Abstract

A germanium-on-insulator (GOI) p-i-n photodetector, monolithically integrated on a silicon (Si) substrate, is demonstrated. GOI is formed by lateral-overgrowth (LAT-OVG) of Ge on silicon dioxide (SiO2) through windows etched in SiO2 on Si. The photodetector shows excellent diode characteristics with high on/off ratio (6 × 104), low dark current, and flat reverse current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Enhanced light absorption up to 1550 nm is observed due to the residual biaxial tensile strain induced during the epitaxial growth of Ge caused by cooling after the deposition. This truly Si-compatible Ge photodetector using monolithic integration enables new opportunities for high-performance GOI based photonic devices on Si platform.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  20. J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. Gan and C. M. Tan, “Thermally induced stress in partial SOI structure during high temperature processing,” Microelect. Eng. 71(2), 150–162 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-i. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S136–S139 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Z. Gan and C. M. Tan, “Thermally induced stress in partial SOI structure during high temperature processing,” Microelect. Eng. 71(2), 150–162 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1943–1946 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aberg, I.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Ackland, B.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Adekore, B.

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Afshinmanesh, F.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alkis, S.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Antoniadis, D. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Bai, J.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beach, J. V.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Bedell, S. W.

Blanpain, B.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carroll, M.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cassan, E.

Caymax, M.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, M.

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1943–1946 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. O.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaud, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “Germanium-on-insulator photodetectors,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 171–173.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

Currie, M. T.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Curtin, M.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Dehlinger, G.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaud, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “Germanium-on-insulator photodetectors,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 171–173.

Desjardins, P.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Dudley, M.

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eaglesham, D. J.

D. J. Eaglesham and M. Cerullo, “Dislocation-free Stranski-Krastanow growth of Ge on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(16), 1943–1946 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fiorenza, J. G.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fitzgerald, E. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fong, J.

Fournier-Lupien, J.-H.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gan, Z.

Z. Gan and C. M. Tan, “Thermally induced stress in partial SOI structure during high temperature processing,” Microelect. Eng. 71(2), 150–162 (2004).
[Crossref]

Godek, C.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Grill, A.

S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaud, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “Germanium-on-insulator photodetectors,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 171–173.

Hartmann, J. M.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hayazawa, N.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heyns, M. M.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hydrick, J. M.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ido, T.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ito, T.

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Johnson, R.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Jung, W. S.

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Kamins, T. I.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

King, C. A.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.-i.

S.-i. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S136–S139 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaud, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “Germanium-on-insulator photodetectors,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 171–173.

Kung, C.-C.

Langdo, T. A.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lattes, A.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Laval, S.

Lecunff, Y.

Lee, Y.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leitz, C. W.

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-T.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Liu, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Lochtefeld, A.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Loo, R.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Marshall, A.

McIntyre, P. C.

Michel, J.

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mine, T.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moutanabbir, O.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, S.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mussler, G.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nam, D.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nam, J. H.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Nayfeh, A. M.

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain enhanced high efficiency germanium photodetectors in the near infrared for integration with Si,” in Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meetings of the IEEE LEOS (IEEE, 2006), pp. 460–461.
[Crossref]

Nishi, Y.

S.-i. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S136–S139 (2010).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

O’Neill, J.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Oda, K.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okyay, A. K.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain enhanced high efficiency germanium photodetectors in the near infrared for integration with Si,” in Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meetings of the IEEE LEOS (IEEE, 2006), pp. 460–461.
[Crossref]

Osmond, J.

Ouyang, Q. C.

S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaud, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “Germanium-on-insulator photodetectors,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 171–173.

Pappas, S.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Park, J.-H.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Park, J.-S.

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pippel, E.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Rafferty, C. S.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Ren, S.

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rice, P. M.

Saito, S.-i.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K. C.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-i. Kobayashi, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of isochronal hydrogen annealing on surface roughness and threading dislocation density of epitaxial Ge films grown on Si,” Thin Solid Films 518(6), S136–S139 (2010).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, K. C. Saraswat, T. Yonehara, A. Marshall, and P. C. McIntyre, “High-efficiency metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors on heteroepitaxially grown Ge on Si,” Opt. Lett. 31(17), 2565–2567 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain enhanced high efficiency germanium photodetectors in the near infrared for integration with Si,” in Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meetings of the IEEE LEOS (IEEE, 2006), pp. 460–461.
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Schaub, J. D.

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schaud, J. D.

S. J. Koester, G. Dehlinger, J. D. Schaud, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “Germanium-on-insulator photodetectors,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2005), pp. 171–173.

Shafiiha, R.

Shim, J.

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Nam, W. S. Jung, J. Shim, T. Ito, Y. Nishi, J.-H. Park, and K. C. Saraswat, “Germanium on Insulator (GOI) Structure Locally Grown on Silicon Using Hetero Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (IEEE 2013), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

Simoen, E.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Souriau, L.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sriram, T. S.

I. Aberg, B. Ackland, J. V. Beach, C. Godek, R. Johnson, C. A. King, A. Lattes, J. O’Neill, S. Pappas, T. S. Sriram, and C. S. Rafferty, “A low dark current and high quantum efficiency monolithic germanium-on-silicon CMOS imager technology for day and night imaging applications,” in Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEEE, 2010), pp. 14.4.1–14.4.4.
[Crossref]

Sugawara, T.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tan, C. M.

Z. Gan and C. M. Tan, “Thermally induced stress in partial SOI structure during high temperature processing,” Microelect. Eng. 71(2), 150–162 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tani, K.

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Topuria, T.

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, G.

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wirths, S.

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Yonehara, T.

Yu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H.-Y. Yu, D. Kim, S. Ren, M. Kobayashi, D. A. B. Miller, Y. Nishi, and K. C. Saraswat, “Effect of uniaxial-strain on Ge p-i-n photodiodes integrated on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161106 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Wang, R. Loo, E. Simoen, L. Souriau, M. Caymax, M. M. Heyns, and B. Blanpain, “A model of threading dislocation density in strain-relaxed Ge and GaAs epitaxial films on Si (100),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 102115 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. A. Langdo, C. W. Leitz, M. T. Currie, E. A. Fitzgerald, A. Lochtefeld, and D. A. Antoniadis, “High quality Ge on Si by epitaxial necking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(25), 3700–3702 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Bai, J.-S. Park, Z. Cheng, M. Curtin, B. Adekore, M. Carroll, A. Lochtefeld, and M. Dudley, “Study of the defect elimination mechanisms in aspect ratio trapping Ge growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(10), 101902 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Fournier-Lupien, S. Mukherjee, S. Wirths, E. Pippel, N. Hayazawa, G. Mussler, J. M. Hartmann, P. Desjardins, D. Buca, and O. Moutanabbir, “Strain and composition effects on Raman vibrational modes of silicon-germanium-tin ternary alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 263103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

J.-S. Park, M. Curtin, J. M. Hydrick, J. Bai, J.-T. Li, Z. Cheng, M. Carroll, J. G. Fiorenza, and A. Lochtefeld, “Low-defect-density Ge epitaxy on Si(001) using aspect ratio trapping and epitaxial lateral overgrowth,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), H142–H144 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, G. Dehlinger, and J. O. Chu, “Germanium-on-SOI infrared detectors for integrated photonic applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1489–1502 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. H. Nam, S. Alkis, D. Nam, F. Afshinmanesh, J. Shim, J.-H. Park, M. Brongersma, A. K. Okyay, T. I. Kamins, and K. C. Saraswat, “Lateral overgrowth of germanium for monolithic integration of germanium-on-insulator on silicon,” J. Cryst. Growth 416, 21–27 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tani, S.-i. Saito, Y. Lee, K. Oda, T. Mine, T. Sugawara, and T. Ido, “Light detection and emission in Germanium-on-insulator diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4S), 04DG09 (2012).
[Crossref]

Microelect. Eng. (1)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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A. K. Okyay, A. M. Nayfeh, and K. C. Saraswat, “Strain enhanced high efficiency germanium photodetectors in the near infrared for integration with Si,” in Proceedings of the 19th Annual Meetings of the IEEE LEOS (IEEE, 2006), pp. 460–461.
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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow and schematic for lateral p-i-n photodetector on LAT-OVG GOI integrated on Si substrate. (a) Oxide growth and growth window definition. (b) LAT-OVG for GOI. (c) CMP. (d) Lateral p-i-n photodetector fabricated on GOI. (e) Photodetector structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) GOI before metal contact deposition. Al2O3 passivated GOI mesa is sitting on SiO2, with contact via defined (5 brighter colored regions on GOI). (b) Photodetector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stress level in (a) 500 nm Ge on 20 nm SOI, with 400 nm SiO2 box, (b) 500 nm GOI on 950 nm SiO2 from lateral overgrowth through 500 nm growth window, and (c) 500 nm Ge on 20 nm SOI, with 950 nm SiO2 box. Compared to the Ge on SOI with 400 nm SiO2 box, LAT-OVG GOI shows up to 11.6% higher stress in the GOI region. Compared to the Ge on SOI with same SiO2 thickness (950 nm), LAT-OVG GOI still shows up to 7.6% higher stress in the GOI region. Stressn modlr level of strain in the GOI region.h. modeling is done using COMSOL Multiphysics® software package. Annealing temperature is set to 825 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PL measurement on the LAT-OVG GOI and the Ge on SOI. Compare to the Ge on SOI, LAT-OVG GOI shows higher PL signal, indicating higher crystal quality.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

I-V characteristics of the photodetector. The dark I-V characteristic shows high on/off ratio (6 × 104) and low dark current (36 nA). Very flat I-V curves under negative bias demonstrate very high Ge crystal quality.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependency measurement. (a) Diode I-V characteristics at different temperatures. (b) Measuring activation energy. Activation energy of the dark current is measured at −1 V. Measured activation energy is 0.36 eV. (c) Ideality factor measurement. Observed values are listed on Table 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Responsivity measurement. (a) From 750 nm to 900 nm, and (b) from 1200 nm to 1700 nm. Due to the residual strain from the hetero-epitaxial growth, absorption is extended beyond 1550 nm without additional strain engineering.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Raman Spectroscopy: Peak Position and Strain

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ideality factor at different temperatures

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