Abstract

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as tungsten disulfide (WS2), are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and few layer TMDCs’ unique optical properties make them a research hot-spot in nonlinear optics. In this work, the nonlinear refractive index of monolayer WS2 has been characterized with Z-scan measurement under 800nm femtosecond pulsed laser excitation, and a value of n2 ≃ (8.1 ± 0.41) × 10−13m2/W is obtained. A shift from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption was observed at higher input pump intensities in the experiments. The transition process was analyzed using a phenomenological model based on two photon absorption, and the two photon absorption coefficient was estimated about (3.7±0.28)×106m/W.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Bottger, X. J. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, O. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Osada and T. Sasaki, “Two-dimensional dielectric nanosheets: novel nanoelectronics from nanocrystal building blocks,” Adv. Mater. 24(2), 210–228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Pacilé, J. C. Meyer, C. O. Girit, and A. Zettl, “The two-dimensional phase of boron nitride: few-atomic-layer sheets and suspended membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133107 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Ayari, E. Cobas, O. Ogundadegbe, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Realization and electrical characterization of ultrathin crystals of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 014507 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42(2), 799–800 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1973 (2)

A. D. Yoffe, “Layer compounds,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 3(1), 147–170 (1973).
[Crossref]

L. F. Mattheiss, “Band structures of transition-metal-dichalcogenide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 8(8), 3719–3740 (1973).
[Crossref]

1969 (2)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “Transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

Albrecht, M.

Ayari, A.

A. Ayari, E. Cobas, O. Ogundadegbe, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Realization and electrical characterization of ultrathin crystals of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 014507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berkdemir, A.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Börner, J.

Bottger, P.

Bratschitsch, R.

Chang, Q.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cho, C. C.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, L.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cobas, E.

A. Ayari, E. Cobas, O. Ogundadegbe, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Realization and electrical characterization of ultrathin crystals of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 014507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. N.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, C.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crespi, V.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crespi, V. H.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, X.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dean, C. R.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eda, G.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elías, A. L.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, W.

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuhrer, M. S.

A. Ayari, E. Cobas, O. Ogundadegbe, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Realization and electrical characterization of ultrathin crystals of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 014507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gan, X.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghorannevis, Z.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C. O.

D. Pacilé, J. C. Meyer, C. O. Girit, and A. Zettl, “The two-dimensional phase of boron nitride: few-atomic-layer sheets and suspended membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gordan, O.

Guo, M.

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gutiérrez, H. R.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Han, L.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, G. S.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

He, K.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, R.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hens, Z.

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hone, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, X.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, S.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, B.

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janisch, C.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
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Jiao, W.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
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Kalantar-Zadeh, K.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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Khotkevich, V. V.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kis, A.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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Kloc, C.

Kockaert, P.

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leen Koh, A.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liebig, A.

Lin, T. C.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. B.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
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D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
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Liu, H.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loicq, J.

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

López-Urías, F.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

Lv, R.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, C.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Major, A.

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, D.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
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L. F. Mattheiss, “Band structures of transition-metal-dichalcogenide layer compounds,” Phys. Rev. B 8(8), 3719–3740 (1973).
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Mehta, N.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, T.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meric, I.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

D. Pacilé, J. C. Meyer, C. O. Girit, and A. Zettl, “The two-dimensional phase of boron nitride: few-atomic-layer sheets and suspended membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S.

Moreels, I.

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikolakakos, I.

Niu, C.

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
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Ogundadegbe, O.

A. Ayari, E. Cobas, O. Ogundadegbe, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Realization and electrical characterization of ultrathin crystals of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 014507 (2007).
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M. Osada and T. Sasaki, “Two-dimensional dielectric nanosheets: novel nanoelectronics from nanocrystal building blocks,” Adv. Mater. 24(2), 210–228 (2012).
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Pacilé, D.

D. Pacilé, J. C. Meyer, C. O. Girit, and A. Zettl, “The two-dimensional phase of boron nitride: few-atomic-layer sheets and suspended membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peimyoo, N.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perea-López, N.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Robertson, A. W.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rong, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

M. Osada and T. Sasaki, “Two-dimensional dielectric nanosheets: novel nanoelectronics from nanocrystal building blocks,” Adv. Mater. 24(2), 210–228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schedin, F.

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, R.

Shan, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, J.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepard, K. L.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, S. F.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sinclair, R.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, P. W. E.

Song, Y.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sorgenfrei, S.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strano, M. S.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, H.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, P. H.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D.

Taniguchi, T.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terrones, H.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terrones, M.

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toh, M.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tongay, S.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonndorf, P.

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Warner, J. H.

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wilson, J. A.

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “Transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, D.

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Y.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, W.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeow, E. K. L.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoffe, A. D.

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42(2), 799–800 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yoffe, “Layer compounds,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 3(1), 147–170 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “Transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, F.

Young, A. F.

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L. J.

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, T.

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahn, D. R. T.

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

D. Pacilé, J. C. Meyer, C. O. Girit, and A. Zettl, “The two-dimensional phase of boron nitride: few-atomic-layer sheets and suspended membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. J.

Zhang, Y.

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, B.

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (2)

N. Peimyoo, J. Shang, C. Cong, X. Shen, X. Wu, E. K. L. Yeow, and T. Yu, “Nonblinking, intense two-dimensional light emitter: monolayer WS2 triangules,” ACS Nano 7(12), 10985–10994 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Osada and T. Sasaki, “Two-dimensional dielectric nanosheets: novel nanoelectronics from nanocrystal building blocks,” Adv. Mater. 24(2), 210–228 (2012).
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Adv. Phys. (3)

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “The transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. A. Wilson and A. D. Yoffe, “Transition metal dichalcogenides: discussion and interpretation of observed optical, electrical and structural properties,” Adv. Phys. 18(73), 193–335 (1969).
[Crossref]

A. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42(2), 799–800 (1993).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. D. Yoffe, “Layer compounds,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 3(1), 147–170 (1973).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. S. He, T. C. Lin, P. N. Prasad, C. C. Cho, and L. J. Yu, “Optical power limiting and stabilization using a two-photon absorbing neat liquid crystal in isotropic phase,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(26), 4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

I. Moreels, Z. Hens, P. Kockaert, J. Loicq, and D. Van Thourhout, “Spectroscopy of the nonlinear refractive index of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 193106 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Pacilé, J. C. Meyer, C. O. Girit, and A. Zettl, “The two-dimensional phase of boron nitride: few-atomic-layer sheets and suspended membranes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 133107 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Ayari, E. Cobas, O. Ogundadegbe, and M. S. Fuhrer, “Realization and electrical characterization of ultrathin crystals of layered transition-metal dichalcogenides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(1), 014507 (2007).
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Nano Lett. (1)

H. R. Gutiérrez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, B. Wang, R. Lv, F. López-Urías, V. H. Crespi, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Extraordinary room-temperature photoluminescence in triangular WS2 monolayers,” Nano Lett. 13(8), 3447–3454 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

Y. Rong, Y. Fan, A. Leen Koh, A. W. Robertson, K. He, S. Wang, H. Tan, R. Sinclair, and J. H. Warner, “Controlling sulphur precursor addition for large single crystal domains of WS2.,” Nanoscale 6(20), 12096–12103 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

X. Hong, J. Kim, S. F. Shi, Y. Zhang, C. Jin, Y. Sun, S. Tongay, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Ultrafast charge transfer in atomically thin MoS₂/WS₂ heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 682–686 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Dean, A. F. Young, I. Meric, C. Lee, L. Wang, S. Sorgenfrei, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, P. Kim, K. L. Shepard, and J. Hone, “Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(10), 722–726 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Gao, X. Zhang, Y. Li, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Q. Chang, W. Jiao, and Y. Song, “Saturable absorption and reverse saturable absorption in platinum nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 251(4-6), 429–433 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Ma, Y. Dai, M. Guo, C. Niu, J. Lu, and B. Huang, “Electronic and magnetic properties of perfect, vacancy-doped, and nonmetal adsorbed MoSe2, MoTe2 and WS2 monolayers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(34), 15546–15553 (2011).
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D. Xiao, G. B. Liu, W. Feng, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Coupled spin and valley physics in monolayers of MoS2 and other Group-IV dichalcogenides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(19), 196802 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS 2 : a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(30), 10451–10453 (2005).
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Sci. Rep. (3)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Janisch, Y. Wang, D. Ma, N. Mehta, A. L. Elías, N. Perea-López, M. Terrones, V. Crespi, and Z. Liu, “Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5530 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, G. B. Liu, J. Dai, Y. Yan, B. Zhu, R. He, L. Xie, S. Xu, X. Chen, W. Yao, and X. Cui, “Optical signature of symmetry variations and spin-valley coupling in atomically thin tungsten dichalcogenides,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1608 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (3rd edition) (Academic, 2008).

R. W. Boyd, S. G. Lukishova, and Y. R. Shen, Self-focusing: Past and Present: Fundamentals and Prospect (Springer, 2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Characterization of monolayer WS2 sample for Z-scan measurement. (a) SEM image of monolayer WS2 sample. (b) The AFM image of the monolayer WS2 sample. Along the white line, a height of 0.7 nm can be extracted, which is indicative of monolayer. (c)Raman spectra of the monolayer WS2 sample.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the Z-scan experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized transmission as a function of sample (monolayer WS2) position for open aperture Z-scan at different intensities (at focus). The scatters are experimental results and the solid lines show theoretical fit generated using Eq. (1) and (2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized transmission as a function of sample (monolayer WS2) position for open aperture Z-scan at different intensities (at focus). 1~275GW/cm2. 2~850GW/cm2. 3~1640GW/cm2. (a) Near field (open aperture). (b) Far field (closed aperture). (c) Dividing CA by OA. The scatters are experimental results and the solid lines show theoretical fit.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of ΔΦ (right axis) and n2 (left axis) on peak intensity for monolayer WS2

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(I)= α 0 + α NL I
T(z)= m=0 [ α(I) I 0 L eff 1+ z 2 / z 0 2 ] m (m+1) 3 2
T(x)=1+ 4xΔΦ (1+ x 2 )(9+ x 2 ) + 4(3 x 2 5)Δ Φ 2 (1+ x 2 ) 2 (9+ x 2 )(25+ x 2 ) + 32(3 x 2 11)xΔ Φ 3 (1+ x 2 ) 3 (9+ x 2 )(25+ x 2 )(49+ x 2 )
n 2W S 2 = n 2 L eff n 2sapphire L sapphire L eff = n 2 L sapphire L eff n 2sapphire

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