Abstract

Resolving subcellular structures in vitro beyond optical diffraction barrier by a light microscope has achieved significant development since the advancement of super-resolution fluorescence microscopes, such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM). However, the resolution of observation in deep and dense in vivo tissues is still confined to cellular level presently, and hence, exploring image details at subcellular level or even beyond organelle level in vivo has continued to attract much research attention. Currently, endoscopy provides an effective way to achieve in vivo observations and is compatible with mature optical microscopy technologies, but its resolution is usually confined to ~1 µm. Here we report a new endoscopy method by functionalizing graded-index (GRIN) lens with microspheres for real-time white-light or fluorescent super-resolution imaging. The capability of resolving objects with feature size of ~λ/5, which breaks the diffraction barrier of traditional GRIN lens based endoscopes by a factor of two, has been demonstrated by using this super-resolution endoscopy method. Further development of such a super-resolution endoscopy technique may provide new opportunities for in vivo life sciences studies.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

M. Gu, H. Kang, and X. Li, “Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam,” Sci Rep 4, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, N. Moullan, J. Auwerx, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Super-resolution biological microscopy using virtual imaging by a microsphere nanoscope,” Small 10(9), 1712–1718 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, L. Li, and Z. Wang, “Optical resonances in microsphere photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. 16(1), 015704 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Guo, Y. Han, X. Weng, Y. Zhao, G. Sui, Y. Wang, and S. Zhuang, “Near-field focusing of the dielectric microsphere with wavelength scale radius,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2434–2443 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Krivitsky, J. J. Wang, Z. Wang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Locomotion of microspheres for super-resolution imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, “Optical super-resolution by high-index liquid-immersed microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Microsphere based microscope with optical super-resolution capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods 6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 935–938 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Gu, X. S. Gan, A. Kisteman, and M. G. Xu, “Comparison of penetration depth between two-photon excitation and single-photon excitation in imaging through turbid tissue media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1551–1553 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

Aksay, E.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astratov, V. N.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, “Optical super-resolution by high-index liquid-immersed microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Attardo, A.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auwerx, J.

H. Yang, N. Moullan, J. Auwerx, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Super-resolution biological microscopy using virtual imaging by a microsphere nanoscope,” Small 10(9), 1712–1718 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babcock, H.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barretto, R. P. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods 6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 935–938 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ben-Aryeh, Y.

S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
[Crossref]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bose, R.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Burns, L. D.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 935–938 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, L.

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capps, G.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, E.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 935–938 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, “Optical super-resolution by high-index liquid-immersed microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Darafsheh, A.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, “Optical super-resolution by high-index liquid-immersed microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delp, S. L.

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

Denk, W.

Derov, J. S.

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 935–938 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukumura, D.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, X. S.

M. Gu, X. S. Gan, A. Kisteman, and M. G. Xu, “Comparison of penetration depth between two-photon excitation and single-photon excitation in imaging through turbid tissue media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1551–1553 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, K. K.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gijs, M. A. M.

H. Yang, N. Moullan, J. Auwerx, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Super-resolution biological microscopy using virtual imaging by a microsphere nanoscope,” Small 10(9), 1712–1718 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

M. Gu, H. Kang, and X. Li, “Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam,” Sci Rep 4, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, X. S. Gan, A. Kisteman, and M. G. Xu, “Comparison of penetration depth between two-photon excitation and single-photon excitation in imaging through turbid tissue media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1551–1553 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Guo, W.

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J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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S. Lee, L. Li, and Z. Wang, “Optical resonances in microsphere photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. 16(1), 015704 (2014).
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S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
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L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
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M. Gu, H. Kang, and X. Li, “Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam,” Sci Rep 4, 3627 (2014).
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Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
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L. A. Krivitsky, J. J. Wang, Z. Wang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Locomotion of microspheres for super-resolution imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3501 (2013).
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Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
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J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods 6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
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Theer, P.

Walker, D. E.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
[Crossref]

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R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
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Wang, Z.

S. Lee, L. Li, and Z. Wang, “Optical resonances in microsphere photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. 16(1), 015704 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. A. Krivitsky, J. J. Wang, Z. Wang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Locomotion of microspheres for super-resolution imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
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R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
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Wei Ho, E. T.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
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Wichmann, J.

Wilt, B. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wyrowski, F.

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, M. G.

M. Gu, X. S. Gan, A. Kisteman, and M. G. Xu, “Comparison of penetration depth between two-photon excitation and single-photon excitation in imaging through turbid tissue media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1551–1553 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, N. Moullan, J. Auwerx, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Super-resolution biological microscopy using virtual imaging by a microsphere nanoscope,” Small 10(9), 1712–1718 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, R.

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Y. H.

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Microsphere based microscope with optical super-resolution capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Zhuang, S.

Zhuang, X.

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziv, Y.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. Hao, C. Kuang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Microsphere based microscope with optical super-resolution capability,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(20), 203102 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Gu, X. S. Gan, A. Kisteman, and M. G. Xu, “Comparison of penetration depth between two-photon excitation and single-photon excitation in imaging through turbid tissue media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(10), 1551–1553 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, N. I. Limberopoulos, J. S. Derov, D. E. Walker, and V. N. Astratov, “Advantages of microsphere-assisted super-resolution imaging technique over solid immersion lens and confocal microscopies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(6), 061117 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Darafsheh, G. F. Walsh, L. Dal Negro, and V. N. Astratov, “Optical super-resolution by high-index liquid-immersed microspheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(14), 141128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cell (1)

B. Huang, H. Babcock, and X. Zhuang, “Breaking the diffraction barrier: super-resolution imaging of cells,” Cell 143(7), 1047–1058 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (2)

S. Lee, L. Li, and Z. Wang, “Optical resonances in microsphere photonic nanojets,” J. Opt. 16(1), 015704 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, L. Li, Y. Ben-Aryeh, Z. Wang, and W. Guo, “Overcoming the diffraction limit induced by microsphere optical nanoscopy,” J. Opt. 15(12), 125710 (2013).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Li, W. Guo, Y. Yan, S. Lee, and T. Wang, “Label-free super-resolution imaging of adenoviruses by submerged microsphere optical nanoscopy,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2(9), e104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Wang, W. Guo, L. Li, B. Luk’yanchuk, A. Khan, Z. Liu, Z. Chen, and M. Hong, “Optical virtual imaging at 50 nm lateral resolution with a white-light nanoscope,” Nat. Commun. 2, 218 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (5)

B. A. Flusberg, A. Nimmerjahn, E. D. Cocker, E. A. Mukamel, R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, L. D. Burns, J. C. Jung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice,” Nat. Methods 5(11), 935–938 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, B. Messerschmidt, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses,” Nat. Methods 6(7), 511–512 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (1)

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. E. Llewellyn, R. P. J. Barretto, S. L. Delp, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Minimally invasive high-speed imaging of sarcomere contractile dynamics in mice and humans,” Nature 454(7205), 784–788 (2008).
[PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, B. H. Hong, W. Y. Kim, S. K. Min, Y. Kim, M. V. Jouravlev, R. Bose, K. S. Kim, I.-C. Hwang, L. J. Kaufman, C. W. Wong, P. Kim, and K. S. Kim, “Near-field focusing and magnification through self-assembled nanoscale spherical lenses,” Nature 460(7254), 498–501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sci Rep (3)

R. Ye, Y. H. Ye, H. F. Ma, L. Cao, J. Ma, F. Wyrowski, R. Shi, and J. Y. Zhang, “Experimental imaging properties of immersion microscale spherical lenses,” Sci Rep 4, 3769 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Krivitsky, J. J. Wang, Z. Wang, and B. Luk’yanchuk, “Locomotion of microspheres for super-resolution imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 3501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, H. Kang, and X. Li, “Breaking the diffraction-limited resolution barrier in fiber-optical two-photon fluorescence endoscopy by an azimuthally-polarized beam,” Sci Rep 4, 3627 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

H. Yang, N. Moullan, J. Auwerx, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Super-resolution biological microscopy using virtual imaging by a microsphere nanoscope,” Small 10(9), 1712–1718 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental configuration of microsphere based super-resolution endoscopy. (a) Schematic of microsphere functionalized super-resolution endoscope. (b) Three GRIN lens based endoscope probes, a 1.8 mm diameter singlet (NA = 0.46), a 1 mm diameter singlet (NA = 0.11) and a 1 mm diameter compound doublet (objective lens NA = 0.42, relay lens NA = 0.11). The second and third probes are covered by protective metal sleeves. (c) Schematic of singlet, doublet and microsphere-functionalized singlet or doublet super-resolution endoscopes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Microsphere-functionalized singlet endoscopy imaging in white-light mode. (a) Upper: AFM-scanned image of DVD disc surface. Lower: the cross section image of upper image marked by dark line. (b) DVD surface imaged by a high-resolution digital microscope at magnification of 3500 × without use an endoscope; (c) and (e) DVD surface imaged by a conventional white-light microscope though a GRIN lens based endoscope; (d) and (f) DVD surface imaged by a conventional white-light microscope through a microsphere based super-resolution endoscope. The singlet GRIN lens used in (c) and (d) corresponds to the second endoscope probe in Fig. 1(b), which has diameter of 1 mm, length of 1 pitch and NA of 0.11. The singlet GRIN lens used in (e) and (f) is the first endoscope probe in Fig. 1(b), which has diameter of 1.8 mm, length of 1 pitch and NA of 0.46. The diameter of imaging microsphere used in (d) is ~92 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Microsphere-functionalized doublet endoscopy imaging in white-light mode. DVD surface was imaged by a conventional white-light microscope through a microsphere-functionalized doublet endoscope probe composed by fusing a 0.42 numerical aperture, 0.28 pitch GRIN objective lens to a 0.11 numerical aperture, 1 pitch GRIN relay lens, which corresponds to the third probe shown in Fig. 1(b). The diameter of imaging microsphere is ~55 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Microsphere based super-resolution endoscopy imaging in fluorescence mode. (a) Upper: AFM-scanned image of 100 nm fluorescent nanoparticles. Lower: the cross section image of upper image marked by dotted dark line. (b) 100 nm fluorescent nanoparticles imaged by a conventional fluorescent microscope through a doublet endoscope probe. (c) 100 nm fluorescent nanoparticles imaged by a microsphere-functionalized super-endoscope as described in this paper. The diameter of this imaging microsphere is ~80 µm. The objective lens of fluorescent microscope used in (b) and (c) has a magnification of 10 × (NA = 0.30). The endoscope used in (b) and (c) corresponds to the third probe illustrated in Fig. 1(b), which is composed by fusing a 0.42 numerical aperture, 0.28 pitch GRIN objective lens to a 0.11 numerical aperture, 1 pitch GRIN relay lens. (d) Images used to calibrate the system, which were obtained by combining an optical microscope and a super-resolution endoscope. (d.1), (d.2) and (d.3) share the same scale bar as shown in (d.3).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Contact of microsphere and GRIN lens induces difference in |(E)|2 intensity distribution. The |(E)|2 intensity (V2/m2) distributions simulated for a single microsphere (a.1), (b.1) and a microsphere attached to a GRIN lens (a.2), (b.2). D is the distance between the center of microsphere and focus spot.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Contact of microsphere and GRIN lens induces difference in foci properties. (a) and (b) give the relationship between the maximum intensity appeared in the focus area, the distance (D) between the center of microsphere and focus spot which is defined in Fig. 5(a.1), FWHM, and microspheres’ diameter. The black dot line in (b) represents the Rayleigh diffraction limit at λ = 600 nm, NA = 0.46 of GRIN lens (the maximum NA used in our experiments).

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