Abstract

Strain engineering has proven to be vital for germanium-based photonics, in particular light emission. However, applying a large permanent biaxial tensile strain to germanium has been a challenge. We present a simple, CMOS-compatible technique to conveniently induce a large, spatially homogenous strain in circular structures patterned within germanium nanomembranes. Our technique works by concentrating and amplifying a pre-existing small strain into a circular region. Biaxial tensile strains as large as 1.11% are observed by Raman spectroscopy and are further confirmed by photoluminescence measurements, which show enhanced and redshifted light emission from the strained germanium. Our technique allows the amount of biaxial strain to be customized lithographically, allowing the bandgaps of different germanium structures to be independently customized in a single mask process.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aniel, F.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balram, K.

Beaudoin, G.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bertin, H.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bosseboeuf, A.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boucaud, P.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bourdelle, K. K.

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boztug, C.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Capellini, G.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chaigneau, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S.-L.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chui, C. O.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815 (2004).
[Crossref]

David, C.

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Kersauson, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dutt, B.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fidaner, O.

Fischetti, M. V.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geiger, R.

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ghrib, A.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gobrecht, J.

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guha, S.

Gupta, S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Harris, J. S.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, K. C.-Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huo, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jacobson, R. B.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, W. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamins, T. I.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.-H.

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, T. L.

Kozlowski, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lagally, M. G.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Largeau, L.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laux, S. E.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lisker, M.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makarova, M.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Marshall, A.

Martincic, E.

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

McIntyre, P. C.

Michel, J.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D.

Miller, D. A. B.

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, D.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nayfeh, A.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nayfeh, A. M.

Ndong, G.

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishi, Y.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niu, G.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Okyay, A. K.

Ossikovski, R.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Paiella, R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, D.

Paskiewicz, D. M.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, N.

Petykiewicz, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prost, M.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reich, C.

Romagnoli, M.

Rong, Y.

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roth, J. E.

Roy, A.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagnes, I.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sauvage, S.

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schaevitz, R. K.

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, T.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sudradjat, F. F.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukhdeo, D.

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukhdeo, D. S.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tillack, B.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Virgilio, M.

Vuckovic, J.

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vulovic, B. M.

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenger, C.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Capellini, C. Reich, S. Guha, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, M. Virgilio, A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, B. Tillack, and T. Schroeder, “Tensile Ge microstructures for lasing fabricated by means of a silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Opt. Express 22(1), 399–410 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yonehara, T.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Z.

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, A. Roy, K. Balram, S.-L. Cheng, K. C.-Y. Huang, Z. Yuan, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, D. Miller, and K. Saraswat, “Strained germanium thin film membrane on silicon substrate for optoelectronics,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25866–25872 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaumseil, P.

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, M. Chaigneau, R. Ossikovski, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “All-Around SiN Stressor for High and Homogeneous Tensile Strain in Germanium Microdisk Cavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(3), 353–358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Ghrib, M. El Kurdi, M. de Kersauson, M. Prost, S. Sauvage, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, and P. Boucaud, “Tensile-strained germanium microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221112 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. Sukhdeo, S.-L. Cheng, A. Roy, K. C.-Y. Huang, M. Brongersma, Y. Nishi, and K. Saraswat, “Electroluminescence from strained germanium membranes and implications for an efficient Si-compatible laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131112 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, J. Yin, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Grating-coupled mid-infrared light emission from tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(20), 201114 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. El Kurdi, H. Bertin, E. Martincic, M. de Kersauson, G. Fishman, S. Sauvage, A. Bosseboeuf, and P. Boucaud, “Control of direct band gap emission of bulk germanium by mechanical tensile strain,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041909 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2815 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Huo, H. Lin, R. Chen, M. Makarova, Y. Rong, M. Li, T. I. Kamins, J. Vuckovic, and J. S. Harris, “Strong enhancement of direct transition photoluminescence with highly tensile-strained Ge grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011111 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Dutt, H. Lin, D. S. Sukhdeo, B. M. Vulovic, S. Gupta, D. Nam, K. C. Saraswat, and J. S. Harris, “Theoretical Analysis of GeSn Alloys as a Gain Medium for a Si-compatible Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 1502706 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, S. Gupta, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Study of Carrier Statistics in Uniaxially Strained Ge for a Low-Threshold Ge Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20, 1500107 (2014).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

B. Dutt, D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, B. M. Vulovic, Z. Yuan, and K. C. Saraswat, “Roadmap to an Efficient Germanium-on-Silicon Laser: Strain vs. n-Type Doping,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 2002–2009 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Capellini, G. Kozlowski, Y. Yamamoto, M. Lisker, C. Wenger, G. Niu, P. Zaumseil, B. Tillack, A. Ghrib, M. de Kersauson, M. El Kurdi, P. Boucaud, and T. Schroeder, “Strain analysis in SiN/Ge microstructures obtained via Si-complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(1), 013513 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. J. Süess, R. A. Minamisawa, R. Geiger, K. K. Bourdelle, H. Sigg, and R. Spolenak, “Power-dependent Raman analysis of highly strained Si nanobridges,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1249–1254 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Nam, D. S. Sukhdeo, J.-H. Kang, J. Petykiewicz, J. H. Lee, W. S. Jung, J. Vučković, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain-induced pseudoheterostructure nanowires confining carriers at room temperature with nanoscale-tunable band profiles,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3118–3123 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

R. A. Minamisawa, M. J. Süess, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, C. David, J. Gobrecht, K. K. Bourdelle, and H. Sigg, “Top-down fabricated silicon nanowires under tensile elastic strain up to 4.5%,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1096 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (3)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
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R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
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J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Res. (2)

D. S. Sukhdeo, D. Nam, J.-H. Kang, M. L. Brongersma, and K. C. Saraswat, “Direct bandgap germanium-on-silicon inferred from 5.7% 〈100〉 uniaxial tensile strain [Invited],” Photonics Res. 2(3), A8–A13 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Boucaud, M. El Kurdi, A. Ghrib, M. Prost, M. de Kersauson, S. Sauvage, F. Aniel, X. Checoury, G. Beaudoin, L. Largeau, I. Sagnes, G. Ndong, M. Chaigneau, and R. Ossikovski, “Recent advances in germanium emission,” Photonics Res. 1(3), 102–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

C. Boztug, J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, F. F. Sudradjat, R. B. Jacobson, D. M. Paskiewicz, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Tensilely strained germanium nanomembranes as infrared optical gain media,” Small 9(4), 622–630 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Geiger, M. J. Suess, C. Bonzon, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Carrier lifetimes in uniaxially strained Ge micro bridges,” 11th Int. Conf. Gr. IV Photonics. 2, 227–228 (2014).
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M. J. Süess, Highly strained Si and Ge micro- and nanobridges for micro- and optoelectronic applications, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich PhD Thesis, 2014.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simplified schematic of the structure. (b) Cross-section schematic showing downward deflection and adhesion between Ge and Si due to stiction. (c) Biaxial strain distribution in the disk structures computed by FEM. Scale bar, 10 µm. (d) Zoomed-in view of the strain distribution in the central region of the disk structures computed FEM. Scale bar, 2 µm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Finite element method (FEM) simulations of a 100 μm outer diameter structure with a 5 μm diameter inner microdisk (a) without the additional etch slits, and (b) with the additional etch slits. Insets: zoomed-in views of the central regions. Scale bars, 10 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Finite element method (FEM) simulations of the structure for different numbers of main etch slits. Scale bars, 2 µm. (b) Biaxial strains at the microdisk center and in the corner regions as a function of the number of main etch slits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical micrograph. Scale bar, 20 μm. (b) Scanning electron micrograph. Scale bar, 2 μm. (c) Optical surface profile. Scale bar, 20 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Raman spectra for various structure diameters. Inset: observed strain vs. outer diameter. (b) Observed Raman shifts throughout the structure, measured by a Raman area scan. Scale bar, 2 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photoluminescence (PL) spectra at various strain levels. (b) PL wavelength vs. strain. Inset: PL intensity vs. strain.

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