Abstract

In order to achieve effective process control, fast, inexpensive, nondestructive and reliable nanometer scale feature measurements are extremely useful in high-volume nanomanufacturing. Among the possible techniques, optical scatterometry is relatively ideal due to its high throughput, low cost, and minimal sample damage. However, this technique is inherently limited by the illumination spot size of the instrument and the low efficiency in construction of a map of the sample over a wide area. Aiming at these issues, we introduce conventional imaging techniques to optical scatterometry and combine them with Mueller matrix ellipsometry based scatterometry, which is expected to be a powerful tool for the measurement of nanostructures in future high-volume nanomanufacturing, and propose to apply Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometry (MMIE) for nanostructure metrology. Two kinds of nanostructures were measured using an in-house developed Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer in this work. The experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve Mueller matrix measurement and analysis for nanostructures with pixel-sized illumination spots by using MMIE. We can also efficiently construct parameter maps of the nanostructures over a wide area with pixel-sized lateral resolution by performing parallel ellipsometric analysis for all the pixels of interest.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (5)

X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Jiang, Z. Ma, T. Sun, and Z. Xu, “Accurate characterization of nanoimprinted resist patterns using Mueller matrix ellipsometry,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15165–15177 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. Liu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Robust solution to the inverse problem in optical scatterometry,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22031–22042 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, H. G. Gu, and C. W. Zhang, “Formulation of error propagation and estimation in grating reconstruction by a dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 571, 653–659 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Improved measurement accuracy in optical scatterometry using correction-based library search,” Appl. Opt. 52(27), 6726–6734 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Du, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and X. G. Chen, “Optimal configurations for the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875925 (2013).

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Measurement configuration optimization for accurate grating reconstruction by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 12(3), 033013 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, “Depolarization effects from nanoimprinted grating structures as measured by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151605 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

2012 (1)

S. Y. Liu, Y. Ma, X. G. Chen, and C. W. Zhang, “Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for binary gratings in optical critical dimension metrology,” Opt. Eng. 51(8), 081504 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. N. Kim, J. S. Paek, S. Rabello, S. Lee, J. Hu, Z. Liu, Y. Hao, and W. McGahan, “Device based in-chip critical dimension and overlay metrology,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21336–21343 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. Novikova, A. De Martino, P. Bulkin, Q. Nguyen, B. Drévillon, V. Popov, and A. Chumakov, “Metrology of replicated diffractive optics with Mueller polarimetry in conical diffraction,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2033–2046 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

2006 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

G. Jin, R. Jansson, and H. Arwin, “Imaging ellipsometry revisited: developments for visualization of thin transparent layers on silicon substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(8), 2930–2936 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1986 (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, “Depolarization and polarization indices of an optical system,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33(2), 185–189 (1986).
[Crossref]

Allgair, J.

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Arwin, H.

G. Jin, R. Jansson, and H. Arwin, “Imaging ellipsometry revisited: developments for visualization of thin transparent layers on silicon substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(8), 2930–2936 (1996).
[Crossref]

Attota, R.

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Barnes, B. M.

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Bergmair, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernabeu, E.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, “Depolarization and polarization indices of an optical system,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33(2), 185–189 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bruno, G.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulkin, P.

Bunday, B.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Cattelan, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cepler, A.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

Chen, J.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. G.

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, H. G. Gu, and C. W. Zhang, “Formulation of error propagation and estimation in grating reconstruction by a dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 571, 653–659 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, “Depolarization effects from nanoimprinted grating structures as measured by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151605 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Measurement configuration optimization for accurate grating reconstruction by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 12(3), 033013 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. C. Du, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and X. G. Chen, “Optimal configurations for the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875925 (2013).

S. Y. Liu, Y. Ma, X. G. Chen, and C. W. Zhang, “Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for binary gratings in optical critical dimension metrology,” Opt. Eng. 51(8), 081504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chumakov, A.

Cobet, C.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, R. W.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. W. Collins and J. Koh, “Dual rotating compensator multichannel ellipsometer: instrument design for real-time Mueller matrix spectroscopy of surfaces and films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1997–2006 (1999).
[Crossref]

Constancias, C.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cordes, A.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

Dahal, L. R.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Martino, A.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Novikova, A. De Martino, P. Bulkin, Q. Nguyen, B. Drévillon, V. Popov, and A. Chumakov, “Metrology of replicated diffractive optics with Mueller polarimetry in conical diffraction,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2033–2046 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T T. Novikova, A. De Martino, S. B. Hatit, and B. Drévillon, “Application of Mueller polarimetry in conical diffraction for critical dimension measurements in microelectronics,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3688–3697 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drévillon, B.

Du, W. C.

W. C. Du, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and X. G. Chen, “Optimal configurations for the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875925 (2013).

Esser, N.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallet, C.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foldyna, M.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fried, M.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gajic, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galliet, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Germer, T. A.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Gil, J. J.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, “Depolarization and polarization indices of an optical system,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33(2), 185–189 (1986).
[Crossref]

Grann, E. B.

Gu, H. G.

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, H. G. Gu, and C. W. Zhang, “Formulation of error propagation and estimation in grating reconstruction by a dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 571, 653–659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haj Ibrahim, B.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Hatit, S. B.

Hemzal, D.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzinger, C. H.

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hingerl, K.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Huang, Z.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Humlicek, J.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansson, R.

G. Jin, R. Jansson, and H. Arwin, “Imaging ellipsometry revisited: developments for visualization of thin transparent layers on silicon substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(8), 2930–2936 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Zhang, H. Jiang, Z. Ma, T. Sun, and Z. Xu, “Accurate characterization of nanoimprinted resist patterns using Mueller matrix ellipsometry,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15165–15177 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, S. Liu, X. Chen, C. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Robust solution to the inverse problem in optical scatterometry,” Opt. Express 22(18), 22031–22042 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Measurement configuration optimization for accurate grating reconstruction by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 12(3), 033013 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, S. Liu, C. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Improved measurement accuracy in optical scatterometry using correction-based library search,” Appl. Opt. 52(27), 6726–6734 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, G.

G. Jin, R. Jansson, and H. Arwin, “Imaging ellipsometry revisited: developments for visualization of thin transparent layers on silicon substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(8), 2930–2936 (1996).
[Crossref]

Johs, B.

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Juhász, G.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jun, J.

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Kim, Y. N.

Koh, J.

Lee, S.

Li, L.

Liu, S.

Liu, S. Y.

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, H. G. Gu, and C. W. Zhang, “Formulation of error propagation and estimation in grating reconstruction by a dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 571, 653–659 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, “Depolarization effects from nanoimprinted grating structures as measured by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151605 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Measurement configuration optimization for accurate grating reconstruction by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 12(3), 033013 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. C. Du, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and X. G. Chen, “Optimal configurations for the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875925 (2013).

S. Y. Liu, Y. Ma, X. G. Chen, and C. W. Zhang, “Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for binary gratings in optical critical dimension metrology,” Opt. Eng. 51(8), 081504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Losurdo, M.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

S. Y. Liu, Y. Ma, X. G. Chen, and C. W. Zhang, “Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for binary gratings in optical critical dimension metrology,” Opt. Eng. 51(8), 081504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

Ma, Z. C.

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Major, C.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Manhas, S.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marx, E.

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

McGahan, W.

McGahan, W. A.

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Németh, Á.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, Q.

Novikova, T T.

Novikova, T.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Novikova, A. De Martino, P. Bulkin, Q. Nguyen, B. Drévillon, V. Popov, and A. Chumakov, “Metrology of replicated diffractive optics with Mueller polarimetry in conical diffraction,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2033–2046 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ossikovski, R.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paek, J. S.

Paulson, W.

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Petrik, P.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Podraza, N. J.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polgár, O.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pommet, D. A.

Popov, V.

Popovic, Z. V.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabello, S.

Röling, C.

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Saxl, O.

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Settens, C.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

Shan, A.

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

Silver, R. M.

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

Sun, T.

Thiesen, P. H.

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vannuffel, C.

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vartanian, V.

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

Vaupel, M.

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wegscheider, W.

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weiss, D.

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wurstbauer, U.

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Xu, Z. M.

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, C. W.

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, H. G. Gu, and C. W. Zhang, “Formulation of error propagation and estimation in grating reconstruction by a dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 571, 653–659 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, “Depolarization effects from nanoimprinted grating structures as measured by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151605 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Measurement configuration optimization for accurate grating reconstruction by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 12(3), 033013 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. C. Du, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and X. G. Chen, “Optimal configurations for the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875925 (2013).

S. Y. Liu, Y. Ma, X. G. Chen, and C. W. Zhang, “Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for binary gratings in optical critical dimension metrology,” Opt. Eng. 51(8), 081504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, and S. Y. Liu, “Depolarization effects from nanoimprinted grating structures as measured by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(15), 151605 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Wurstbauer, C. Röling, U. Wurstbauer, W. Wegscheider, M. Vaupel, P. H. Thiesen, and D. Weiss, “Imaging ellipsometry of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 231901 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Photovoltaics (1)

A. Shan, M. Fried, G. Juhász, C. Major, O. Polgár, Á. Németh, P. Petrik, L. R. Dahal, J. Chen, Z. Huang, N. J. Podraza, and R. W. Collins, “High-speed imaging/mapping spectroscopic ellipsometry for in-line analysis of roll-to-roll thin-film photovoltaics,” IEEE J. Photovoltaics 4(1), 355–361 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

X. G. Chen, C. W. Zhang, S. Y. Liu, H. Jiang, Z. C. Ma, and Z. M. Xu, “Mueller matrix ellipsometric detection of profile asymmetry in nanoimprinted grating structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(19), 194305 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS (2)

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and H. Jiang, “Measurement configuration optimization for accurate grating reconstruction by Mueller matrix polarimetry,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 12(3), 033013 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Fallet, T. Novikova, M. Foldyna, S. Manhas, B. Haj Ibrahim, A. De Martino, C. Vannuffel, and C. Constancias, “Overlay measurements by Mueller polarimetry in back focal plane,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr., MEMS, MOEMS 10(3), 033017 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Nanopart. Res. (1)

M. Losurdo, M. Bergmair, G. Bruno, D. Cattelan, C. Cobet, A. de Martino, K. Fleischer, Z. Dohcevic-Mitrovic, N. Esser, M. Galliet, R. Gajic, D. Hemzal, K. Hingerl, J. Humlicek, R. Ossikovski, Z. V. Popovic, and O. Saxl, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry and polarimetry for materials and systems analysis at the nanometer scale: state-of-the-art, potential, and perspectives,” J. Nanopart. Res. 11(7), 1521–1554 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, “Depolarization and polarization indices of an optical system,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33(2), 185–189 (1986).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Y. Liu, Y. Ma, X. G. Chen, and C. W. Zhang, “Estimation of the convergence order of rigorous coupled-wave analysis for binary gratings in optical critical dimension metrology,” Opt. Eng. 51(8), 081504 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (3)

B. Bunday, T. A. Germer, V. Vartanian, A. Cordes, A. Cepler, and C. Settens, “Gaps analysis for CD metrology beyond the 22 nm node,” Proc. SPIE 8681, 86813B (2013).

R. M. Silver, T. A. Germer, R. Attota, B. M. Barnes, B. Bunday, J. Allgair, E. Marx, and J. Jun, “Fundamental limits of optical critical dimension metrology: a simulation study,” Proc. SPIE 6518, 65180U (2007).

W. C. Du, S. Y. Liu, C. W. Zhang, and X. G. Chen, “Optimal configurations for the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer,” Proc. SPIE 8759, 875925 (2013).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Jin, R. Jansson, and H. Arwin, “Imaging ellipsometry revisited: developments for visualization of thin transparent layers on silicon substrates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67(8), 2930–2936 (1996).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. G. Chen, S. Y. Liu, H. G. Gu, and C. W. Zhang, “Formulation of error propagation and estimation in grating reconstruction by a dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Thin Solid Films 571, 653–659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1991).

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

C. J. Raymond, “Scatterometry for semiconductor metrology,” in Handbook of Silicon Semiconductor Metrology, A. C. Diebold, ed. (CRC, 2001), Chap. 18, pp. 477–514.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme (top) and prototype (bottom) of the dual rotating-compensator Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer. L1 and L2, collimating lens and imaging lens; F, filter or monochromator; P and A, polarizer and analyzer; Cr1 and Cr2, the 1st and 2nd rotating compensator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM/TEM micrographs and geometric models of the Si grating template and etched trench nanostructure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Representation of polarized light incidence for a one-dimensional grating structure.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The measured imaging Mueller matrix of the Si grating template at the wavelength of 500 nm. The middle rectangular region is the metrological box where the Si grating structure is, and other regions correspond to the Si substrate. The incidence and azimuthal angles are fixed at θ = 60° and ϕ = 0°, respectively. The imaging Mueller matrix elements are normalized to m11.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of the measured Mueller matrix spectra of the Si grating template that were collected by MME and by a single pixel of the camera of MMIE as well as the calculated best-fit Mueller matrix spectra to the MMIE-measured Mueller matrix spectra. The wavelengths are varied from 400 to 700 nm with increments of 10 nm. The incidence and azimuthal angles are fixed at θ = 60° and ϕ = 0°, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Maps of the structural parameters x1~x3 of the Si grating template over the bottom half region of the metrological box shown in Fig. 4. The grating period is along the X direction. Data were obtained by performing ellipsometric analysis for each pixel of the measured imaging Mueller matrices. The measurement configuration is identical to that given in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison of the measured Mueller matrix spectra of the etched trench nanostructure that were collected by MME and by a single pixel of the camera of MMIE as well as the calculated best-fit Mueller matrix spectra to the MMIE-measured Mueller matrix spectra. The wavelengths are varied from 400 to 700 nm with increments of 10 nm. The incidence and azimuthal angles are fixed at θ = 60° and ϕ = 60°, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Maps of the structural parameters x1~x6 of the etched trench nanostructure over an entire die. The grating period is along the X direction. Data were obtained by performing ellipsometric analysis for each pixel of the measured imaging Mueller matrices. The measurement configuration is identical to that given in Fig. 7.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Comparison of fitting parameters of the Si grating template obtained from the MME, MMIE and SEM measurements.

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Table 2 Comparison of fitting parameters of the etched trench nanostructure obtained from the MME, MMIE and TEM measurements.

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Table 3 Parameter correlation coefficient matrix of the etched trench nanostructure obtained from the MMIE measurement at ϕ = 0°.

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Table 4 Parameter correlation coefficient matrix of the etched trench nanostructure obtained from the MMIE measurement at ϕ = 60°.

Equations (8)

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S out =[ M A R(A)][R( C 2 ) M C2 ( δ 2 )R( C 2 )] M S [R( C 1 ) M C1 ( δ 1 )R( C 1 )][R(P) M P R(P)] S in ,
I(t)= I 00 M 11 { a 0 + n=1 16 [ a 2n cos(2nωt ϕ 2n )+ b 2n sin(2nωt ϕ 2n ) ] } = I 0 { 1+ n=1 16 [ α 2n cos(2nωt ϕ 2n )+ β 2n sin(2nωt ϕ 2n ) ] },
[ E rp E rs ]=J(x,a)[ E ip E is ]=[ r pp r ps r sp r ss ][ E ip E is ],
M(x,a)=[ M 11 M 12 M 13 M 14 M 21 M 22 M 23 M 24 M 31 M 32 M 33 M 34 M 41 M 42 M 43 M 44 ]=A[ J(x,a) J * (x,a) ] A 1 ,
A=[ 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 i i 0 ].
χ r 2 = 1 15NP k=1 N i,j=1 4 [ m ij,k meas m ij,k calc (x,a) σ( m ij,k ) ] 2 ,
( θ opt , ϕ opt )=arg min θΘ,ϕΦ [ max xΩ ( J ˜ x + J ˜ a ) ],
Λ<λ/ { sin[ arcsin( NA )+θ ]sinθ } ,

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