Abstract

A novel high performance optical fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of relative humidity (RH) and temperature based on our newly designed knob-integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The knob-shaped taper followed by an FBG works as a multifunctional joint that not only excites the cladding modes but also recouples the cladding modes reflected by the FBG back into the leading single mode fiber. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film is plated on the fiber surface by dip-coating technique as a humidity-to-refractive index (RI) transducer, and affects the intensity of reflected cladding modes by way of evanescent fields. By monitoring the intensity and wavelength of the reflected cladding modes, the RH and temperature variance can be determined simultaneously. Experimental results show an RH sensitivity of up to 1.2 dB/%RH within an RH range of 30-95%, which is significantly better than previously reported values. And the temperature sensitivity of 8.2 pm/°Ccould be achieved in the temperature range of 25-60°C. A fast and reversible time response has also been demonstrated, enabling to pick up a humidity change as fast as 630 ms. The capability of simultaneous measurement of RH and temperature, the fast response, the reusability and the simple fabrication process make this structure a highly promising sensor for real-time practical RH monitoring applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  3. S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (3)

2013 (4)

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, K. Zhang, Y. Yuam, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Yao, “Agarose gel-coated LPG based on two sensing mechanisms for relative humidity measurement,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Gu, M. Yin, A. P. Zhang, J. Qian, and S. He, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on FBG incorporated thin-core fiber modal interferometer,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4140–4146 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Sakai, M. Matsuguchi, and T. Hurukawa, “Humidity sensor using cross-linked poly (chloromethyl styrene),” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 135–138 (2000).
[Crossref]

Akita, S.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ambikairaja, E.

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

André, P. S.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ang, X. M.

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antunes, P.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balamurali, P.

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carlos, L. D.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, C. C.

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. H.

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Correia, S. F. H.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

Dai, Y.

Ding, W. H.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and W. H. Ding, “Agarose gel filled temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fibers humidity sensor based on the tunable coupling ratio,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 195, 313–319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Y.

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R. A. S.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, H. W.

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and W. H. Ding, “Agarose gel filled temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fibers humidity sensor based on the tunable coupling ratio,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 195, 313–319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, B.

He, S.

Hurukawa, T.

Y. Sakai, M. Matsuguchi, and T. Hurukawa, “Humidity sensor using cross-linked poly (chloromethyl styrene),” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 135–138 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and W. H. Ding, “Agarose gel filled temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fibers humidity sensor based on the tunable coupling ratio,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 195, 313–319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

Lee, K. X.

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leong, K. C.

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lima, P. P.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Miao, K. Zhang, Y. Yuam, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Yao, “Agarose gel-coated LPG based on two sensing mechanisms for relative humidity measurement,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q. P.

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Miao, K. Zhang, Y. Yuam, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Yao, “Agarose gel-coated LPG based on two sensing mechanisms for relative humidity measurement,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuguchi, M.

Y. Sakai, M. Matsuguchi, and T. Hurukawa, “Humidity sensor using cross-linked poly (chloromethyl styrene),” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 135–138 (2000).
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miao, Y.

Miao, Y. P.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neu, B.

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noor, Y. M.

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pecoraro, E.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, G. D.

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qian, J.

Qiao, X. G.

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rahardjo, H.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rajan, G.

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

Y. Sakai, M. Matsuguchi, and T. Hurukawa, “Humidity sensor using cross-linked poly (chloromethyl styrene),” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 135–138 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, H.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Seki, A.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shaillender, M.

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shao, M.

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shum, P. P.

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tan, K. M.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tay, C. M.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tjin, S. C.

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

Varum, H.

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

W. Zhang and D. J. Webb, “Humidity responsivity of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based optical fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 3026–3029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wong, W. C.

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

Yang, M.

Yao, J.

Yin, M.

Yuam, Y.

Zhang, A. P.

Zhang, H.

Y. Miao, K. Zhang, Y. Yuam, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Liu, and J. Yao, “Agarose gel-coated LPG based on two sensing mechanisms for relative humidity measurement,” Appl. Opt. 52(1), 90–95 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, S. Q.

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

Zhang, W. H.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, C. L.

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, N.

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. D.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H. B.

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, Z.

Zu, P.

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Miao, B. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Li, H. B. Zhou, H. Sun, W. H. Zhang, and Q. D. Zhao, “Relative humidity sensor based on tilted fiber Bragg grating with Polyvinyl alcohol coating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 441–443 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

M. Shao, X. G. Qiao, H. W. Fu, N. Zhao, Q. P. Liu, and H. Gao, “An in-Fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on arc-induced tapers for high sensitivity humidity sensing,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(5), 2026–2031 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

X. Dong, T. Li, Y. Liu, Y. Li, C. L. Zhao, and C. C. Chan, “Polyvinyl alcohol-coated hybrid fiber grating for relative humidity sensing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(7), 077001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Q. Zhang, X. Y. Dong, T. Li, C. C. Chan, and P. P. Shum, “Simultaneous measurement of relative humidity and temperature with PCF-MZI cascaded by fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Commun. 303, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

G. Rajan, Y. M. Noor, B. Liu, E. Ambikairaja, D. J. Webb, and G. D. Peng, “A fast response intrinsic humidity sensor based on an etched singlemode polymer fiber Bragg grating,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 203, 107–111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (6)

Y. Sakai, M. Matsuguchi, and T. Hurukawa, “Humidity sensor using cross-linked poly (chloromethyl styrene),” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 66(1-3), 135–138 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Akita, H. Sasaki, K. Watanabe, and A. Seki, “A humidity sensor based on a hetero-core optical fiber,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 385–391 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. C. Wong, C. C. Chan, L. H. Chen, T. Li, K. X. Lee, and K. C. Leong, “Polyvinyl alcohol coated photonic crystal optical fiber sensor for humidity measurement,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 174, 563–569 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. H. Chen, T. Li, C. C. Chan, R. Menon, P. Balamurali, M. Shaillender, B. Neu, X. M. Ang, P. Zu, W. C. Wong, and K. C. Leong, “Chitosan based fiber-optic Fabry–Perot humidity sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 169, 167–172 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and W. H. Ding, “Agarose gel filled temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fibers humidity sensor based on the tunable coupling ratio,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 195, 313–319 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Tan, C. M. Tay, S. C. Tjin, C. C. Chan, and H. Rahardjo, “High relative humidity measurements using gelatin coated long-period grating sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 110(2), 335–341 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

S. F. H. Correia, P. Antunes, E. Pecoraro, P. P. Lima, H. Varum, L. D. Carlos, R. A. S. Ferreira, and P. S. André, “Optical fiber relative humidity sensor based on a FBG with a di-ureasil coating,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8847–8860 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of our proposed sensor structure. The inset is the optical microscopy image of the fabricated knob-shaped taper.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) the transversal field evolution of L P 03 mode under different external RIs. The gray area indicates the external surrounding. (b) Evanescent field fractions of the three cladding modes with the increase of the external RIs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Spectral comparison of the bare FBG, knob-integrated FBG and PVA coated knob-integrated FBG. (b) Reflection power and Bragg wavelength changes as a function of surrounding RIs. (c) Reflection power and Bragg wavelength as a function of temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Decrease trend of the thickness of PVA film as a function of pulling speed for three batches with different PVA concentrations.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The scanning electron microscopy photos of (a) the cross section and (b) the side view of the knob-integrated FBG with PVA coating.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for relative humidity and temperature measurement.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Reflection spectral evolution of the RH sensor under different RH levels and (b) the reflection power of the cladding mode as a function of relative humidity in both ascending and descending orders. The inset is the reflection wavelength of the cladding mode as a function of relative humidity. The orange line is the linear fit of the experimental data.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Reflection spectral evolution (b) Reflection power (black) and wavelength (red) response of the sealed RH sensor under different temperatures.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Time response of the RH sensor (a) when put in and out of the chamber, (b) by exposed under human breathing.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Stability test of the proposed humidity sensor under constant RHs of 70 and 90% RH, respectively. (b) Repeatability test of the humidity response. Error bars are calculated from six experimental measurements.

Equations (3)

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E(r,z)= m=1 M c m ψ m (r) e i β m z
λ m =2 n eff,m Λ , m=1 , 2 , 3
I m = c m 4 R I m,0 exp(2sαd)

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