Abstract

Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) light scattering materials are fabricated by a simple, low-cost approach of melt blending and compression molding. We find that the competing effects of particle diameter versus number concentration of the scattering particles is the controlling factor to tailoring the optical properties of the materials, which is analyzed according to Mie scattering theory. The results show that the transmittance kept decreasing in the PET concentration range 0-10 wt% followed by a constant level in the range 10-20 wt%; however, the transmittance experienced a significant increase in the range 20-35 wt% and plateaued again after PET content exceeded 35 wt%. Therefore, the application of ordinary polymer dopant makes preparing light scattering sheets with high haze but not decreasing transmittance possible.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

E. Moghbelli, R. Banyay, and H. Sue, “Effect of moisture exposure on scratch resistance of PMMA,” Tribol. Int. 69, 46–51 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Dong, Y. Xiong, and S. Y. Guo, “Preparation and properties of high scattering polycarbonate(PC) composites,” Acta. Polym. Sin. 2, 241–247 (2013).

T. Teng, “A novel feasible digital laser-blastering to fabricate a light-guide-plate of high luminance and efficiency for TV application,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(10), 800–806 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. H. Lee, J. L. Tsai, S. H. Ma, and C. C. Sun, “Surface-structured diffuser by iterative down-size molding with glass sintering technology,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6135–6145 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Q. Tang, Z. F. Tang, and T. T. Zhao, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Polysiloxane Microspheres/PMMA Light Scattering materials,” Acta Photon. Sin. 41, 723–727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Duan, W. S. Ma, and Z. R. Wan, “Light diffusion materials in polymethymathacrylate used in light guide plate,” Chinese J. Liq. Cryst. Disp. 27(1), 26–30 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Wang, C. Chen, J. Ho, T. Shih, C. Chen, W. Whang, and J. Yang, “One-step fabrication of surface- relief diffusers by stress-induced undulations on elastomer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 804–808 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

B. Yalcin, M. Cakmak, A. H. Arkın, B. Hazer, and B. Erman, “Control of optical anisotropy at large deformations in PMMA/chlorinated-PHB (PHB-Cl) blends: Mechano-optical behavior,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(24), 8183–8193 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

G. Kim, “A PMMA composite as an optical diffuser in a liquid crystal display Backlighting unit (BLU),” Eur. Polym. J. 41(8), 1729–1737 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl, Op. B 7, 111 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. C. Jonsson, L. Karlsson, P. Nostell, G. A. Niklasson, and G. B. Smith, “Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84(1-4), 427–439 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. C. Jana and M. Sau, “Effects of viscosity ratio and composition on development of morphology in chaotic mixing of polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(5), 1665–1678 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

A. H. Yuwono, J. Xue, J. Wang, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, Y. Li, and T. J. White, “Transparent nano-hybrids of nanocrystalline TiO2 in PMMA with unique nonlinear optical behavior,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(6), 1475–1479 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. B. Smith, J. C. Jonsson, and J. Franklin, “Spectral and global diffuse properties of high-performance translucent polymer sheets for energy efficient lighting and skylights,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3981–3991 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Lee and W. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly (methyl methacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater. 13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

W. H. Guo and S. C. Tang, “Reasearch on In-situ Polymerization of Nano-meter SiO2 in MMA,” Mater. Rev. 14, 71–72 (2000).

1999 (1)

G. Wildes, H. Keskkula, and D. R. Paul, “Coalescence in PC/SAN blends: effect of reactive compatibilization and matrix phase viscosity,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(20), 5609–5621 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

U. Sundararaj and C. W. Macosko, “Drop breakup and coalescence in polymer blends: the effects of concentration and compatibilization,” Macromolecules 28(8), 2647–2657 (1995).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. J. Elmendorp and A. K. Van der Vegt, “A study on polymer blending microrheology: Part IV. The influence of coalescence on blend morphology origination,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 26(19), 1332–1338 (1986).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

R. S. Allan and S. G. Mason, “Effects of electric fields on coalescence in Liquid- liquid systems,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 2027–2040 (1961).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann Phys-Berlin 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Allan, R. S.

R. S. Allan and S. G. Mason, “Effects of electric fields on coalescence in Liquid- liquid systems,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 2027–2040 (1961).
[Crossref]

Arkin, A. H.

B. Yalcin, M. Cakmak, A. H. Arkın, B. Hazer, and B. Erman, “Control of optical anisotropy at large deformations in PMMA/chlorinated-PHB (PHB-Cl) blends: Mechano-optical behavior,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(24), 8183–8193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Banyay, R.

E. Moghbelli, R. Banyay, and H. Sue, “Effect of moisture exposure on scratch resistance of PMMA,” Tribol. Int. 69, 46–51 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cakmak, M.

B. Yalcin, M. Cakmak, A. H. Arkın, B. Hazer, and B. Erman, “Control of optical anisotropy at large deformations in PMMA/chlorinated-PHB (PHB-Cl) blends: Mechano-optical behavior,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(24), 8183–8193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

J. Wang, C. Chen, J. Ho, T. Shih, C. Chen, W. Whang, and J. Yang, “One-step fabrication of surface- relief diffusers by stress-induced undulations on elastomer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 804–808 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, C. Chen, J. Ho, T. Shih, C. Chen, W. Whang, and J. Yang, “One-step fabrication of surface- relief diffusers by stress-induced undulations on elastomer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 804–808 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

L. Lee and W. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly (methyl methacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater. 13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chiang, T. H.

Ciou, J. R.

Colombo, A.

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

Contiello, N.

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, X. M.

X. M. Dong, Y. Xiong, and S. Y. Guo, “Preparation and properties of high scattering polycarbonate(PC) composites,” Acta. Polym. Sin. 2, 241–247 (2013).

Duan, Y.

Y. Duan, W. S. Ma, and Z. R. Wan, “Light diffusion materials in polymethymathacrylate used in light guide plate,” Chinese J. Liq. Cryst. Disp. 27(1), 26–30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elim, H. I.

A. H. Yuwono, J. Xue, J. Wang, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, Y. Li, and T. J. White, “Transparent nano-hybrids of nanocrystalline TiO2 in PMMA with unique nonlinear optical behavior,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(6), 1475–1479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Elmendorp, J. J.

J. J. Elmendorp and A. K. Van der Vegt, “A study on polymer blending microrheology: Part IV. The influence of coalescence on blend morphology origination,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 26(19), 1332–1338 (1986).
[Crossref]

Erman, B.

B. Yalcin, M. Cakmak, A. H. Arkın, B. Hazer, and B. Erman, “Control of optical anisotropy at large deformations in PMMA/chlorinated-PHB (PHB-Cl) blends: Mechano-optical behavior,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(24), 8183–8193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl, Op. B 7, 111 (2005).

Feng, D.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl, Op. B 7, 111 (2005).

Franklin, J.

Gambirasio, A.

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, S. Y.

X. M. Dong, Y. Xiong, and S. Y. Guo, “Preparation and properties of high scattering polycarbonate(PC) composites,” Acta. Polym. Sin. 2, 241–247 (2013).

Guo, W. H.

W. H. Guo and S. C. Tang, “Reasearch on In-situ Polymerization of Nano-meter SiO2 in MMA,” Mater. Rev. 14, 71–72 (2000).

Hazer, B.

B. Yalcin, M. Cakmak, A. H. Arkın, B. Hazer, and B. Erman, “Control of optical anisotropy at large deformations in PMMA/chlorinated-PHB (PHB-Cl) blends: Mechano-optical behavior,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(24), 8183–8193 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ho, J.

J. Wang, C. Chen, J. Ho, T. Shih, C. Chen, W. Whang, and J. Yang, “One-step fabrication of surface- relief diffusers by stress-induced undulations on elastomer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 804–808 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, K. H.

Hsu, C. C.

Huang, P. H.

Huang, T. C.

Jana, S. C.

S. C. Jana and M. Sau, “Effects of viscosity ratio and composition on development of morphology in chaotic mixing of polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(5), 1665–1678 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

A. H. Yuwono, J. Xue, J. Wang, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, Y. Li, and T. J. White, “Transparent nano-hybrids of nanocrystalline TiO2 in PMMA with unique nonlinear optical behavior,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(6), 1475–1479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jin, G.

D. Feng, Y. Yan, X. Yang, G. Jin, and S. Fan, “Novel integrated light-guide plates for liquid crystal display backlight,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl, Op. B 7, 111 (2005).

Jonsson, J. C.

J. C. Jonsson, L. Karlsson, P. Nostell, G. A. Niklasson, and G. B. Smith, “Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84(1-4), 427–439 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. B. Smith, J. C. Jonsson, and J. Franklin, “Spectral and global diffuse properties of high-performance translucent polymer sheets for energy efficient lighting and skylights,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3981–3991 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlsson, L.

J. C. Jonsson, L. Karlsson, P. Nostell, G. A. Niklasson, and G. B. Smith, “Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84(1-4), 427–439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Keskkula, H.

G. Wildes, H. Keskkula, and D. R. Paul, “Coalescence in PC/SAN blends: effect of reactive compatibilization and matrix phase viscosity,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(20), 5609–5621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

G. Kim, “A PMMA composite as an optical diffuser in a liquid crystal display Backlighting unit (BLU),” Eur. Polym. J. 41(8), 1729–1737 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, L.

L. Lee and W. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from trialkoxysilane-capped poly (methyl methacrylate)-titania materials,” Chem. Mater. 13(3), 1137–1142 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, X. H.

Li, Y.

A. H. Yuwono, J. Xue, J. Wang, H. I. Elim, W. Ji, Y. Li, and T. J. White, “Transparent nano-hybrids of nanocrystalline TiO2 in PMMA with unique nonlinear optical behavior,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(6), 1475–1479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ma, S. H.

Ma, W. S.

Y. Duan, W. S. Ma, and Z. R. Wan, “Light diffusion materials in polymethymathacrylate used in light guide plate,” Chinese J. Liq. Cryst. Disp. 27(1), 26–30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Macosko, C. W.

U. Sundararaj and C. W. Macosko, “Drop breakup and coalescence in polymer blends: the effects of concentration and compatibilization,” Macromolecules 28(8), 2647–2657 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mason, S. G.

R. S. Allan and S. G. Mason, “Effects of electric fields on coalescence in Liquid- liquid systems,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 57, 2027–2040 (1961).
[Crossref]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann Phys-Berlin 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Moghbelli, E.

E. Moghbelli, R. Banyay, and H. Sue, “Effect of moisture exposure on scratch resistance of PMMA,” Tribol. Int. 69, 46–51 (2014).
[Crossref]

Niklasson, G. A.

J. C. Jonsson, L. Karlsson, P. Nostell, G. A. Niklasson, and G. B. Smith, “Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84(1-4), 427–439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nostell, P.

J. C. Jonsson, L. Karlsson, P. Nostell, G. A. Niklasson, and G. B. Smith, “Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84(1-4), 427–439 (2004).
[Crossref]

Paul, D. R.

G. Wildes, H. Keskkula, and D. R. Paul, “Coalescence in PC/SAN blends: effect of reactive compatibilization and matrix phase viscosity,” Polymer (Guildf.) 40(20), 5609–5621 (1999).
[Crossref]

Santolini, F.

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sau, M.

S. C. Jana and M. Sau, “Effects of viscosity ratio and composition on development of morphology in chaotic mixing of polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 45(5), 1665–1678 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, T.

J. Wang, C. Chen, J. Ho, T. Shih, C. Chen, W. Whang, and J. Yang, “One-step fabrication of surface- relief diffusers by stress-induced undulations on elastomer,” Opt. Laser Technol. 41(6), 804–808 (2009).
[Crossref]

Simonutti, R.

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, G. B.

J. C. Jonsson, L. Karlsson, P. Nostell, G. A. Niklasson, and G. B. Smith, “Angle-dependent light scattering in materials with controlled diffuse solar optical properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84(1-4), 427–439 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. B. Smith, J. C. Jonsson, and J. Franklin, “Spectral and global diffuse properties of high-performance translucent polymer sheets for energy efficient lighting and skylights,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 3981–3991 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sue, H.

E. Moghbelli, R. Banyay, and H. Sue, “Effect of moisture exposure on scratch resistance of PMMA,” Tribol. Int. 69, 46–51 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

Sundararaj, U.

U. Sundararaj and C. W. Macosko, “Drop breakup and coalescence in polymer blends: the effects of concentration and compatibilization,” Macromolecules 28(8), 2647–2657 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. Q.

H. Q. Tang, Z. F. Tang, and T. T. Zhao, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Polysiloxane Microspheres/PMMA Light Scattering materials,” Acta Photon. Sin. 41, 723–727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, S. C.

W. H. Guo and S. C. Tang, “Reasearch on In-situ Polymerization of Nano-meter SiO2 in MMA,” Mater. Rev. 14, 71–72 (2000).

Tang, Z. F.

H. Q. Tang, Z. F. Tang, and T. T. Zhao, “Preparation and Optical Properties of Polysiloxane Microspheres/PMMA Light Scattering materials,” Acta Photon. Sin. 41, 723–727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tassone, F.

A. Colombo, F. Tassone, F. Santolini, N. Contiello, A. Gambirasio, and R. Simonutti, “Nanoparticle- doped large area PMMA plates with controlled optical diffusion,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(16), 2927–2934 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teng, T.

T. Teng, “A novel feasible digital laser-blastering to fabricate a light-guide-plate of high luminance and efficiency for TV application,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(10), 800–806 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J. L.

Van der Vegt, A. K.

J. J. Elmendorp and A. K. Van der Vegt, “A study on polymer blending microrheology: Part IV. The influence of coalescence on blend morphology origination,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 26(19), 1332–1338 (1986).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. R.

Y. Duan, W. S. Ma, and Z. R. Wan, “Light diffusion materials in polymethymathacrylate used in light guide plate,” Chinese J. Liq. Cryst. Disp. 27(1), 26–30 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical system of the Transmittance-Haze testing instrument: (1) Source (2) Condenser (3) Aperture (4) Modulator (5) Lens (6) Sample (7) Integrating sphere (8) Photocell (9) Reflectance Standard (10) Emergent Window (11) Entrance Window.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of optical scattering test instrument (b) Schematic diagram of analysis for scattering light pattern.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photographs of scattering spots of samples.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relative optical intensity profiles as a function of scattering angle.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The effect of PET mass fraction on the transmittance and haze of PMMA sheets.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM micrographs of liquid nitrogen fracture surfaces of the PMMA/PET light scattering sheets.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Average particle diameter and number concentration of the dispersed phase in PMMA/PET light scattering sheets as a function of PET mass fraction.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Maximum particle diameter, average particle diameter and minimum particle diameter of the dispersed phase in PMMA/PET blends as a function of PET mass raction.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated single scattering profiles of particles with different size based on Mie scattering theory. Dash lines are magnified diagrams beside which magnification are marked.The wavelength λ = 550nm. The refractive indices of the matrix and the scattering particles are n1(1.485) and n2 (1.578) respectively.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Polymers used in this study

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Table 2 Constituents of the PMMA/PET blends

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Table 3 Number concentration and average particle diameter as a function of PET mass fraction

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I t I 0
Η= ( I t ) 2.5 90 I t
θ= tan -1 (x/L)
d= i=1 N n i d i i=1 N n i
C= 6Φ π d ¯ 3
I= λ 2 8 π 2 r 2 I 0 ( i 1 + i 2 )
i 1 = s 1 (m,θ,α)× s 1 * (m,θ,α)
i 2 = s 2 (m,θ,α)× s 2 * (m,θ,α)
s 1 = n=1 2n+1 n(n+1) ( a n π n + b n τ n )
s 2 = n=1 2n+1 n(n+1) ( a n τ n + b n π n )
b n = m φ n (α) φ n ' (mα) φ n ' (α) φ n (mα) m ξ n (α) φ n ' (mα) ξ n ' (α) φ n (mα)
a n = φ n (α) φ n ' (mα)m φ n ' (α) φ n (mα) ξ n (α) φ n ' (mα)m ξ n ' (α) φ n (mα)
π n = d p n (cosθ) d(cosθ)
τ n = d dθ p n (1) (cosθ)
φ (z) n = ( zπ 2 ) 1/2 J n+ 1 2 (z)
ξ (z) n = ( zπ 2 ) 1/2 H n+ 1 2 (2) (z)
a= n 1 πd/λ
m= n 2 / n 1

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