Abstract

In this paper we present a detailed theoretical investigation of integrated racetrack Raman lasers based on the germanium material system operating in the mid-infrared beyond the germanium two-photon absorption cut-off wavelength of 3.17 μm. The effective Raman gain has been estimated in waveguides based on germanium-on-silicon, germanium-on-SOI and germanium-on-Si3N4 technology platforms as a function of their crystallographic orientations. Furthermore, general design guidelines have been determined by means of a comparative analysis of Raman laser performance, i.e. the threshold power, polarization and directionality of the excited Stokes signals as a function of racetrack cavity length and directional-coupler dimensions. Finally, the emitted Raman laser power has been evaluated as a function of overall propagation losses and operative wavelengths up to 3.8 μm, while the time dynamics of Raman lasers has been simulated assuming continuous and pulse waves as input pump signals.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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2015 (5)

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Carletti, P. Ma, Y. Yu, B. Luther-Davies, D. Hudson, C. Monat, R. Orobtchouk, S. Madden, D. J. Moss, M. Brun, S. Ortiz, P. Labeye, S. Nicoletti, and C. Grillet, “Nonlinear optical response of low loss silicon germanium waveguides in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8261–8271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

C. Wolff, R. Soref, C. G. Poulton, and B. J. Eggleton, “Germanium as a material for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30735–30747 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Soref, “Mid infrared 2 × 2 electro optical switching by silicon and germanium three waveguide and four waveguide directional couplers using free carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Mid-IR optical and nonlinear properties of germanium on silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3747–3757 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, C. E. Campanella, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Thermal and stress influence on performance of SOI racetrack resonator Raman lasers,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085501 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design rules for Raman lasers based on SOI racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Journal 6(5), 6648677 (2013).

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, “Nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Leonardis, “Investigation of SOI Raman lasers for mid-infrared gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7814–7836 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

F. Cerdeira, C. J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced Shift of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 5(2), 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Asher, W.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Brun, M.

Buca, D.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buchenauer, C. J.

F. Cerdeira, C. J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced Shift of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 5(2), 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Campanella, C. E.

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, C. E. Campanella, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Thermal and stress influence on performance of SOI racetrack resonator Raman lasers,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

F. Cerdeira, C. J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced Shift of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 5(2), 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Carletti, L.

Cerdeira, F.

F. Cerdeira, C. J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced Shift of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 5(2), 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cerutti, L.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Chang, Y. C.

Chen, X.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dave, U.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

De Leonardis, F.

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Mid-IR optical and nonlinear properties of germanium on silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3747–3757 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, C. E. Campanella, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Thermal and stress influence on performance of SOI racetrack resonator Raman lasers,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085501 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design rules for Raman lasers based on SOI racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Journal 6(5), 6648677 (2013).

V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Leonardis, “Investigation of SOI Raman lasers for mid-infrared gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7814–7836 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desjardins, P.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dominguez Bucio, T.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dwivedi, S.

Eggleton, B. J.

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fournier-Lupien, J.-H.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gassenq, A.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Gencarelli, F.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Green, W.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Grillet, C.

Hartmann, J. M.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J. M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hattasan, N.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Hayazawa, N.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Healy, N.

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Hens, Z.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Herzig, H. P.

Hochberg, M.

Hon, N. K.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Hu, Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D.

Hvozdara, L.

Ilic, R.

Jalali, B.

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, “Nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khokhar, A. Z.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuyken, B.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Labeye, P.

Lee, M.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leo, F.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Lepage, G.

Li, K.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Littlejohns, C. G.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Loo, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

Ma, P.

Madden, S.

Malik, A.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mashanovich, G.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Mashanovich, G. Z.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, C. J.

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Monat, C.

Moss, D. J.

Moutanabbir, O.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, S.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muneeb, M.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Nicoletti, S.

Orobtchouk, R.

Ortiz, S.

Osgood, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Paeder, V.

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Passaro, V. M. N.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Mid-IR optical and nonlinear properties of germanium on silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3747–3757 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, C. E. Campanella, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Thermal and stress influence on performance of SOI racetrack resonator Raman lasers,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085501 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design rules for Raman lasers based on SOI racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Journal 6(5), 6648677 (2013).

V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Leonardis, “Investigation of SOI Raman lasers for mid-infrared gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7814–7836 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pathak, S.

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peacock, A. C.

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Penades, J. S.

Penkov, B.

Pippel, E.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pollak, F. H.

F. Cerdeira, C. J. Buchenauer, F. H. Pollak, and M. Cardona, “Stress-induced Shift of First-Order Raman Frequencies of Diamond and Zinc-Blende-Type Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 5(2), 580–593 (1972).
[Crossref]

Poulton, C. G.

Raday, O.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reed, G. T.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, S. A.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, J. B.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ryckeboer, E.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Sanchez, D.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Shen, L.

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. S. Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared all-optical modulation in low-loss germanium-on-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(2), 268–271 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Shimura, Y.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sih, V.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Soler Penades, J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Shen, N. Healy, C. J. Mitchell, J. Soler Penades, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. C. Peacock, “Two-photon absorption and all-optical modulation in germanium-on-silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2213–2216 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soler Penadés, J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

C. Wolff, R. Soref, C. G. Poulton, and B. J. Eggleton, “Germanium as a material for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30735–30747 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “Mid infrared 2 × 2 electro optical switching by silicon and germanium three waveguide and four waveguide directional couplers using free carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[Crossref]

Spott, A.

Stankovic, S.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Topley, R.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tournie, E.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Troia, B.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Mid-IR optical and nonlinear properties of germanium on silicon optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(22), 3747–3757 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, C. E. Campanella, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Thermal and stress influence on performance of SOI racetrack resonator Raman lasers,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085501 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design rules for Raman lasers based on SOI racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Journal 6(5), 6648677 (2013).

Uvin, S.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Van Campenhout, J.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Landschoot, L.

Van Opstal, T.

Vanherle, W.

Vincent, B.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Wang, R.

G. Roelkens, U. Dave, A. Gassenq, N. Hattasan, C. Hu, B. Kuyken, F. Leo, A. Malik, M. Muneeb, E. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, S. Uvin, R. Wang, Z. Hens, R. Baets, Y. Shimura, F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, R. Loo, J. Van Campenhout, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, X. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, G. Mashanovich, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, X. Liu, R. Osgood, and W. Green, “Silicon-based photonic integration beyond the telecommunication wavelength range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 394–404 (2014).

Wang, Y.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wilson, P. R.

G. Z. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, Y. Hu, K. Li, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penades, A. Z. Khokhar, C. J. Mitchell, S. Stankovic, R. Topley, S. A. Reynolds, Y. Wang, B. Troia, V. M. N. Passaro, C. G. Littlejohns, T. Dominguez Bucio, P. R. Wilson, and G. T. Reed, “Silicon photonic waveguides and devices for near- and mid-IR applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(4), 8200112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wolff, C.

Xu, S.

H. Rong, S. Xu, O. Cohen, O. Raday, M. Lee, V. Sih, and M. Paniccia, “A cascaded silicon Raman laser,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 170–174 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. A. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Journal (1)

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Design rules for Raman lasers based on SOI racetrack resonators,” IEEE Photon. Journal 6(5), 6648677 (2013).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium on silicon mid infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler Penadés, C. J. Mitchell, A. Z. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Dominguez Bucio, C. G. Littlejohns, F. Y. Gardes, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Surface grating coupled low loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

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N. K. Hon, R. Soref, and B. Jalali, “The third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of Si, Ge, and Si1-xGex in the midwave and longwave infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(1), 011301 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. (1)

F. De Leonardis, B. Troia, C. E. Campanella, and V. M. N. Passaro, “Thermal and stress influence on performance of SOI racetrack resonator Raman lasers,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085501 (2014).
[Crossref]

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V. M. N. Passaro and F. De Leonardis, “Investigation of SOI Raman lasers for mid-infrared gas sensing,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 7814–7836 (2009).
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Other (1)

Comsol Multiphysics by COMSOL©, single license (2005).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic architecture of a Raman laser based on a racetrack resonator coupled to the external bus waveguides. Waveguide cross-sections based on (b) GOS and (c) GOI/GON technology platforms with (d) the crystallographic axes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Germanium Raman shift as a function of the annealing temperature.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Effective Raman gain versus the waveguide orientation θ for co-propagating and counter-propagating pump and Stokes waves; (a) mixed polarization, (b) fixed polarization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Threshold power levels as a function of the pump and Stokes coupling factor; GOS platform: (a) p TM s TE ; (b) p TE s TE ; (c) p TE s TM .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Threshold power levels as a function of the pump and Stokes coupling factor; GON platform: (a) p TM s TE ; (b) p TE s TE ; (c) p TE s TM .
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Threshold power as a function of the coupler length; (b) pump and Stokes coupling factors as a function of the coupler length.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Threshold pump power as a function of the wavelength mismatch and cavity length.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Threshold power levels versus the W/H ratio and coupler length: (a) p TM s TE ; (b) p TE s TM .
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Contour level curves of the output Stokes power as a function of coupler gap and length: a) GOS; b) GON.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Output laser power versus the cavity length; (b) Output Stokes power versus the input pump power and loss coefficient.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Output Stokes power as a function of the pump wavelength for different values of the input pump power in the case of GOS, and GON (GOI) technology platforms.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (GOS platform) Time evolution of output laser power: (a) CW; (b) square wave modulation.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Physical parameters used in the simulations.

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Table 2 Effective Raman gain.

Equations (13)

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τ i c,m = L cavity / ( κ i,m 2 ν g,s )
α loss = d Γ d α d
Γ d = n d c 0 ε 0 d | e i | 2 dxdy Re{ e i × h i * } e ^ z dxdy
g sρ σ (θ)= g bulk,Ge SRS / A sρσ,p SRS
A sρσ,p SRS = 4 μ 0 ( N ^ sσ N ^ p ) ε 0 n s n p { [ | e sρσ | 2 | e p | 2 + | e sρσ e p | 2 2( | e ˜ sρσ x | 2 | e ˜ p x | 2 + | e ˜ sρσ y | 2 | e ˜ p y | 2 + | e ˜ sρσ z | 2 | e ˜ p z | 2 ) ]dxdy } 1
A i,j Kerr = 4 μ 0 ( N ^ i N ^ j ) ε 0 n i n j { [ ς 3 ( | e i | 2 | e j | 2 + | e i ( e j ) * | 2 + | e i e j | 2 ) +(1ς)( | e ˜ i x | 2 | e ˜ j x | 2 + | e ˜ i y | 2 | e ˜ j y | 2 + | e ˜ i z | 2 | e ˜ j z | 2 ) ]dxdy } 1 i=p, s +TE , s TE , s +TM , s TM ;j=p, s +TE , s TE , s +TM , s TM
Ω Ge = Ω Ge 0 +bε
P th = | S p,th | 2 = L cavity 2 κ p 2 v g,p 2 τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS [ ( Δ ω p ) 2 + ( τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS ) 2 ( v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A p,p Kerr ) 2 + +2Δ ω p ( τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS )( v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A p,p Kerr )+ ( 0.5 τ p 1 ) 2 ]
d ϕ s dt =[ Δ ω s +( v g,s n 2 | ω s ω s c 0 A s,s Kerr ) P s +( 2 v g,s n 2 | ω s ω s c 0 A sρσ,p Kerr ) P p ]
P s = B+ B 2 4AC 2A
A= τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS [ ( 2 v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A sρσ,p Kerr ) 2 + ( 0.5 v g,p λ s g bulk,Ge SRS λ p A sρσ,p SRS ) 2 ]
B= τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS [ 2Δ ω p ( 2 v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A sρσ,p Kerr )+ τ p 1 ( 0.5 v g,p λ s g bulk,Ge SRS λ p A sρσ,p SRS )+ +2 τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS ( 2 v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A sρσ,p Kerr )( v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A p,p Kerr ) ]
C= τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS [ Δ ω p 2 + ( τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS ) 2 ( v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A p,p Kerr ) 2 + +2Δ ω p ( τ s 1 A sρσ,p SRS v g,s g bulk,Ge SRS )( v g,p n 2 | ω p ω p c 0 A p,p Kerr )+ ( 0.5 τ p 1 ) 2 ] κ p 2 v g,p 2 L cavity 2 | S p | 2

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