. Paul, “The progress towards terahertz quantum cascade lasers on silicon substrates,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 610–632 (2010).
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D. J. Paul, “8-band k.p modeling of the quantum confined Stark effect in Ge quantum wells on Si substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 155323 (2008).
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S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
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D. J. Paul, “Si/SiGe heterostructures: from material and physics to devices and circuits,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75 (2004).
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Peng, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Peng, C.-F. Huang, Y.-C. Fu, Y.-H. Yang, C.-Y. Lai, S.-T. Chang, and C. W. Liu, “Comprehensive study of the Raman shifts of strained silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 105, 083537 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pezzoli, F.

F. Pezzoli, F. Isa, G. Isella, V. Falub, C. T. Kreiliger, M. Salvalaglio, R. Bergamaschini, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, H. von Känel, and L. Miglio, “Ge crystals on si show their light,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 044005 (2014).
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Pidgeon, C. R.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pilgrim, N.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prost, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
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Reich, C.

Ren, S.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhead, S.

Romagnoli, M.

Rössner, B.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48, 1317–1323 (2004).
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Roth, J. E.

Y. H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. S. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouifed, M.-S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nature Photon. 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Salvalaglio, M.

F. Pezzoli, F. Isa, G. Isella, V. Falub, C. T. Kreiliger, M. Salvalaglio, R. Bergamaschini, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, H. von Känel, and L. Miglio, “Ge crystals on si show their light,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 044005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Samarelli, A.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Perez, J. R.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvage, S.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-around SiN stressor for high and homogeneous tensile strain in germanium microdisk cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, R. Jakomin, G. Beaudoin, S. Sauvage, G. Fishman, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Control of tensile strain in germanium waveguides through silicon nitride layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

Sigg, H.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Sanchez-Perez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suess, M. J.

M. J. Suess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nature Photon. 7, 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Süess, M. J.

R. Geiger, J. Frigerio, M. J. Süess, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Suet, Z.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sukhdeo, D.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, and S. Gupta, “Study of carrier statistics in uniaxially strained Ge for a low-threshold Ge laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 201500107 (2014).

Sun, X.

Ternent, G.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tillack, B.

Townsend, P.

S. A. Lynch, D. J. Paul, P. Townsend, G. Matmon, Z. Suet, R. W. Kelsall, Z. Ikonic, P. Harrison, J. Zhang, D. J. Norris, A. G. Cullis, C. R. Pidgeon, P. Murzyn, B. Murdin, M. Bain, H. S. Gamble, M. Zhao, and W.-X. Ni, “Toward silicon-based lasers for terahertz sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1570–1578 (2006).
[Crossref]

Velha, P.

M. M. Mirza, H. Zhou, P. Velha, X. Li, K. E. Docherty, A. Samarelli, G. Ternent, and D. J. Paul, “Nanofabrication of high aspect ratio (∼50:1) sub-10 nm silicon nanowires using inductively coupled plasma etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 30, 06FF02 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Gallacher, P. Velha, D. J. Paul, S. Cecchi, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, and G. Isella, “1.55 μm direct bandgap electroluminescence from strained n-Ge quantum wells grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Virgilio, M.

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, S. Cecchi, P. Crozat, G. Isella, and L. Vivien, “Integrated germanium optical interconnects on silicon substrates,” Nature Photon. 8, 482–488 (2014).
[Crossref]

von Känel, H.

F. Pezzoli, F. Isa, G. Isella, V. Falub, C. T. Kreiliger, M. Salvalaglio, R. Bergamaschini, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, H. von Känel, and L. Miglio, “Ge crystals on si show their light,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 044005 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48, 1317–1323 (2004).
[Crossref]

Warburton, R.

R. Warburton, G. Intermite, M. Myronov, P. Allred, D. Leadley, K. Gallacher, D. Paul, N. Pilgrim, L. Lever, Z. Ikonic, R. Kelsall, E. Huante-Ceron, A. Knights, and G. Buller, “Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode detectors: Design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization at wavelengths 1310 and 1550 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 60, 3807–3813 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Yang, Y.-H.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope images of 200 nm square top Ge nanopillars (left) and 300 nm square top Ge nanopillars (right) after the removal of HSQ resist.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The photoluminescence from 300 × 300 nm pillars (left) and 200 × 200 nm pillars (right), with variable levels of stress in the silicon nitride stressor layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left: The Raman line of the blank unpatterned Ge following growth (red dashed line), demonstrating no visible strain. Also plotted is the Raman line for the 300 nm square top Ge nanopillar stressed with a 2.7 GPa silicon nitride stressor layer (blue solid line). The two peaks have been normalized to similar intensities to allow an easy comparison. Right: The Raman map of 300 nm pillars. Each spectrum is fitted with a Lorentzian to form the colour map.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated comparisons between 300 nm square top Ge pillars with; an all around 2.7 GPa silicon nitride stressor layer, and a top only 2.7 GPa silicon nitride stressor layer. All calculations are from a line segment through the centre of the pillar, as shown in the illustration at the inset of the bottom left plot. Top Left: Calculated εxx (= εyy) and εzz. Top right: Calculated Γ to LH emission wavelength using deformation potentials. Bottom Right: Calculated difference between the Γ and L valleys, demonstrating that the addition of silicon nitride on the pillar sidewalls produces a significant decrease in the energy difference between the valleys, and is therefore closer to direct bandgap than with a top stressor. Bottom left: The calculated Raman line using Eq. (2), and an illustration indicating the line segment (in the z direction) down which the calculations were performed.

Equations (5)

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σ = E S t S 2 6 ( 1 ν s ) t f ( 1 R post 1 R pre )
Δ ω = 1 2 ω 0 [ p ε z z + q ( ε x x + ε y y ) ]
Δ ω = 1 ω 0 ( p C 12 C 11 + q ) ε x x
Δ ω = b bi ε x x
ε z z = 2 C 12 C 11 ε bi

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