Abstract

Beam steering devices have gained extensive interests in the fields of optical interconnects, communications, displays and data storages. However, the challenge lies in obtaining an ultrafast beam steering structure in the optical regime. Here, we propose phase-array-like plasmonic resonators based on metal/phase-change materials (PCMs)/metal trilayers for all-optical ultrafast beam steering in the mid-infrared (MIR) region. We numerically demonstrate an angle beam steering of 11° for transmitted wave (front lobe) and 22° for reflected wave (back lobe) by switching between the amorphous and crystalline states of the PCM (Ge2Sb2Te5). A photothermal model is used to study the temporal variation of the temperature of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film to show potential for switching the phase of Ge2Sb2Te5 by optical heating. Generation of the beam steering in this structure exhibits a fast beam steering time of 3.6 ns under a low pump light intensity of 2.6 μW/μm2. Our design possesses a simple geometry which can be fabricated using standard photolithography patterning and is essential for exploiting the ultrafast beam steering in various applications in the MIR regime.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8660 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zou, M. Cryan, and M. Klemm, “Phase change material based tunable reflectarray for free-space optical inter/intra chip interconnects,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24142–24148 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

T. Cao, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Study of tunable negative index metamaterials based on phase-change materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(2), 439–444 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Battal and A. K. Okyay, “Metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic resonators for active beam steering in the infrared,” Opt. Lett. 38(6), 983–985 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “Optical phased array using high contrast gratings for two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12238–12248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13691–13698 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1101–1110 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Hira, T. Homma, T. Uchiyama, K. Kuwamura, and T. Saiki, “Switching of localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on a GeSbTe film mediated by nanoscale phase change and modification of surface morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice and H. Bhaskaran, “Photonic non-volatile memories using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. M. Aziz, A. Shalini, C. D. Wright, and R. J. Hicken, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films by amplified femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 123526 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, and M. Scalora, “Wideband plasmonic beam steering in metal gratings,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 271–273 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, Y. Lu, S. Li, Z. Song, and T. Lai, “Femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous Ga-Sb-Se films and coherent phonon dynamics,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18585–18590 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Keil, M. Heinrich, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, D. N. Christodoulides, and A. Szameit, “All-optical routing and switching for three-dimensional photonic circuitry,” Sci. Rep. 1, 94 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-Dimensional Displays: A Review and Applications Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H. P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, R. X. Fung, S. Y. Huang, J. H. Liu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically-tunable beam steering grating based n azobenzene doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17498–17503 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

D. Engström, M. J. O’Callaghan, C. Walker, and M. A. Handschy, “Fast beam steering with a ferroelectric-liquid-crystal optical phased array,” Appl. Opt. 48(9), 1721–1726 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Double-negative polarization-independent fishnet metamaterial in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1603–1605 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid,” Science 326(5955), 980–984 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075425 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory Metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Přikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and T. Søndergaard, “General properties of slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: nano-antennas and resonators,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10869–10877 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang, G. Zhang, A. Glushchenko, J. L. West, P. J. Bos, and P. F. McManamon, “Stressed liquid-crystal optical phased array for fast tip-tilt wavefront correction,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7754–7759 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Abelson, J. R.

B. S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid,” Science 326(5955), 980–984 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, D. C.

D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Afonso, C. N.

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aziz, M. M.

Y. Liu, M. M. Aziz, A. Shalini, C. D. Wright, and R. J. Hicken, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films by amplified femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 123526 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
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A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
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Liu, Y.

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Macdonald, K. F.

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Maddock, J.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8660 (2015).
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Martí, J.

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C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Double-negative polarization-independent fishnet metamaterial in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1603–1605 (2009).
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C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Double-negative polarization-independent fishnet metamaterial in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1603–1605 (2009).
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R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075425 (2009).
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Maß, T. W. W.

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
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P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
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A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
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Nolte, S.

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R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075425 (2009).
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C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Double-negative polarization-independent fishnet metamaterial in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1603–1605 (2009).
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Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
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T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory Metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
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S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
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R. Keil, M. Heinrich, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, D. N. Christodoulides, and A. Szameit, “All-optical routing and switching for three-dimensional photonic circuitry,” Sci. Rep. 1, 94 (2011).
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N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
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N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
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J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
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D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
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J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Přikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
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Pruneri, V.

M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
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Puerto, D.

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
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B. S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid,” Science 326(5955), 980–984 (2009).
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Ribaudo, T.

D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
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Robertson, J.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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Rodríguez-Fortuño, F. J.

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Double-negative polarization-independent fishnet metamaterial in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1603–1605 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075425 (2009).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rogers, E. T. F.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roy, T.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
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Saiki, T.

T. Hira, T. Homma, T. Uchiyama, K. Kuwamura, and T. Saiki, “Switching of localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on a GeSbTe film mediated by nanoscale phase change and modification of surface morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Salinga, M.

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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Scalora, M.

Schönauer, K.

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
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Serati, S.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shalini, A.

Y. Liu, M. M. Aziz, A. Shalini, C. D. Wright, and R. J. Hicken, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films by amplified femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 123526 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shelby, R. M.

B. S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid,” Science 326(5955), 980–984 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shportko, K.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, J.

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
[Crossref]

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J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Přikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
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T. Cao, C. W. Wei, R. E. Simpson, L. Zhang, and M. J. Cryan, “Rapid phase transition of a phase-change metamaterial perfect absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1101–1110 (2013).
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M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
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T. Cao, R. E. Simpson, and M. J. Cryan, “Study of tunable negative index metamaterials based on phase-change materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(2), 439–444 (2013).
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R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 501–505 (2011).
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Smith, D. R.

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory Metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solis, J.

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Søndergaard, T.

Song, Z.

Sonnefraud, Y.

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8660 (2015).
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Suzuki, O.

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Szameit, A.

R. Keil, M. Heinrich, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, D. N. Christodoulides, and A. Szameit, “All-optical routing and switching for three-dimensional photonic circuitry,” Sci. Rep. 1, 94 (2011).
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[Crossref]

Taubner, T.

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thongrattanasiri, S.

D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tominaga, J.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

Tseng, M. L.

Tünnermann, A.

R. Keil, M. Heinrich, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, D. N. Christodoulides, and A. Szameit, “All-optical routing and switching for three-dimensional photonic circuitry,” Sci. Rep. 1, 94 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uchiyama, T.

T. Hira, T. Homma, T. Uchiyama, K. Kuwamura, and T. Saiki, “Switching of localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on a GeSbTe film mediated by nanoscale phase change and modification of surface morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241101 (2013).
[Crossref]

van der Tol, J. J. G. M.

M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vincenti, M. A.

Wágner, T.

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Přikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walker, C.

Wang, B.

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. J.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wasserman, D.

D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, C. W.

West, J. L.

Wiemer, C.

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Woda, M.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, C. D.

Y. Liu, M. M. Aziz, A. Shalini, C. D. Wright, and R. J. Hicken, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films by amplified femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 123526 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

Wuttig, M.

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H. K.

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yagi, T.

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamakawa, Y.

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

Yoo, B. W.

Yu, N.

Yu, N. F.

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zalden, P.

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, J.

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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Zheludev, N. I.

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
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B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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Zhu, W.

Zou, L.

ACS Nano (1)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

A. K. Michel, P. Zalden, D. N. Chigrin, M. Wuttig, A. M. Lindenberg, and T. Taubner, “Reversible optical switching of infrared antenna resonances with ultrathin phase-change layers using femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 1(9), 833–839 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

B. Gholipour, J. Zhang, K. F. MacDonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “An all-optical, non-volatile, bidirectional, phase-change meta-switch,” Adv. Mater. 25(22), 3050–3054 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Wright, Y. Liu, K. I. Kohary, M. M. Aziz, and R. J. Hicken, “Arithmetic and biologically-inspired computing using phase-change materials,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3408–3413 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Q. Wang, J. Maddock, E. T. F. Rogers, T. Roy, C. Craig, K. F. Macdonald, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(12), 121105 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Hira, T. Homma, T. Uchiyama, K. Kuwamura, and T. Saiki, “Switching of localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles on a GeSbTe film mediated by nanoscale phase change and modification of surface morphology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 241101 (2013).
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Z. L. Sámson, K. F. MacDonald, F. De Angelis, B. Gholipour, K. Knight, C. C. Huang, E. Di Fabrizio, D. W. Hewak, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial electro-optic switch of nanoscale thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 143105 (2010).
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W. H. P. Pernice and H. Bhaskaran, “Photonic non-volatile memories using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(17), 171101 (2012).
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M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
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D. C. Adams, S. Thongrattanasiri, T. Ribaudo, V. A. Podolskiy, and D. Wasserman, “Plasmonic mid-infrared beam steering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(20), 201112 (2010).
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IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-Dimensional Displays: A Review and Applications Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Orava, T. Wágner, J. Šik, J. Přikryl, M. Frumar, and L. Beneš, “Optical properties and phase change transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 flash evaporated thin films studied by temperature dependent spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(4), 043523 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, M. M. Aziz, A. Shalini, C. D. Wright, and R. J. Hicken, “Crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films by amplified femtosecond optical pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(12), 123526 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Siegel, W. Gawelda, D. Puerto, C. Dorronsoro, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, J. C. G. de Sande, R. Bez, A. Pirovano, and C. Wiemer, “Amorphization dynamics of Ge2Sb2Te5 films upon nano- and femtosecond laser pulse irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(2), 023516 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. Kuwahara, O. Suzuki, Y. Yamakawa, N. Taketoshi, T. Yagi, P. Fons, T. Fukaya, J. Tominaga, and T. Baba, “Measurement of the thermal conductivity of nanometer scale thin films by thermoreflectance phenomenon,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5–8), 1792–1796 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. K. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

R. E. Simpson, P. Fons, A. V. Kolobov, T. Fukaya, M. Krbal, T. Yagi, and J. Tominaga, “Interfacial phase-change memory,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(8), 501–505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

N. F. Yu, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Small-divergence semiconductor lasers by plasmonic collimation,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 564–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and T. Søndergaard, “General properties of slow-plasmon resonant nanostructures: nano-antennas and resonators,” Opt. Express 15(17), 10869–10877 (2007).
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N. Yu, R. Blanchard, J. Fan, Q. J. Wang, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, T. Edamura, M. Yamanishi, H. Kan, and F. Capasso, “Quantum cascade lasers with integrated plasmonic antenna-array collimators,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19447–19461 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. C. Jau, T. H. Lin, R. X. Fung, S. Y. Huang, J. H. Liu, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Optically-tunable beam steering grating based n azobenzene doped cholesteric liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17498–17503 (2010).
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C. M. Chang, C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, H. P. Chiang, M. Mansuripur, and D. P. Tsai, “Local electrical characterization of laser-recorded phase-change marks on amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9492–9504 (2011).
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B. W. Yoo, M. Megens, T. Chan, T. Sun, W. Yang, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, D. A. Horsley, and M. C. Wu, “Optical phased array using high contrast gratings for two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12238–12248 (2013).
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Y. G. Chen, T. S. Kao, B. Ng, X. Li, X. G. Luo, B. Luk’yanchuk, S. A. Maier, and M. H. Hong, “Hybrid phase-change plasmonic crystals for active tuning of lattice resonances,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13691–13698 (2013).
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W. Zhu, Y. Lu, S. Li, Z. Song, and T. Lai, “Femtosecond laser-induced crystallization of amorphous Ga-Sb-Se films and coherent phonon dynamics,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18585–18590 (2012).
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L. Zou, M. Cryan, and M. Klemm, “Phase change material based tunable reflectarray for free-space optical inter/intra chip interconnects,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24142–24148 (2014).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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R. Gordon, “Light in a subwavelength slit in a metal: propagation and reflection,” Phys. Rev. B 73(15), 153405 (2006).
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R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, “Role of surface plasmon polaritons on optical transmission through double layer metallic hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075425 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. F. McManamon, P. J. Bos, M. J. Escuti, J. Heikenfeld, S. Serati, H. K. Xie, and E. A. Watson, “A review of phased array steering for narrow-band electrooptical systems,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1078–1096 (2009).
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Sci. Rep. (2)

R. Keil, M. Heinrich, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, D. N. Christodoulides, and A. Szameit, “All-optical routing and switching for three-dimensional photonic circuitry,” Sci. Rep. 1, 94 (2011).
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Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8660 (2015).
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Science (2)

T. Driscoll, H. T. Kim, B. G. Chae, B. J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, N. M. Jokerst, S. Palit, D. R. Smith, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Memory Metamaterials,” Science 325(5947), 1518–1521 (2009).
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B. S. Lee, G. W. Burr, R. M. Shelby, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, S. N. Bogle, K. Darmawikarta, S. G. Bishop, and J. R. Abelson, “Observation of the role of subcritical nuclei in crystallization of a glassy solid,” Science 326(5955), 980–984 (2009).
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Other (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of an array of four MDM strip resonators consisting of a 250 nm thick Ge2Sb2Te5 dielectric layer between two 40nm thick Au films suspended in a vacuum; (b) cross-section of array of MDM strips with different widths for beam steering, where w1 = 230 nm, w2 = 200 nm, w3 = 180 nm, w4 = 150 nm and d = 500 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dielectric constant (a) ε 1 (ω) vs wavelength and (b) ε 2 (ω) vs wavelength for both amorphous and crystalline states of Ge2Sb2Te5 [17].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Scheme of the single MDM strip. FDTD simulation of the transmission phase spectra for (b) the amorphous MDM strip and (c) the crystalline MDM strip with various widths of 230, 200, 180 and 150 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FDTD simulation of (a) the dispersion relation of the Au- amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5-Au trilayers; (b) the transmittance spectra of the amorphous gradient MDM strips array; (c) the dispersion relation of the Au- crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5- Au trilayers; (d) the transmittance spectra of the crystalline gradient MDM strips array.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Four MDM strips arrray with the equal width of 230 nm, where the dielectric layer is amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5; (b) FDTD simulation of the normalized radiation pattern of the structure at λ = 2000 nm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 FDTD simulation of (a) the normalized radiation patterns of the gradient MDM strips array at λ = 2000 nm; (b) the trapped plasmon mode absorbance spectra of the structure for the amorphous and crystalline states of Ge2Sb2Te5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 FEM simulation of (a) heat power irradiating on an amorphous gradient MDM strips array located at the beam center, where the solid line presents the heat power irradiating on the structures under normal incident intensity of 2.6 μW/μm2,the dash lines with different colors are the temperatures of the amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 layers with different widths during one pulse;(b) the temperature distribution of the MDM strips array along the β plane at 3.6 ns, where color image indicates the temperature distribution and the arrows indicate the heat flux.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 FDTD simulation of (a) the normalized radiation patterns, (b) angles of the reflected beam, and (c) angles of the transmitted beam of the gradient MDM strips array at λ = 2000 nm with the thickness of the crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 film of tC = 0, 100, 170, 220 and 250 nm.

Equations (4)

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k 0 n eff w=mπ+φ,
F l (r)= 2 P 0 π w g 2 f r exp( 2 r 2 w g 2 ),
   E th ( r )= R a × L x × L z × F l ( r ),
Q s (r,t)= E th (r) ΔV 1 π τ exp( (t t 0 ) 2 τ 2 ),

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