Abstract

The efficiency of an AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with peak emission wavelength of 285 nm is investigated as a function of current over a wide range of temperatures (110 K to 300 K). We find that the efficiency-versus-current curve exhibits unique and distinct features over the entire temperature range including three points of inflection. At low temperatures, the change in slope in the efficiency-versus-current curve is particularly pronounced producing a minimum in the efficiency after which the efficiency rises again. Furthermore, at high current density, the low-temperature efficiency exceeds the room-temperature efficiency. The feature-rich efficiency-versus-current curve is consistent with an enhancement in p-type conductivity by field-ionization of acceptors that occurs in the high-injection regime and is particularly pronounced at low temperatures. Differential conductivity measurements show a marked rise in the high-injection regime that is well correlated to the minimum point in the efficiency-versus-current curve.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Wang, M. Pan, and T. Li, “Comprehensive study of internal quantum efficiency of high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence method,” Proc. SPIE 9003, 90030D (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Piprek, “AlGaN polarization doping effects on the efficiency of blue LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620E (2012).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun and A. C. Ferrari, “Nonlinear optics: fiber sources in the deep ultraviolet,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 446–447 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

J. R. Yeargan and H. L. Taylor, “The Poole-Frenkel effect with compensation present,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5600 (1968).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Banal, R. G.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Banas, M. A.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chhajed, S.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chua, C.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun and A. C. Ferrari, “Nonlinear optics: fiber sources in the deep ultraviolet,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 446–447 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fischer, A. J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, N.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Han, S. H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, J.

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jena, D.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, N. M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kataoka, K.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kolbe, T.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kueller, V.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. R.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, S.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, T.

Y. Wang, M. Pan, and T. Li, “Comprehensive study of internal quantum efficiency of high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence method,” Proc. SPIE 9003, 90030D (2014).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lian, C.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, G.-B.

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Makimoto, T.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Miya, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

Niiyama, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

Noyce, R. N.

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in P-N junction and P-N junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE, 45, 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

Oto, T.

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, M.

Y. Wang, M. Pan, and T. Li, “Comprehensive study of internal quantum efficiency of high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence method,” Proc. SPIE 9003, 90030D (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “AlGaN polarization doping effects on the efficiency of blue LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620E (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Protasenko, V.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertson, J.

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sah, C. T.

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in P-N junction and P-N junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE, 45, 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shan, Q.

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shim, H. W.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shockley, W.

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in P-N junction and P-N junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE, 45, 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

Simon, J.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun and A. C. Ferrari, “Nonlinear optics: fiber sources in the deep ultraviolet,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 446–447 (2011).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, M.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, H. L.

J. R. Yeargan and H. L. Taylor, “The Poole-Frenkel effect with compensation present,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5600 (1968).
[Crossref]

Thaler, G.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vogt, P.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, M. Pan, and T. Li, “Comprehensive study of internal quantum efficiency of high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence method,” Proc. SPIE 9003, 90030D (2014).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xing, H.

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yang, Z.

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yeargan, J. R.

J. R. Yeargan and H. L. Taylor, “The Poole-Frenkel effect with compensation present,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5600 (1968).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Kolbe, A. Knauer, C. Chua, Z. Yang, V. Kueller, S. Einfeldt, P. Vogt, N. M. Johnson, M. Weyers, and M. Kneissl, “Effect of temperature and strain on the optical polarization of (In)(Al)GaN ultraviolet light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(26), 261105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Dai, Q. Shan, J. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Kim, and Y. Park, “Carrier recombination mechanisms and efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 133507 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, D. D. Koleske, M. H. Crawford, S. R. Lee, A. J. Fischer, G. Thaler, and M. A. Banas, “Effect of dislocation density on efficiency droop in GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231114 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, S. H. Han, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. S. Kim, “Identifying the cause of the efficiency droop in GaInN light-emitting diodes by correlating the onset of high injection with the onset of the efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(25), 251114 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, D. S. Meyaard, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. W. Shim, and C. Sone, “Analytic model for the efficiency droop in semiconductors with asymmetric carrier-transport properties based on drift-induced reduction of injection efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161106 (2012).
[Crossref]

G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, Y. Wang, T. Li, and E. F. Schubert, ““U-turn” feature in the efficiency-versus-current curve of GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221116 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. R. Yeargan and H. L. Taylor, “The Poole-Frenkel effect with compensation present,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5600 (1968).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Kim, “Efficiency droop in light-emitting diodes: challenges and countermeasures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(3), 408–421 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (4)

Z. Sun and A. C. Ferrari, “Nonlinear optics: fiber sources in the deep ultraviolet,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 446–447 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Oto, R. G. Banal, K. Kataoka, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “100mW deep-ultraviolet emission from aluminum-nitride-based quantum wells pumped by an electron beam,” Nat. Photonics 4(11), 767–770 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, T. Niiyama, K. Miya, and M. Taniguchi, “Far-ultraviolet plane-emission handheld device based on hexagonal boron nitride,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 591–594 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Resonant Raman spectroscopy of disordered, amorphous, and diamondlike carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 64(7), 075414 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

W. Yang, D. Li, J. He, C. Wang, and X. Hu, “Temperature-dependent ac current-voltage-capacitance characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes under high forward bias,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 714–717 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. Wang, M. Pan, and T. Li, “Comprehensive study of internal quantum efficiency of high-brightness GaN-based light-emitting diodes by temperature-dependent electroluminescence method,” Proc. SPIE 9003, 90030D (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “AlGaN polarization doping effects on the efficiency of blue LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 8262, 82620E (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

K. Huang, N. Gao, C. Wang, X. Chen, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Top- and bottom-emission-enhanced electroluminescence of deep-UV light-emitting diodes induced by localised surface plasmons,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4380 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Simon, V. Protasenko, C. Lian, H. Xing, and D. Jena, “Polarization-induced hole doping in wide-band-gap uniaxial semiconductor heterostructures,” Science 327(5961), 60–64 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. Morkoç, Handbook of Nitride Semiconductors and Devices (Wiley-VCH, 2008).

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in P-N junction and P-N junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE, 45, 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

K. W. Böer, Handbook of the Physics of Thin-Film Solar Cells (Springer, 2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Efficiency-versus-current curves of the AlGaN DUV LED at room temperature (300 K) and cryogenic temperature (110 K) showing a “U-shape” in EQE and three inflection points in the droop regime.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Efficiency-versus-current curves of the AlGaN DUV LED at various temperatures ranging from 110 K to 300 K for injection currents (a) from 0 to 1.5 A plotted on semi-log current scale and (b) from 1 to 1.5 A plotted on a linear current scale.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic band diagram of a DUV LED with acceptor field ionization being indicated. The dotted line around the acceptors represents the energy barrier for ionization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Efficiency-versus-current curves of the AlGaN DUV LEDs at 110 K and 300 K. (b) Differential DUV LED conductance as a function of current for the same two temperatures.

Equations (1)

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Δφ= β PF E

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