Abstract

Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Perfectly phase-matched third-order distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2070–2072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Heyminck, U. U. Graf, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, and P. Hartogh, “GREAT: the SOFIA high-frequency heterodyne instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, L1 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

J. Faist, “Wallplug efficiency of quantum cascade lasers: critical parameters and fundamental limits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253512 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, A. J.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altug, H.

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amanti, M. I.

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ban, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, S.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. I. Amanti, G. Scalari, F. Castellano, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low divergence Terahertz photonic-wire laser,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6390–6395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lloyd-Hughes, G. Scalari, A. van Kolck, M. Fischer, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Coupling terahertz radiation between sub-wavelength metal-metal waveguides and free space using monolithically integrated horn antennae,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18387–18393 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

F. Castellano, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and M. S. Vitiello, “THz waveguide adapters for efficient radiation out-coupling from double metal THz QCLs,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5190–5200 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belarouci, A.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benea Chelmus, I. C.

C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bi, W. G.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonzon, C.

C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Burghoff, D.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellano, F.

Chassagneux, Y.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, D. Y.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombelli, R.

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, A. G.

F. Castellano, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and M. S. Vitiello, “THz waveguide adapters for efficient radiation out-coupling from double metal THz QCLs,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5190–5200 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davies, G. A.

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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
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C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
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M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Perfectly phase-matched third-order distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2070–2072 (2012).
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S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
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A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
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B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
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Hübers, H. W.

S. Heyminck, U. U. Graf, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, and P. Hartogh, “GREAT: the SOFIA high-frequency heterodyne instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, L1 (2012).
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Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
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Isac, N.

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
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Kao, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Perfectly phase-matched third-order distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2070–2072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kasalynas, I.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
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Khanna, S. P.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
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Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Klaassen, T. O.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
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Klapwijk, T. M.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
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Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumar, S.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, A. W.

Lee, A. W. M.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
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Letartre, X.

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
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Li, L.

F. Castellano, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and M. S. Vitiello, “THz waveguide adapters for efficient radiation out-coupling from double metal THz QCLs,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5190–5200 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L. H.

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lineld, E. H.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Linfield, E. H.

F. Castellano, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and M. S. Vitiello, “THz waveguide adapters for efficient radiation out-coupling from double metal THz QCLs,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5190–5200 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maineult, W.

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ohtani, K.

C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Orlova, E. E.

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Q.

Reno, J.

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reno, J. L.

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Perfectly phase-matched third-order distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2070–2072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

F. Castellano, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and M. S. Vitiello, “THz waveguide adapters for efficient radiation out-coupling from double metal THz QCLs,” Opt. Express 23(4), 5190–5200 (2015).
[PubMed]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scalari, G.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stutzki, J.

S. Heyminck, U. U. Graf, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, and P. Hartogh, “GREAT: the SOFIA high-frequency heterodyne instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, L1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiberio, R. C.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, C. W.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Kolck, A.

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vitiello, M. S.

Vuckovic, J.

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei Min Lee, A.

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Qin, A. W. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Surface-emitting distributed feedback terahertz quantum-cascade lasers in metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(1), 113–128 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wei Min Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “High-power and high-temperature THz quantum-cascade lasers based on lens-coupled metal-metal waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2840–2842 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. L.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. P.

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ ≈ 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(11), 2124–2126 (2003).
[Crossref]

T.-Y. Kao, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase-locked arrays of surface-emitting terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, L. H. Li, N. Isac, Y. Halioua, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, and R. Colombelli, “Surface-emitting terahertz quantum cascade lasers with continuous-wave power in the tens of milliwatt range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091112 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, D. Ban, A. W. M. Lee, Q. Hu, and J. Reno, “A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 061112 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, “Wallplug efficiency of quantum cascade lasers: critical parameters and fundamental limits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(25), 253512 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Bonzon, I. C. Benea Chelmus, K. Ohtani, M. Geiser, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Integrated patch and slot array antenna for terahertz quantum cascade lasers at 4.7 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(16), 161102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

S. Heyminck, U. U. Graf, R. Güsten, J. Stutzki, H. W. Hübers, and P. Hartogh, “GREAT: the SOFIA high-frequency heterodyne instrument,” Astron. Astrophys. 542, L1 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

G. Xu, R. Colombelli, S. P. Khanna, A. Belarouci, X. Letartre, L. Li, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. E. Beere, and D. A. Ritchie, “Efficient power extraction in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers using graded photonic heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 3, 952 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. I. Amanti, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-divergence single-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 586–590 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Qin, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Tuning a terahertz wire laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 732–737 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, “Ultrafast photonic crystal nanocavity laser,” Nat. Phys. 2(7), 484–488 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chassagneux, R. Colombelli, W. Maineult, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Lineld, and G. A. Davies, “Electrically pumped photonic-crystal terahertz lasers controlled by boundary conditions,” Nature 457, 174–178 (2009).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. P. Zhang, D. Y. Chu, S. L. Wu, S. T. Ho, W. G. Bi, C. W. Tu, and R. C. Tiberio, “Photonic-wire laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(14), 2678–2681 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. E. Orlova, J. N. Hovenier, T. O. Klaassen, I. Kasalynas, A. J. Adam, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Antenna model for wire lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(17), 173904 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).

P. Bhartia, I. Bahl, R. Garg, and A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook (Artech House, 2001).

Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory,” (2012), http://soral.as.arizona.edu/STO/Welcome.html .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic top views of slot antennas for microstrip transmission line (left) and antenna-coupled THz wire lasers (right). Top metal is in yellow while the bottom ground plane is in light green. (b) Electric field (EZ, where z is perpendicular to the metal planes) distributions for the same DFB laser with and without the coupled antenna structures. The area covered by the electric field with the same polarity is larger with the antenna-coupled structure. The definition of total antenna arm length LL is also illustrated. (c) Electric field distribution inside the cavity under different total antenna lengths. When the resonance condition is met, the field is virtually unchanged along the main laser cavity. (d) Schematics of one segment of DFB laser. The radiation comes from the facet “aperture antenna”. The enhancement in radiation loss due to larger emission area can be understood through its effective dipole antenna model. (e) Lasing gain threshold versus frequency plot from finite element electromagnetic simulation of an antenna coupled DFB laser at 3 THz. The distance between adjacent antennas was chosen so that the third-order distributed feedback falls within the desired frequency. The magnetic field of the antenna-coupled laser is shown in the inset. The total antenna arm length LLA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 I-V curves, L-I curves and spectra data of antenna-coupled THz wire lasers at different frequency bands (cw or pulsed). (a) Results of antenna-coupled lasers designed around 2 THz (cw). Device 1, 5 and 8 have the same total antenna arm length but with different cavity periodicities which results in a linear frequency scaling. (b) Results of antenna-coupled lasers designed around 3 THz (pulsed). All lasers have the same cavity periodicity but different antenna arm lengths—L = 0, 20, 25, 30 µm. L = 0 µm is a special case where the distance between the end of antenna loop and the edge of the main laser ridge is eliminated and thus the antenna arm length equals to zero. The fact that DFB lasing frequency changes with the length of antenna arm indicates a strong coupling between antennas and the waveguides. Results from a conventional corrugated third-order DFB laser is also shown as a comparison. (c) Results of antenna-coupled lasers designed around 4 THz (pulsed) with measurement data of 25-period antenna-coupled lasers (~3.95 THz). The upper axis is plotted against the current of the device with antenna arm length L = 15 μm. This device shows ~450 mW/A pulsed slope efficiency and 0.57% wall-plug efficiency. Measurements for devices with different antenna arm lengths are also shown. We contributed the lower power from devices with L = 13 and 14 μm to their higher lasing frequency (4.1 THz), which is away from the peak gain frequency (~3.9 THz) of the gain medium. The disrupted changes in L-I curves for these devices also indicate mode-hopping behaviors. All spectra shown in Fig. 2 were measured near the peak power bias condition, where single-mode emissions are observed.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured beam patterns from two antenna-coupled lasers around 3 THz with the same antenna arm length L = 25 μm, but different total device lengths (31-period and 81-period, corresponding to 1.5 mm and 4 mm). (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures (top view) for a 3 THz antenna-coupled wire laser with antenna arm length L = 25 μm. The right side of one of the antenna loops is shown in the zoom-in picture. The dashed red line depicts the total antenna arm length LL. LL ≈56 μm ≈λA = λ0/nA ≈(100 μm)/nA, where nA is the effective waveguide index of the 2-μm antenna ridge. The dimensions of each segment of laser cavity are 31 × 44 μm with a 6-μm gap size.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Electric fields from FEM simulations of two different configurations of antenna structure. In Type I, two longer arms of antenna are brought in closer while in Type II, those arms are separated with larger distance. (b) SEM picture of Type II antenna.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Electric and (b) magnetic fields from FEM simulations when Eq. (2) is met. The zoom-in picture of the electric field distribution in (a) shows the opposite polarity on both ends of the antenna arms and LL ≈0.5 λA. (c) Strong electric fields parallel to the metal surfaces (Ex) can be found across the antenna when the structure is operated under this condition. This strong Ex, together with a strong Hy over a large “slot” area, will result in a strong radiation toward the normal (z) direction.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L L = λ A × m
L L = ( m 1 2 ) λ A ,
W P E o p t i c a l p o w e r V I = η i N ω q α m α w + α m I m a x I t h V m a x I ,
W P E = ( η i N ω q α m α w + α m ) I m a x I t h I 1 V m a x = S l o p e E f f i c i e n c y × D y n a m i c R a n g e × 1 V m a x ,
S l o p e E f f i c i e n c y ( S E ) ( η i N ω q α m α w + α m )

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