Abstract

Lamina 3D display is a new type of multi-layer 3D display, which utilizes the polarization state as a new dimension of depth information. Lamina 3D display system has advanced properties – to reduce the data amount representing 3D image, to be easily made using the conventional projectors, and to have a potential being applied to the many applications. However, the system might have some limitations in depth range and viewing angle due to the properties of the expressive volume components. In this paper, we propose the volume using the layers of switchable diffusers to implement the active-type Lamina 3D display system. Because the diffusing rate of the layers has no relation with the polarization state, the polarizer wheel is applied to the proposed system in purpose of making the sectioned image synchronized with the diffusing layer at the designated location. The imaging volume of the proposed system consists of five layers of polymer dispersed liquid crystal and the total size of the implemented volume is 24x18x12 mm3. The proposed system can achieve the improvements of viewing qualities such as enhanced depth expression and widened viewing angle.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. B. Goldstein, Sensation and perception (Wadsworth 2007).
  4. R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, Handbook of Visual Display Technology (Springer 2012).
  7. B. Blundell and A. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-dimensional Display Systems (Wiley 2000).
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    [Crossref]
  9. S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Sullivan, “A DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
  11. M. Date, T. Hisaki, H. Takada, S. Suyama, and K. Nakazawa, “Luminance addition of a stack of multidomain liquid-crystal displays and capability for depth-fused three-dimensional display application,” Appl. Opt. 44(6), 898–905 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Barnum, S. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 76 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. G. Park, J.-H. Kim, and S.-W. Min, “Polarization distributed depth map for depth-fused three-dimensional display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4316–4323 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2010)
  20. J. W. Doane and G. P. Crawford, Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 1990).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

G. Li, K.-C. Kwon, G.-H. Shin, J.-S. Jeong, K.-H. Yoo, and N. Kim, “Simplified integral imaging pickup method for real objects using a depth camera,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 16(4), 381–385 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Gotoda, “Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880C (2012).

2011 (4)

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. G. Park, J.-H. Kim, and S.-W. Min, “Polarization distributed depth map for depth-fused three-dimensional display,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4316–4323 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, and M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

P. Barnum, S. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 76 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” J. Disp. Tech. 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, “A DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[Crossref]

Akeley, K.

Baek, H.

Banks, M. S.

Barnum, P.

P. Barnum, S. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 76 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, M.

Date, M.

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gotoda, H.

H. Gotoda, “Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880C (2012).

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, R.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirsch, M.

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hisaki, T.

Huang, T.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ito, T.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, J.-S.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kakue, T.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanade, T.

P. Barnum, S. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 76 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Kim, N.

Kwon, K.-C.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Li, G.

Liu, Y.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Min, S.-W.

Nakayama, H.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakazawa, K.

Narasimhan, S.

P. Barnum, S. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 76 (2010).
[Crossref]

Naruse, M.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtsu, M.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[Crossref]

Park, S. G.

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Raskar, R.

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ravikumar, S.

Refai, H. H.

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” J. Disp. Tech. 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakai, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimobaba, T.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, D.

Shin, G.-H.

Shiraki, A.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, W.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “A DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).

Suyama, S.

M. Date, T. Hisaki, H. Takada, S. Suyama, and K. Nakazawa, “Luminance addition of a stack of multidomain liquid-crystal displays and capability for depth-fused three-dimensional display application,” Appl. Opt. 44(6), 898–905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

M. Date, T. Hisaki, H. Takada, S. Suyama, and K. Nakazawa, “Luminance addition of a stack of multidomain liquid-crystal displays and capability for depth-fused three-dimensional display application,” Appl. Opt. 44(6), 898–905 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tate, N.

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uehira, K.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeom, J.

Yoo, K.-H.

Yoon, S.

Zhu, Q.

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACM Trans. Graph. (4)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 40 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Barnum, S. Narasimhan, and T. Kanade, “A multi-layered display with water drops,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(4), 76 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Disp. Tech. (1)

H. H. Refai, “Static volumetric three-dimensional display,” J. Disp. Tech. 5(10), 391–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Song, Q. Zhu, T. Huang, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Volumetric display based on multiple mini-projectors and a rotating screen,” Opt. Eng. 54(1), 013103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

T. Okoshi, “Three-dimensional displays,” Proc. IEEE 68(5), 548–564 (1980).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Sullivan, “A DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).

H. Gotoda, “Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880C (2012).

Sci. Rep. (1)

R. Hirayama, M. Naruse, H. Nakayama, N. Tate, A. Shiraki, T. Kakue, T. Shimobaba, M. Ohtsu, and T. Ito, “Design, implementation and characterization of a quantum-dot-based volumetric display,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8472 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vision Res. (1)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, and S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

E. B. Goldstein, Sensation and perception (Wadsworth 2007).

J. Chen, W. Cranton, and M. Fihn, Handbook of Visual Display Technology (Springer 2012).

B. Blundell and A. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-dimensional Display Systems (Wiley 2000).

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2010)

J. W. Doane and G. P. Crawford, Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (Wiley, 1990).

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (2952 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1416 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1143 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Conceptual diagram of system configuration of Lamina 3D display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Rotating polarizer wheel and (b) synchronization process between the polarizer wheel and PDLC.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 5 steps depth map, and sectioned 2D images from PDDM image obtained by polarization angle as (b) 0°, (c) 23°, (d) 45°, (e) 68°, and (f) 90°.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between simulations and actual system views. (a), (b), and (c) present the simulation results for 3, 4 and 5 steps depth maps respectively, while (d), (e), and (f) show the reconstructed images of the proposed system for the similar conditions of simulations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Schematic diagram of active-type Lamina display system and (b) setup of system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reconstructions of active-type Lamina 3D display. (a), (e), and (i) show the depth map, while (b) – (d), (f) – (h), and (j) – (l) show the images from the left, the center, and the right views of the reconstructed 3D images respectively. Media 1, Media 2 and Media 3 show the parallax changes of results of upper, middle, and lower images, (c), (g) and (k) respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Transmittance and response time of PDLC layers

Tables Icon

Table 2 Transmittance and response time of the PDLC layers

Metrics