Abstract

The visible to mid-infrared coverage of femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency combs makes them attractive resources for high-resolution spectroscopy and astrophotonic spectrograph calibration. Such applications require absolute traceability and wide comb-tooth spacing, attributes which until now have remained unavailable from any single OPO frequency comb. Here, we report a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire pumped OPO comb whose repetition and offset frequencies are referenced to Rb-stabilised microwave and laser oscillators respectively. This technique simultaneously achieves fully stabilized combs from both the Ti:sapphire laser and the OPO with sub-MHz comb-tooth linewidths, multi-hour locking stability and without the need for super-continuum generation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Frequency stability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24159–24164 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. Balskus, S. M. Leitch, Z. Zhang, R. A. McCracken, and D. T. Reid, “1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1283–1288 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Testing the energy conservation law in an optical parametric oscillator using phase-controlled femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 4378–4384 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 µm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Coherent synthesis using carrier-envelope phase-controlled pulses from a dual-color femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1396–1398 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  23. J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Dual-color operation of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator exhibiting stable relative carrier-envelope phase-slip frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2021–2023 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  25. D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Locking the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of an optical parametric oscillator without f-2f self-referencing,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1668–1670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 µm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Gebs, T. Dekorsy, S. A. Diddams, and A. Bartels, “1-GHz repetition rate femtosecond OPO with stabilized offset between signal and idler frequency combs,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5397–5405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(18), 1728–1730 (1989).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[Crossref]

Adler, F.

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[Crossref]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, A. S.

Balskus, K.

Bartels, A.

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gebs, T. Dekorsy, S. A. Diddams, and A. Bartels, “1-GHz repetition rate femtosecond OPO with stabilized offset between signal and idler frequency combs,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5397–5405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Binhammer, T.

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Braje, D. A.

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cavallari, M.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cossel, K. C.

Cox, A.

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

Diddams, S. A.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Gebs, T. Dekorsy, S. A. Diddams, and A. Bartels, “1-GHz repetition rate femtosecond OPO with stabilized offset between signal and idler frequency combs,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5397–5405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driscoll, T. J.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Edelstein, D. C.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(18), 1728–1730 (1989).
[Crossref]

Farrell, C.

Fermann, M. E.

Ferreiro, T. I.

Fortier, T. M.

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gale, B. J. S.

Gale, G. M.

Gebs, R.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gloster, L.

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Grebenkemper, C. J.

C. J. Grebenkemper, “Local oscillator phase noise and its effect on receiver performance,” Watkins-Johnson Co. Tech-notes (1981).

Hache, F.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, S. Swartz, P. Jungner, and J. L. Hall, “Hyperfine structure and absolute frequency of the (87)Rb 5P(3/2) state,” Opt. Lett. 21(16), 1280–1282 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinecke, D. C.

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jungner, P.

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamour, T. P.

Leburn, C. G.

Leitch, S. M.

Makasyuk, I.

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marandi, A.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCracken, R. A.

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osterman, S.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rausch, S.

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Reid, D. T.

K. Balskus, S. M. Leitch, Z. Zhang, R. A. McCracken, and D. T. Reid, “1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1283–1288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Schratwieser, K. Balskus, R. A. McCracken, C. Farrell, C. G. Leburn, Z. Zhang, T. P. Lamour, T. I. Ferreiro, A. Marandi, A. S. Arnold, and D. T. Reid, “(87)Rb-stabilized 375-MHz Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10494–10499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McCracken, J. Sun, C. G. Leburn, and D. T. Reid, “Broadband phase coherence between an ultrafast laser and an OPO using lock-to-zero CEO stabilization,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16269–16274 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Frequency stability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24159–24164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Locking the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of an optical parametric oscillator without f-2f self-referencing,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1668–1670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Coherent synthesis using carrier-envelope phase-controlled pulses from a dual-color femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1396–1398 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 µm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Testing the energy conservation law in an optical parametric oscillator using phase-controlled femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 4378–4384 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Dual-color operation of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator exhibiting stable relative carrier-envelope phase-slip frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2021–2023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schratwieser, T. C.

Schunemann, P. G.

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

R. A. McCracken, J. Sun, C. G. Leburn, and D. T. Reid, “Broadband phase coherence between an ultrafast laser and an OPO using lock-to-zero CEO stabilization,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16269–16274 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Frequency stability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24159–24164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Locking the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of an optical parametric oscillator without f-2f self-referencing,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1668–1670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Coherent synthesis using carrier-envelope phase-controlled pulses from a dual-color femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1396–1398 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Testing the energy conservation law in an optical parametric oscillator using phase-controlled femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 4378–4384 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Dual-color operation of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator exhibiting stable relative carrier-envelope phase-slip frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2021–2023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J. H.

Swartz, S.

Tang, C. L.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(18), 1728–1730 (1989).
[Crossref]

Thorpe, M. J.

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Vernaleken, A.

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wachman, E. S.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(18), 1728–1730 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ycas, G.

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, “Broadly tunable high repetition rate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(18), 1728–1730 (1989).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18(2), 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445(7128), 627–630 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Frequency stability of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24159–24164 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Balskus, S. M. Leitch, Z. Zhang, R. A. McCracken, and D. T. Reid, “1-GHz harmonically pumped femtosecond optical parametric oscillator frequency comb,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1283–1288 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Testing the energy conservation law in an optical parametric oscillator using phase-controlled femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 15, 4378–4384 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gebs, T. Dekorsy, S. A. Diddams, and A. Bartels, “1-GHz repetition rate femtosecond OPO with stabilized offset between signal and idler frequency combs,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5397–5405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, I. Makasyuk, and P. G. Schunemann, “Grating tunable 4-14 µm GaAs optical parametric oscillator pumped at 3 µm,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4131–4136 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. McCracken, J. Sun, C. G. Leburn, and D. T. Reid, “Broadband phase coherence between an ultrafast laser and an OPO using lock-to-zero CEO stabilization,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16269–16274 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. C. Schratwieser, K. Balskus, R. A. McCracken, C. Farrell, C. G. Leburn, Z. Zhang, T. P. Lamour, T. I. Ferreiro, A. Marandi, A. S. Arnold, and D. T. Reid, “(87)Rb-stabilized 375-MHz Yb:fiber femtosecond frequency comb,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10494–10499 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Dual-color operation of a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator exhibiting stable relative carrier-envelope phase-slip frequencies,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2021–2023 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Adler, K. C. Cossel, M. J. Thorpe, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Phase-stabilized, 1.5 W frequency comb at 2.8-4.8 µm,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1330–1332 (2009).
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T. I. Ferreiro, J. Sun, and D. T. Reid, “Locking the carrier-envelope-offset frequency of an optical parametric oscillator without f-2f self-referencing,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1668–1670 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Coherent synthesis using carrier-envelope phase-controlled pulses from a dual-color femtosecond optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1396–1398 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, “Composite frequency comb spanning 0.4-2.4 µm from a phase-controlled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1414–1416 (2007).
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G. M. Gale, M. Cavallari, T. J. Driscoll, and F. Hache, “Sub-20-fs tunable pulses in the visible from an 82-MHz optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 20(14), 1562–1564 (1995).
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Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. C. Heinecke, A. Bartels, T. M. Fortier, D. A. Braje, L. Hollberg, and S. A. Diddams, “Optical frequency stabilization of a 10 GHz Ti:sapphire frequency comb by saturated absorption spectroscopy in 87rubidium,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053806 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Quinlan, G. Ycas, S. Osterman, and S. A. Diddams, “A 12.5 GHz-spaced optical frequency comb spanning >400 nm for near-infrared astronomical spectrograph calibration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(6), 063105 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

L. Dickstein, “Introduction to phase noise in signal generators,” http://www.gigatronics.com/uploads/document/AN-GT140A-Introduction-to-Phase-Noise-in-Signal-Generators.pdf .

C. J. Grebenkemper, “Local oscillator phase noise and its effect on receiver performance,” Watkins-Johnson Co. Tech-notes (1981).

A. Vernaleken, T. Udem, T. Binhammer, S. Rausch, L. Gloster, A. Bartels, and A. Cox, “CEO/CEP stabilisation of Ti:sapphire femtosecond lasers without AOM,” White Paper: Laser Quantum (n.d.).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental schematic of the OPO locking scheme. BS, beam-splitter; DG, diffraction grating; PR, partial reflector, WP, wave-plate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Locked beat note between the Ti:sapphire laser and the Rb-ECDL (100 kHz RBW). (b) Locked OPO beat frequency measured after f/8 divider (1 kHz RBW).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Phase noise power spectral density (PSD) of the locked beat frequency between νN and νRb. The strong 7.5-kHz component arises from the dither frequency used to lock the Rb-ECDL. Red and green lines indicate the calculated cumulative phase noise over a 1-s observation time.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 In-loop Allan deviation calculations of the locked Ti:sapphire comb and OPO CEO frequency, with fractional stabilities expressed relative to the optical carrier. Long term stability is limited by the repetition rate locking of the Ti:sapphire laser.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 In-loop (red, lower black line) and out-of-loop (blue, upper black line) phase noise PSD measurements of the locked OPO internal beat frequency.

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