Abstract

An all-polymer photonic crystal slab sensor is presented, and shown to exhibit narrow resonant reflection with a FWHM of less than 1 nm and a sensitivity of 31 nm/RIU when sensing media with refractive indices around that of water. This results in a detection limit of 4.5 × 10−6 RIU when measured in conjunction with a spectrometer of 12 pm/pixel resolution. The device is a two-layer structure, composed of a low refractive index polymer with a periodically modulated surface height, covered with a smooth upper-surface high refractive index inorganic-organic hybrid polymer modified with ZrO2-based nanoparticles. Furthermore, it is fabricated using inexpensive vacuum-less techniques involving only UV nanoreplication and polymer spin-casting, and is thus well suited for single-use biological and refractive index sensing applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
High quality factor photonic crystal filter at k ≈0 and its application for refractive index sensing

Yonghao Liu, Shuling Wang, Deyin Zhao, Weidong Zhou, and Yuze Sun
Opt. Express 25(9) 10536-10545 (2017)

Enhanced sensitivity of photonic crystal slab transducers by oblique-angle layer deposition

Yousef Nazirizadeh, Florian von Oertzen, Torben Karrock, Janine Greve, and Martina Gerken
Opt. Express 21(16) 18661-18670 (2013)

Sensitivity enhancement in photonic crystal slab biosensors

Mohamed El Beheiry, Victor Liu, Shanhui Fan, and Ofer Levi
Opt. Express 18(22) 22702-22714 (2010)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2606–2613 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. R. Magnusson, M. Shokooh-Saremi, and E. G. Johnson, “Guided-mode resonant wave plates,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2472–2474 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. W. Dobbs and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tunable guided-mode resonance filter,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7286–7293 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261109 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode-resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1552–1554 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. J. Uddin, T. Khaleque, and R. Magnusson, “Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters,” Opt. Express 22, 12307–15 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
    [Crossref]
  11. B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers,” Opt. Express 18, 19120–19128 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).
  14. L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. Khaleque, M. J. Uddin, and R. Magnusson, “Design and fabrication of broadband guided-mode resonant reflectors in TE polarization,” Opt. Express 22, 12349–12358 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1470–1474 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261110 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2006).
  25. A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating–waveguide structures for visible and near-infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2985–2993 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. Khaleque, H. G. Svavarsson, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication of resonant patterns using thermal nano-imprint lithography for thin-film photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 21, A631–A641 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Nazirizadeh, F. von Oertzen, K. Plewa, N. Barié, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, H. Leiste, and M. Gerken, “Sensitivity optimization of injection-molded photonic crystal slabs for biosensing applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 556–565 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Tamir and S. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  31. I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16, 1020–1028 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

M. J. Uddin, T. Khaleque, and R. Magnusson, “Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters,” Opt. Express 22, 12307–15 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Khaleque, M. J. Uddin, and R. Magnusson, “Design and fabrication of broadband guided-mode resonant reflectors in TE polarization,” Opt. Express 22, 12349–12358 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

T. Khaleque, H. G. Svavarsson, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication of resonant patterns using thermal nano-imprint lithography for thin-film photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 21, A631–A641 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, F. von Oertzen, K. Plewa, N. Barié, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, H. Leiste, and M. Gerken, “Sensitivity optimization of injection-molded photonic crystal slabs for biosensing applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 556–565 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode-resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1552–1554 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2008 (3)

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16, 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261109 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating–waveguide structures for visible and near-infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2985–2993 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Tamir and S. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

Bagby, J. S.

Barié, N.

Bog, U.

Brueck, S. R. J.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Chan, L. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chaudhery, V.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J. S.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, J. L.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261109 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Dobbs and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tunable guided-mode resonance filter,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7286–7293 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dobbs, D. W.

Eden, J. G.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

Flood, T. A.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friesem, A. A.

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating–waveguide structures for visible and near-infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2985–2993 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ge, C.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

George, S.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerken, M.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, F. von Oertzen, K. Plewa, N. Barié, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, H. Leiste, and M. Gerken, “Sensitivity optimization of injection-molded photonic crystal slabs for biosensing applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 556–565 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers,” Opt. Express 18, 19120–19128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geyer, U.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gosangari, S. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guttmann, M.

Harley, B. A. C.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Hergenrother, P. J.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermannsson, P. G.

P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hilgenberg, J. D.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howe, R. T.

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hugh, B.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jakobs, P.-J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Johnson, E. G.

Jung, I. W.

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
[Crossref]

Kaja, S.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khaleque, T.

King, W. P.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koulen, P.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, A.

P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. J.

K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. M.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Leiste, H.

Lemmer, U.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers,” Opt. Express 18, 19120–19128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Levi, O.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Long, K. D.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lousse, V.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Lu, M.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magnusson, R.

M. J. Uddin, T. Khaleque, and R. Magnusson, “Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters,” Opt. Express 22, 12307–15 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Khaleque, M. J. Uddin, and R. Magnusson, “Design and fabrication of broadband guided-mode resonant reflectors in TE polarization,” Opt. Express 22, 12349–12358 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Khaleque, H. G. Svavarsson, and R. Magnusson, “Fabrication of resonant patterns using thermal nano-imprint lithography for thin-film photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 21, A631–A641 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode-resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1552–1554 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Magnusson, M. Shokooh-Saremi, and E. G. Johnson, “Guided-mode resonant wave plates,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2472–2474 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2606–2613 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7, 1470–1474 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mappes, T.

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Nazirizadeh, Y.

Y. Nazirizadeh, F. von Oertzen, K. Plewa, N. Barié, P.-J. Jakobs, M. Guttmann, H. Leiste, and M. Gerken, “Sensitivity optimization of injection-molded photonic crystal slabs for biosensing applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 556–565 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Bog, S. Sekula, T. Mappes, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Low-cost label-free biosensors using photonic crystals embedded between crossed polarizers,” Opt. Express 18, 19120–19128 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Neureuther, A. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
[Crossref]

Peng, S.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Plewa, K.

Pokhriyal, A.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polans, J.

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Priambodo, P. S.

K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Provine, J.

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rasigade, G.

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reverey, J.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rosenblatt, D.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating–waveguide structures for visible and near-infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2985–2993 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sekula, S.

Selhuber-Unkel, C.

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shah, A. A.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharon, A.

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Sharon, D. Rosenblatt, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating–waveguide structures for visible and near-infrared radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2985–2993 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

Singamaneni, S.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, C. L. C.

P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soares, J. A.

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
[Crossref]

Svavarsson, H. G.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

Tian, L.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uddin, M. J.

Vannahme, C.

P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
[Crossref]

von Oertzen, F.

Wagner, C.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. S.

Watkin, K. L.

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wawro, D.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

White, I. M.

Yang, F.

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2006).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2006).

Yen, G.

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261109 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Zheng, J.

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuo, Y.

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, S.

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (2)

W. Chen, K. D. Long, M. Lu, V. Chaudhery, H. Yu, J. S. Choi, J. Polans, Y. Zhuo, B. A. C. Harley, and B. T. Cunningham, “Photonic crystal enhanced microscopy for imaging of live cell adhesion,” Analyst 138, 5886–5894 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhuo, H. Hu, W. Chen, M. Lu, L. Tian, H. Yu, K. D. Long, E. Chow, W. P. King, S. Singamaneni, and B. T. Cunningham, “Single nanoparticle detection using photonic crystal enhanced microscopy,” Analyst 139, 1007–1015 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apoptosis (1)

L. L. Chan, S. L. Gosangari, K. L. Watkin, and B. T. Cunningham, “A label-free photonic crystal biosensor imaging method for detection of cancer cell cytotoxicity and proliferation,” Apoptosis 12, 1061–1068 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamir and S. Peng, “Analysis and design of grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. 14, 235–254 (1977).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

P. G. Hermannsson, C. Vannahme, C. L. C. Smith, and A. Kristensen, “Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 071103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Experimental quality factor determination of guided-mode resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 261110 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, G. Yen, and B. T. Cunningham, “Voltage-tuned resonant reflectance optical filter for visible wavelengths fabricated by nanoreplica molding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261109 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Yang, G. Yen, G. Rasigade, J. A. Soares, and B. T. Cunningham, “Optically tuned resonant optical reflectance filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Nazirizadeh, J. Reverey, U. Geyer, U. Lemmer, C. Selhuber-Unkel, and M. Gerken, “Material-based three-dimensional imaging with nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 011116 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Rosenblatt, A. Sharon, and A. A. Friesem, “Resonant grating waveguide structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2038–2059 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

M. J. Uddin and R. Magnusson, “Efficient guided-mode-resonant tunable color filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24, 1552–1554 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, Y. Deng, A. R. Neureuther, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Ultrabroadband mirror using low-index cladded subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 518–520 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

K. J. Lee, D. Wawro, P. S. Priambodo, and R. Magnusson, “Agarose-gel based guided-mode resonance humidity sensor,” IEEE Sens. J. 7, 409–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Kaja, J. D. Hilgenberg, J. L. Collins, A. A. Shah, D. Wawro, S. Zimmerman, R. Magnusson, and P. Koulen, “Detection of novel biomarkers for ovarian cancer with an optical nanotechnology detection system enabling label-free diagnostics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 081412 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Lab Chip (1)

C. Ge, M. Lu, S. George, T. A. Flood, C. Wagner, J. Zheng, A. Pokhriyal, J. G. Eden, P. J. Hergenrother, and B. T. Cunningham, “External cavity laser biosensor,” Lab Chip 13, 1247–1256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Fan and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Analysis of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 235112 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Levi, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, V. Lousse, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, “Sensitivity analysis of a photonic crystal structure for index-of-refraction sensing,” Proc. SPIE 6447, 64470P (2007).

Sens. Actuators, B (1)

B. T. Cunningham, B. Lin, J. Qiu, P. Li, J. Pepper, and B. Hugh, “A plastic colorimetric resonant optical biosensor for multiparallel detection of label-free biochemical interactions,” Sens. Actuators, B 85, 219–226 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

I. W. Jung, B. Park, J. Provine, R. T. Howe, and O. Solgaard, “Monolithic silicon photonic crystal slab fiber tip sensor,” in IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (IEEE, 2009), pp. 19–20.
[Crossref]

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 6th ed. (Oxford University Press, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic illustration of the polymer photonic crystal slab sensor. The device is composed of a low refractive index polymer with a periodically modulated surface height, covered with a layer of the high refractive index polymer OrmoClear® HI01 XP, which in turn is exposed to a sensing region with a bulk refractive index of n.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The refractive index dispersion of the two polymers from which the PCS sensor is made: Efiron PC-409 (LRI), and OrmoClear® HI01 XP (HRI). (b) The calculated resonance peak shift associated with TE-polarized guided modes as a function of effective waveguide thickness t and sensing region refractive index n. (c) An example of a calculated resonance peak sensitivity for the case of t = 160 nm, obtained along the dashed line in panel (b). (d) The calculated sensitivity of resonance peaks associated with TE-polarized modes for four different refractive indices n in the PCS sensing region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication of the polymer PCS sensor. (a) Nanostructured silicon master. (b) Dispensing of a low refractive index UV curable polymer onto the master. (c) Sealing of the polymer between the master and a glass wafer. (d) UV curing of the polymer. (e) Flipping over of the stack. (f) Separation and removal of the master. (g) Spinning of the high refractive index polymer OrmoClear® HI01 XP. Not shown: bake-out, UV curing of the high refractive index polymer, and removal of inhibition layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of the polymer PCS sensor. (a) A 3D AFM scan of the surface of the low refractive index polymer after the removal of the silicon master. (b) AFM traces of the low refractive index polymer surface and the surface of the high refractive index polymer. Both are averaged over 30 parallel line scans. (c) Scanning electron micrograph of the nanostructured low refractive index polymer surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for measuring resonantly reflected light from the polymer PCS sensor. The structure may exhibit resonant reflection associated with both TM and TE-polarized guided modes. The TM-polarized reflected light is directed to a camera (CCD A) where it is used for visual inspection and sample positioning, whereas the TE-polarized reflected light is directed to an imaging spectrometer and projected onto a second camera for spectral analysis (CCD B).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Acquired resonance spectra of TE polarized reflected light from the polymer PCS sensor when covered with air and deionized water. (b) Measured peak wavelength shift ΔλR as a function of refractive index in the sensing region n, compared to simulation results for the case of t = 253 nm. The sensitivity of the device s as a function of n, obtained from the slope of ΔλR(n) is further shown on the right axis. (c) A series of 100 measurements of the center wavelength λc, shown relative to the mean λ̄c. The gray area represents three standard deviations of λc.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β = 2 π / Λ
tan ( h t ) = p + q h ( 1 p q / h 2 )
h = n H 2 k 0 2 β 2 , q = β 2 n 2 k 0 2 , p = β 2 n L 2 k 0 2 .
Δ λ R ( n , t ) = [ λ R ( n ) λ R ( n = 1 ) ] t
s = d Δ λ R d n | t
DL = 3 σ s
λ c = i = n m λ i I i i = n m I i

Metrics