Abstract

We study THz-emission from a plasma driven by an incommensurate-frequency two-colour laser field. A semi-classical transient electron current model is derived from a fully quantum-mechanical description of the emission process in terms of sub-cycle field-ionization followed by continuum-continuum electron transitions. For the experiment, a CEP-locked laser and a near-degenerate optical parametric amplifier are used to produce two-colour pulses that consist of the fundamental and its near-half frequency. By choosing two incommensurate frequencies, the frequency of the CEP-stable THz-emission can be continuously tuned into the mid-IR range. This measured frequency dependence of the THz-emission is found to be consistent with the semi-classical transient electron current model, similar to the Brunel mechanism of harmonic generation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  29. A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691–13709 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nature Phot. 7, 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, P. Mišeikis, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, R. Holzwarth, and A. Baltuška, “CEP stabilization of a YB:KGW laser amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3242–3244 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. D. Thomson, V. Blank, and H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz white-light pulses from an air plasma photo-inducedby incommensurate two-color optical fields,” Opt. Express 18, 23173–23182 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Terahertz emission of atoms driven by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063413 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Houard, Y. Liu, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Polarization analysis of terahertz radiation generated by four-wave mixing in air,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1195–1197 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Phot. 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Andriukaitis, G.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, P. Mišeikis, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, R. Holzwarth, and A. Baltuška, “CEP stabilization of a YB:KGW laser amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3242–3244 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ardana-Lamas, F.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Babushkin, I.

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, P. Mišeikis, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, R. Holzwarth, and A. Baltuška, “CEP stabilization of a YB:KGW laser amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3242–3244 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, P. Mišeikis, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, R. Holzwarth, and A. Baltuška, “CEP stabilization of a YB:KGW laser amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3242–3244 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Bergé, L.

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691–13709 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blank, V.

Brunel, F.

Cabrera-Granado, E.

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chipperfield, L. E.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Corkum, P. B.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danielius, R.

Darmo, J.

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

De Silvestri, S.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Debayle, A.

Derlet, P. M.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dietze, D.

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Dorner, R.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ergler, T.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, G.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuji, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giniunas, L.

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Phot. 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gremillet, L.

Gu, X.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haessler, S.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Hauri, C. P.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Helml, W.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Holzwarth, R.

Horvath, B.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Houard, A.

Husakou, A.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Ivanov, M. Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nature Phot. 7, 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A.

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kartashov, D. V.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Phot. 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-Y.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Köhler, C.

A. Debayle, L. Gremillet, L. Bergé, and C. Köhler, “Analytical model for THz emissions induced by laser-gas interaction,” Opt. Express 22, 13691–13709 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korytin, A. I.

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostin, V. A.

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kress, M.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Loffler, T.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lorenc, D.

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Lotti, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luning, J.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mairesse, Y.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marangos, J. P.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mišeikis, P.

Mitrofanov, A.

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mitrofanov, A. V.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morandotti, R.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mucke, O. D.

Murzanev, A. A.

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nelson, K. A.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nature Phot. 7, 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nisoli, M.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozaki, T.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, G.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Peccianti, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prade, B.

Priori, E.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pugžlys, A.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

T. Balčiūnas, O. D. Mucke, P. Mišeikis, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, R. Holzwarth, and A. Baltuška, “CEP stabilization of a YB:KGW laser amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3242–3244 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Rathje, T.

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Reimann, K.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. S.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Phot. 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roskos, H.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

Ruchert, C.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schatzel, M. G.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B. E.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serebryannikov, E.

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Serebryannikov, E. E.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaby, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silaev, A. A.

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skupin, S.

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Spanner, M.

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Squibb, R.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Stagira, S.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. N.

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nature Phot. 7, 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Phot. 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomson, M.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

Tisch, J. W. G.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nature Phot. 1, 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tudu, B.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Unterrainer, K.

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Verhoef, A.

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verhoef, A. J.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vicario, C.

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, D. M.

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villoresi, P.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vvedenskii, N. V.

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witting, T.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woerner, M.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, J.

Z. Zhou, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Terahertz emission of atoms driven by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063413 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zaïr, A.

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Zhang, D.

Z. Zhou, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Terahertz emission of atoms driven by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063413 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhou, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Terahertz emission of atoms driven by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063413 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A.

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Terahertz emission of atoms driven by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063413 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zrost, K.

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chemical Physics (1)

T. Balčiūnas, A. Verhoef, A. Mitrofanov, G. Fan, E. Serebryannikov, M. Ivanov, A. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical and THz signatures of sub-cycle tunneling dynamics,” Chemical Physics 414, 92–99 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

G. Paulus, F. Grasbon, H. Walther, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, E. Priori, and S. De Silvestri, “Absolute-phase phenomena in photoionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature 414, 182–184 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Phot. (4)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nature Phot. 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. A. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients,” Nature Phot. 7, 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Vicario, C. Ruchert, F. Ardana-Lamas, P. M. Derlet, B. Tudu, J. Luning, and C. P. Hauri, “Off-resonant magnetization dynamics phase-locked to an intense phase-stable terahertz transient,” Nature Phot. 7, 720–723 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nature Phot. 1, 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature Phys. (3)

N. Dudovich, O. Smirnova, J. Levesque, Y. Mairesse, M. Y. Ivanov, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses,” Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Kress, T. Loffler, M. Thomson, R. Dorner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. Roskos, “Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy,” Nature Phys. 2, 327–331 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schatzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier–envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nature Phys. 5, 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (2)

E. Cabrera-Granado, Y. Chen, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, and S. Skupin, “Spectral self-action of THz emission from ionizing two-color laser pulses in gases,” New J. Phys. 17, 023060 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, and J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhou, D. Zhang, Z. Zhao, and J. Yuan, “Terahertz emission of atoms driven by ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 063413 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, M. Spanner, and M. Ivanov, “Analytical solutions for strong field-driven atomic and molecular one-and two-electron continua and applications to strong-field problems,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 033407 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 093001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Vvedenskii, A. I. Korytin, V. A. Kostin, A. A. Murzanev, A. A. Silaev, and A. N. Stepanov, “Two-Color Laser-Plasma generation of terahertz radiation using a Frequency-Tunable half harmonic of a femtosecond pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, and J. Herrmann, “3D numerical simulations of THz generation by two-color laser filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Ideal waveform to generate the maximum possible electron recollision energy for any given oscillation period,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Verhoef, A. V. Mitrofanov, E. E. Serebryannikov, D. V. Kartashov, A. M. Zheltikov, and A. Baltuška, “Optical detection of tunneling ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 163904 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, and T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast spatiotemporal dynamics of terahertz generation by ionizing two-color femtosecond pulses in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

S. Haessler, T. Balčiunas, G. Fan, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Witting, R. Squibb, A. Zaïr, J. W. G. Tisch, J. P. Marangos, and L. E. Chipperfield, “Optimization of quantum trajectories driven by Strong-Field waveforms,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 021028 (2014).

Other (1)

T. Balčiūnas, D. Lorenc, M. Ivanov, O. Smirnova, A. Pugžlys, A. M. Zheltikov, D. Dietze, J. Darmo, K. Unterrainer, T. Rathje, G. G. Paulus, and A. Baltuška, “Tunability of THz emission originating from sub-cycle electron bursts in a laser induced plasma,” in “International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena,” (Optical Society of America, 2010), p. PDP4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of mixing two incommensurate frequencies for generating tunable THz emission. (b) Scheme of the atomic transitions in a strong laser field: transitions between a continuum and a ground state yield HHG, while transitions between continuum states yield low order harmonic generation (including THz). (c) Perturbative four-wave mixing scheme for THz generation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation of the induced current, using Eqs. (6)(9) with Γ(tb) = exp[−2(2Ip)3/2/(3|Flas(tb)|)] and the classical expression ν ¯ ( t , t b ) = t b t F las ( t ) d t , for two-colour fields with two frequency ratios: the left and right-hand sides correspond to the commensurate and incommensurate frequency case, respectively. Shown are the considered driving electric fields (first row), the dipole velocity (Eq. (6)), corresponding to the induced current (second row, blue line; the red line shows a low-pass filtered version), the low-pass filtered (retaining only the THz-sideband) dipole acceleration (Eq. (8)), corresponding to the emitted THz-near-field (third row), and the spectral intensity of this emission (square of Eq. (9)) (fourth row). The considered ionization potential is that of nitrogen molecules, Ip = 15.7 eV. The ωp-component of the driving field has a peak field strength of Fmax = 27 GV/m (corresponding to 1 × 1014 W cm−2), and the ωs-component has Fmax = 13.5 GV/m and a relative phase of π/4.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated power spectrum of the emission (square of Eq. (9)) as a function of the frequency ωs of the tunable signal wave, for the same conditions as in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scheme of the experimental setup. THz emission was detected via electrooptic (EO) sampling setup based on GaSe crystal. The probe pulses were generated in an additional OPA and compressed down to 20 fs in a prism compressor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Stereo-ATI electron spectrometry measurement results obtained with two commensurate-frequency pulses: λp = 1.03 μm and λs = 2.06 μm. (a) Electron energy spectrum (log scale) measured on one side of the stereo-ATI spectrometer as function of the fundamental laser CEP. (b) Total electron count in left and right directions of the stereo-ATI spectrometer obtained by integrating the electron spectrum of the left and right detectors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal characterisation of EO sampling probe pulse using SHG FROG. a) measured FROG trace, b) reconstructed spectrum and group delay of the pulse c) measured temporal profile and calculated Fourier limit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental THz-generation results with ωp +ωs two-colour driving fields (ωs = (ωpν)/2), for various detunings Δν, created by combining the fundamental wave (λp = 1.03μm, 250 μJ) with the tunable signal wave (λs = [2.06,1.96, 1.84, 1.80]μm, 20 μJ). (a) Electric field of the THz transient measured using EO sampling in case of locked CEP or free running laser, for zero detuning, Δν = 0, i.e. exactly commensurate frequency ratio. (b) Temporal traces of the EO sampling signal for different detunings Δν, (c) THz emission spectra of plasma calculated from the EO signal, represented on linear scale. (d) The same spectra as in (c), represented on logarithmic scale. Each spectrum and temporal trace was normalised to its maximum. The arrows in panel (d) show the theoretically predicted central frequency of the emission.

Equations (14)

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Ψ c ( t ) = i 0 t U ^ ( t , t b ) V ^ L ( t b ) U ^ 0 ( t b , 0 ) Ψ 0 d t ,
Ψ c = t b ψ t b [ r ( t , t b ) , t ] .
d ˙ cc ( t ) = t b ψ t b | p ^ | ψ t b ,
ψ t b | p ^ | ψ t b = d r ρ ( t b , t , r ) ν ( r , t , t b ) + δ d ˙ ( t ) ,
d ˙ cc ( t ) = t b ρ ( t b , t , r ) d r W ( t , t b ) ρ ( t b , t , r ) ν ( r , t b , t ) d r ρ ( t b , t , r ) d r ν ¯ ( t , t b ) = t b W ( t , t b ) ν ¯ ( t , t b )
d ˙ cc ( t ) = t b Γ ( t b ) δ t b ν ¯ ( t , t b ) = t Γ ( t b ) ν ¯ ( t , t b ) d t b .
d ¨ cc ( t ) = Γ ( t ) ν ¯ ( t , t b = t ) + t Γ ( t b ) ν ¯ ˙ ( t , t b ) d t b .
d ¨ cc ( t ) = F las ( t ) t Γ ( t b ) d t b .
d ¨ cc ( ω ) = F las ( ω ) [ t Γ ( t b ) d t b ] ( ω ) ,
ψ t b ( r , t , t b ) = i U ^ ( t , t b ) V ^ ( t b ) U ^ 0 ( t b , 0 ) Ψ 0 δ t b
r = r 0 + t b t ν ( t , t ) d t .
i ψ t b ( t ) ρ ( t , t b ) S ( t , t b ) e i S ( t , t b ) = S r ψ t b ( t )
d ˙ cc ( t ) = t b 1 , t b 2 ψ t b 1 | S ( t , t b 2 ) r | ψ t b 2
= t b 1 , t b 2 d r ρ 1 ρ 2 e i [ S ( r , t , t b 2 ) S ( r , t , t b 1 ) ] ν ( r , t , t b 1 , t b 2 )

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