Abstract

Different size InGaN/GaN based micro-LEDs (μLEDs) are fabricated. An extremely high injection level above 16 kA/cm2 is achieved for 10 μm-diameter LED. The lateral current density and carrier distributions of the μLEDs are simulated by APSYS software. Streak camera time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) results show clear evidence that the band-gap renormalization (BGR) effect is weakened by strain relaxation in smaller size μLEDs. BGR affects the relaxation of free carriers on the conduction band bottom in multiple quantum wells (MQWs), and then indirectly affects the recombination rate of carriers. An energy band model based on BGR effect is made to explain the high-injection-level phenomenon for μLEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  3. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. C.-T. Yu, W.-C. Lai, C.-H. Yen, and S.-J. Chang, “Effects of InGaN layer thickness of AlGaN/InGaN superlattice electron blocking layer on the overall efficiency and efficiency droops of GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A663–A670 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
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  17. D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
  18. G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. M.-R. Kim, C.-H. Kim, and B.-H. Han, “Band-gap renormalization and strain effects in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica B 245(1), 45–51 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).
  25. APSYS (2008version) by Crosslight Software, Inc., Burnaby, Canada, http://www.crosslight.com
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    [Crossref]
  27. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  28. V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

C.-T. Yu, W.-C. Lai, C.-H. Yen, and S.-J. Chang, “Effects of InGaN layer thickness of AlGaN/InGaN superlattice electron blocking layer on the overall efficiency and efficiency droops of GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 22(S3Suppl 3), A663–A670 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (7)

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

2011 (2)

Q. Li, K. R. Westlake, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, D. D. Koleske, J. J. Figiel, K. C. Cross, S. Fathololoumi, Z. Mi, and G. T. Wang, “Optical performance of top-down fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25528–25534 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Single mode high-contrast subwavelength grating vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (5)

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

1999 (1)

F. Binet, J. Y. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4715–4722 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M.-R. Kim, C.-H. Kim, and B.-H. Han, “Band-gap renormalization and strain effects in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica B 245(1), 45–51 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aleksiejunas, R.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Binet, F.

F. Binet, J. Y. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4715–4722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bläsing, J.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bochkareva, N. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buehlmann, H. J.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Butté, R.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, X. A.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J.-F.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Castiglia, A.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-J.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Single mode high-contrast subwavelength grating vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. Z.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Chung, Y. Y.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Chyi, J. I.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Cich, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

Cross, K. C.

Dadgar, A.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

David, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y. J.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dorsaz, J.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
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Duboz, J. Y.

F. Binet, J. Y. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4715–4722 (1999).
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Edwards, P. R.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Esser, N.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fathololoumi, S.

Fellows, N.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feltin, E.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feneberg, M.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. W.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Figiel, J. J.

Fritze, S.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujito, K.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Garke, B.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Giesen, C.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goldhahn, R.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gorbunov, R. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Götz, W.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M. J.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, E. D.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Han, B.-H.

M.-R. Kim, C.-H. Kim, and B.-H. Han, “Band-gap renormalization and strain effects in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica B 245(1), 45–51 (1998).
[Crossref]

Han, S. H.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Han, S.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

Henderson, R. K.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heuken, M.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Hsu, C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Huang, M. C. Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Single mode high-contrast subwavelength grating vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarašiunas, K.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jia, Z.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, S.

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jung, Y. H.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, A.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.-H.

M.-R. Kim, C.-H. Kim, and B.-H. Han, “Band-gap renormalization and strain effects in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica B 245(1), 45–51 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-C.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

Kim, M.-R.

M.-R. Kim, C.-H. Kim, and B.-H. Han, “Band-gap renormalization and strain effects in semiconductor quantum wells,” Physica B 245(1), 45–51 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. I.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

Kishino, K.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Kneissl, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Koleske, D. D.

Krames, M. R.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krost, A.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ku, P. H.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kueller, V.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.-C.

Lan, Y. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lange, K.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lapeyrade, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Latyshev, P. E.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. R.

Lelikov, Yu. S.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Li, Y.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lidig, C.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-B.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

Lin, Y. S.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Liu, G.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, N. Y.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lobo Ploch, N.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, K. J.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Martin, R. W.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mehnke, F.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mi, Z.

Miasojedovas, S.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Müller, G. O.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nargelas, S.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Netzel, C.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neumann, M. D.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Off, J.

F. Binet, J. Y. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4715–4722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Oh, S. J.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Okur, S.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osterburg, S.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pao, H. A.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rae, B. R.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramesh, V.

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rebane, Yu. T.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Richter, E.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, H.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Rogers, J. A.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sato, H.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. C.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scholz, F.

F. Binet, J. Y. Duboz, J. Off, and F. Scholz, “High-excitation photoluminescence in GaN: Hot-carrier effects and the Mott transition,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4715–4722 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shim, H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

Shreter, Yu. G.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simeonov, D.

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

Song, I.-S.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stellmach, J.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Steranka, F. M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stölmacker, C.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Sun, G.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tansu, N.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y. B.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, P.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsyuk, A. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tuna, Ö.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vengris, M.

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voronenkov, V. V.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. T.

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. Y.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Watson, I. M.

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Westlake, K. R.

Weyers, M.

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

Wierer, J. J.

T. I. Kim, Y. H. Jung, J. Song, D. Kim, Y. Li, H. S. Kim, I.-S. Song, J. J. Wierer, H. A. Pao, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “High-Efficiency, Microscale GaN Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Properties on Unusual Substrates,” Small 8(11), 1643–1649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witte, H.

M. Feneberg, S. Osterburg, K. Lange, C. Lidig, B. Garke, R. Goldhahn, E. Richter, C. Netzel, M. D. Neumann, N. Esser, S. Fritze, H. Witte, J. Bläsing, A. Dadgar, and A. Krost, “Band gap renormalization and Burstein-Moss effect in silicon- and germanium-doped wurtzite GaN up to 1020 cm−3,” Phys. Rev. B 90(7), 075203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xie, E. Y.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, C. H.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yen, C.-H.

Yu, C.-T.

Zhang, G.

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. Y.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. F.

Y. B. Tao, S. Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. Gong, E. Y. Xie, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Zhang, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, E. D. Gu, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, and G. Y. Zhang, “Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi C 9(3–4), 616–619 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Single mode high-contrast subwavelength grating vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zubrilov, A. S.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, P. E. Latyshev, Yu. S. Lelikov, Yu. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of Localized Tail States in InGaN on the Efficiency Droop in GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Increasing Current Density,” Semiconductors 46(8), 1032–1039 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

K.-C. Kim, M. C. Schmidt, H. Sato, F. Wu, N. Fellows, Z. Jia, M. Saito, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and K. Fujito, “Study of nonpolar m -plane InGaN/GaN multiquantum well light emitting diodes grown by homoepitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181120 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, G. O. Müller, Y. C. Shen, G. Chen, S. Watanabe, W. Götz, and M. R. Krames, “Blue emitting InGaN/GaN double-heterostructure light-emitting diodes reaching maximum quantum efficiency above 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, A. Chakraborty, A. David, M. J. Grundmann, A. Tyagi, M. Zhang, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN based violet light-emitting diodes with high efficiency at very high current density,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 223509 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Castiglia, D. Simeonov, H. J. Buehlmann, J.-F. Carlin, E. Feltin, J. Dorsaz, R. Butté, and N. Grandjean, “Efficient current injection scheme for nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 033514 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Single mode high-contrast subwavelength grating vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(17), 171108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, S. J. Oh, and J. K. Kim, “Temperature dependent efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes with different current densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(8), 081106 (2012).

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Rapid efficiency roll-off in high-quality green light-emitting diodes on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041117 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, S.-H. Han, M.-H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).

P. Tian, J. J. D. McKendry, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, Z. Chen, G. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent efficiency and efficiency droop of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23), 231110 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

N. Lobo Ploch, H. Rodriguez, C. Stölmacker, M. Hoppe, M. Lapeyrade, J. Stellmach, F. Mehnke, T. Wernicke, A. Knauer, V. Kueller, M. Weyers, S. Einfeldt, and M. Kneissl, “Effective Thermal Management in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes With Micro-LED Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 60(2), 782–786 (2013).

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, Y. Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, C. Hsu, K. J. Ma, and J. I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441 (2002).

K. Jarašiūnas, S. Nargelas, R. Aleksiejunas, S. Miasojedovas, M. Vengris, S. Okur, H. Morkoç, Ü. Özgür, C. Giesen, Ö. Tuna, and M. Heuken, “Spectral distribution of excitation-dependent recombination rate in an In0.13Ga0.87N epilayer,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103701 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Xie, Z. Z. Chen, P. R. Edwards, Z. Gong, N. Y. Liu, Y. B. Tao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, R. W. Martin, G. Y. Zhang, and M. D. Dawson, “Strain relaxation in InGaN/GaN micro-pillars evidenced by high resolution cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 013107 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Ramesh, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Strain relaxation effect by nanotexturing InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 114303 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Xu, G. Sun, Y. J. Ding, H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, and N. Tansu, “Investigation of large Stark shifts in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(3), 033104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Gong, S. Jin, Y. Chen, J. McKendry, D. Massoubre, I. M. Watson, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “Size-dependent light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

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Other (1)

APSYS (2008version) by Crosslight Software, Inc., Burnaby, Canada, http://www.crosslight.com

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The photograph of μLEDs chip array and (b) the schematic structure of μLEDs for the APSYS simulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)The dependence of the light output power in EL spectra on the current density for 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 300 μm LEDs. (b)The external quantum efficiency (EQE) curves for 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 300 μm LEDs with increased current density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

EL spectra measured under different current densities (a) from 0.2 to 282.9A/cm2 for 300μm LED and (b) from 6.4 to 1273.2A/cm2 for 10μm LED. (c)The simulated current density distributions along the mesa diameter neighbor to the last QW of μLEDs with different sizes. The average current density is 200 A/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal changes of the PL spectra for (a) 300 μm and (b) 10 μm LEDs from 8 ps to 1.3 ns. The peaks are connected by short dash lines.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Time resolved (a) peak intensities, (b) peak wavelengths of the PL spectra taken from the streak camera images for 300, 160, 80, 40 and 10 μm LEDs with the time scale of 2 ns, and (c) peak wavelengths with the time scale of 50 ns.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Energy band diagram of conduction band for possible paths of carrier transport and recombination in TRPL

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